Genesis, chapter 39 narrates Jose’s arrival to Egypt sold by his brothers to a merchants and his entry to the service of Potiphar, the secretary and chief of the Guard of the Pharaoh, where he rapidly rises at the first position of confidence of his owner. There appears the attempt of seduction of the wife of his master, Jose’s final rejection and her immediate denunciation out of spite, which takes Jose to the king prisoners’ jail. In view of the crime and the serf’s character of Jose, it is clear that Potiphar did not totally believe his wife. The XIIth sura of the Koran is entitled Jose and is dedicated to him. In her this Jose’s temptation is detailed with major extension: his tunic is ripped in the back, sign that was fleeing from the woman and that was not throwing her. Already with her friends, she was returning to try to attract him, who confesses that he was on the verge of yielding.
This way, an isolated incident, selected to demonstrate Allah’s Providence on Jose and his ventures, through all the vicissitudes that he suffers, goes on in the Koran to the category of detailed important story. Exemplifying this way th Lord’s Providence on all his faithfuls, in spite of the problems, displeasures and difficulties that they have to live. God takes care of theirs, though they do not see it clear or immediately sometimes. Of there, the faith, the hope, the domain of the ego and the merit, far from any desperation or mundane fatalism, that suppose the «trusting abandon of the believer in Allah’s will or Islam». This doctrine is very similar to the doctrine of the «spiritual infancy» of saint Teresa de Lisieux. For which the pope John Paul II nominated her Doctor of the Catholic Church in October, 1997. In spite of having been a poor enclosed nun, died with 24 years and that her writings were saved almost by miracle of being rejected or destroying after his death.
The Koran clearly prevents of the danger that the Jews suppose for the faithfuls. That stems from the perversion of their character and from their deviation from what they was prescribed and revealed by God in the Torah. And this happens in spite of having been a privileged people, being carriers and guardians during centuries of the faith in the Unique God. In the History and the Development of the Revelation they would constitute a «chosen unsuccessful people». This way, in 5, 85 he says about them: » You will admit that those who feed the most violent hatred against the believers are the Jews and the idolaters. And those who are readier to love the faithfuls are the men who call themselves Christians; this is because they have priests and monks and because they lack pride». Mohamed’s relations with the Jews were initially very cordial. Mohamed was got as a friend by the Jews of Medina, after the Hegira. And he undoubtedly thought, to attract them to the new faith. He even instituted a fasting, which fixed for the 10th of Tishrei or the seventh month, the Day of the Jewish Pardon. One year later he abolished it.
Not getting his apostolic hope, Mohamed replaced the preaching by the force. The Jews resisted up to the end to the implantation of the Islam in Arabia. But, unable to join, the Jewish tribes were submitted one after other. Sometimes, Mohamed only expelled them from their living places, as in case of the Ben Cuainuca, who went out of Medina healthy and safe. In general, the Jews were coming to terms in honorable conditions, obtaining guarantees that would use as base, to establish their future “modus vivendi” inside Dar al-Islam, the lands been ruled by the Muslims, given to these by Allah.
The Gospel in the Koran.
The presence or the reference of the 4 Gospels or the Good New of Jesus, the Christ, the God’s Anointed, is scarcely testimonial in the Koran. «This is my very dear Son, in whom I have all my complacencies», after the baptism in the Jordan and «This one is my Son, my First-born one, listen to him», in the transfiguration, are two teophonias, expressly devotes in the Gospels, to Jesus as «anointed». The reason of not going further into the NT, beyond indicating his existence, is that Jesus names himself as the Son of God. And that is the Second Person of the Holiest Trinidad, who acquires the human nature of Maria and of the Holy Spirit, to redeem us of the “original sin” and to give us example of life. In the Second Person both natures would join in hiphostatical union. The first three gospels (Inyil) are stories of Jesus’ life, telling the most out-standing facts that happened in his life. To demonstrate that he was the awaited Messiah (specially Saint Mateo, aiming to the Jews) and the Son of God who was coming to save all the men (Saint Lucas, for the unfaithful persons and Saint Marcos).
And San Juan, in the Fourth Gospel (Inyil), deals more on what Jesus said. Of his speeches and comments, and here the thing is more direct and unequivocal. «Philip, why you say to me, show us the Father? Who has seen me, has seen the Father. Do not you believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me?». «The Father and I are the same thing». » Nobody knows the Son, but that to whom the Father has wanted to reveal». «Nobody goes to the Father, but by Me«. «The Father loves the Son and has put in his hands all the things» «I am the way, the truth and the life». «The one who believes in Me, will live forever». «Father, those you have given me, I want that where I am, they are also with me, in order that they see my glory, which you have given me, because you loved me before the creation of the world».
For Allah, Jesus (Isa) is an out-standing prophet. In 3, 37 it is said that «Mary (Maryam), his mother, is immaculate and chosen between all the women». His conception is realized by action of the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel). And he was violently dead, as it happened to other prophets. God specially stands out Jesus and allows that he realizes miracles in order that he convinces the Jews about his mission. This way, Jesus before realizing his signs, always announces «with the God’s permission». In the chapter 3, «Imran’s family», is detailed on Jesus and his preaching: «you were filling with pride and incredulity, whenever was coming to you a messenger, an apostle, bringing what your souls were not wishing. To some of them you took for liars and you killed others». «I come to confirm you the Torah, which you have received before than I». «I will allow you the use of certain things that had been prohibited you». «I come with signs in behalf of your God. Be afraid of him and obey me. He is my God and yours». «When Jesus warned their infidelity, said: who will be my auxiliary, to drive the men towards God? We, answered his disciples, will be the God’s auxiliaries». After his death, Jesus waits for the final Reappearance of the men, to be resuscitated.
«Jesus is to Allah’s eyes, what is Adam. God formed him from the powder and said: «Be», and he was. This comes from your Lord, guard in doubting it». God neither needs sons, nor has anybody associated like him. For the Koran this would be like another God or a second God. In 43, 14, it is said: «Nevertheless, there have attributed him children between his servants. Really the man is ungrateful”.
Being One, everything else is created and lower than he. This way, the transcription of the Gospel in the Koran is minimal. The Khoran is connected with the preaching of the God One of always. That was contemplated again and again in the Torah, to defend the God’s Unit and to separate the people of Israel of the polytheistic idolaters, who were surrounding he. That were attributing «divinities» to the great natural power (rain, fire, storm) and anthropological (love, war, revenge). The pre Islamic Arabs were adoring Lat, Ozza and Menat as sons of God and it was also necessary to separate them of these diversions.
Origin, path and concepts of the Yihad.
The Jihad expressed in the precise concept that we all understand, is not gathered in the Koran. Nevertheless, in the Koran appear numerous verses which encourages the Muslims to the defense of the community, to the fight against the unfaithful people and to the armed spread of the Islam. Established the main lines, rapidly the political chiefs of the Umma, including the Prophet, threw hand of the instrument that so clearly was offering them and that they needed in a “struggle of life or death”. And they named it “Jihad”. This is really the “Little or Minor Jihad”, as we will see.
The Islam establishes the obligatory nature of the Jihad as Holy War, comparing her to the so called «5 pillars of the Islam», which are symbolized by the back of an opened hand. They are the elementary obligations, of ritual and collective character and simple, of every Muslim in his «submission to the God’s will». At the beginning of the Islam, when was reigning the jahiliyya (definition of the barbarism previous to it) in the Arabs, in the times of Mohamed, the Jihad was indispensable and inevitable for the defense of the new religion. That was arising in the middle of a “stormy sea” of pagan and idolatrous and more or less nomadic tribes and clans, which were populating Arabia. It had not even begun the first expansion of the Islam to the whole Arabic world, and the Muslims groups could be easily eliminated by their enemies. Any radical change, even only new, finds always an initial rejection, which originates in the conservative «ideological and tradition inertia», which exists in the society where it appears.
(TO BE CONTINUED)