A nation is an individuals society provided with a social political self conscience. In creating and vertebrating it collaborate the history, the tradition and the customs, and the language and the moral own sense. And secondly contribute to it the ethnic and the own territory, that not always exist, specially the first one. This way, the territory of a country is not a nation. She is not even the inarticulate population of a territory under an only one government. When the nation is loved by his components and there exists in them the desire to serve it and to defend her in community, the concept of the mother land appears. Both ideas are essentially interrelated. And, the absence of the patriotism or the shame to practice it by members of a «social political community”, leads to the defenselessness and the dismemberment of their nation, in major or minor degree, forming «groups of associate individuals». It is not surprising that are the Defense Forces of a nation, as institutions and in their members, which hoist, teach and practice the patriotism as one of their essential virtues. The Defense Forces of a nation are the specialized group of the «natives or patriots» for the belligerent and complete Defense of their “native nation».
The Civilization. What does she mean?
After the sufficient and permanent structure of a «human group» in society, his civilization arises in him. That is a sign of identity, volitional and of human activity of the group. Because, definitively, the civilization is a representative, plastic, specific and adaptable form of the men live in society. The civilization is the articulated, elaborated and harmonic collection of language, philosophy and thoughts, arts and sciences, ethical sense, traditions and customs, which illuminate, cohesion, shape and stimulate a nation as «human differentiated group». It arises when the human development reaches a «level of initiation», necessary in order that it appears and blooms. Level that supposes and implies a perspective of relative future and progress, the need to conquer the natural obstacles to them, a sufficient social internal coherence and the temporary absence of external, too powerful, greedy and exclusive enemies. The civilization would be the «culture put in action», possessing the former a major mental and volitional content of ideology, expansion and transcendence.
The civilization contains the collection of knowledge of all kinds that possesses, encourages and develops a human group or an epoch of her. Somehow it is what the man learns, perfects and stimulates with the exercise of his intellectual and volitional powers. This difference it from the race, anchored in the biological inheritance, which is the work of the nature. This impulse of the nature trying out the way, with her particular pace, and deciding routes to crossing it, is the natural way followed by the man in his biological walking.
The first Social Structures with stability and projection.
The structure of the tribal group secures on the biology and the ideology. The lineage is the biological base that joins to the groups of families that have or recognize have an origin common ancestor. This way, the direct kinship is the anthropological link of recognition between the members and of social union between them. The civilization as wide expression of the beliefs, ideas, traditions, procedures, language and forms of life is another identification stamp of every tribe. Both social parameters form the identity base of the «individual in community». And on her develop the rights and personal and collective duties, in a profitable balance. That has been forged and polished for generations. The group gives vital and belonging senses to the individual. And it offers to him independence, flexibility and multiple supports. The individual and the pairs cohesion and protect the group. This generates two social corollaries. A great egalitarian sense exists between the full right members of the tribes. And the chiefs must contribute charisma or example to imitating, support of groups, negotiating skills and military capacities. And not necessarily brandishing a saber, but directing and stimulating towards the victory. And his more important decisions must be approved or confirmed in the meetings of the «important ones» of the groups.
The social structure of the tribes is preindustrial. And, when she survives, the scanty possibilities of life lead that all the members are producing: shepherds or farmers. And to that all the males are also always warriors. The rougher, sterile and ungrateful is a territory or tribal habitat, the more develop in his members the qualities of belonging, strangers’ exclusion and activate defense of the lean available resources. All this seems that it generates and prepares for the confrontation and the liquidation of the competitors and enemies. But it is not like that. The regional and frontier tribes have been developing a social way, therefore personified and assumed in their culture, of canalizing the hatreds and differences towards a “minor possible hurt”.
Three are the protest mechanisms that arise to happen, to smooth or to relieve the affronts and disputes and realizing always the justice. The first is the «price of blood». It consists in that a related group or a families selection, assumes and faces the «offense» realized by a member of this group. The offense is paid, for example, by the delivery of camels or measures of cereals. Then there is the revenge, when a crime is committed or a member of a clan is seriously insulted. This generates a spiral, developed in successive cycles, of violence and misbehaviors. Actions that the honor of the group forces to getting. And, often, a «mediators’ council», accepted by the parts, can arbitrate successfully to cut this undesirable chain. Finally, is the limited war. That establishes a military collective action between faced clans or tribes and has an intermittent and extensive character. The lack of resources is a source of serious clashes between the settled groups. And his rooting can manage to be like the vendettas. The origins are the nomadism, pastures, droughts, hungers, water supplies, the demographic exclusive pressure and the lack of the capital or underdevelopment. But, also they can be the distribution of political and social roles in countries in precarious social and economic situation. Or of the economic outputs that generate the exploitation and sale of his principal producing sources, which generally are mono cultures or mono productions of the mining industry. But, in his tribal origin, it is always a war limited in the useless hurt:: so, the children, the women, the animals, the fruit-bearing trees, even the crops that cannot be remove, are respected. The premise is more or less not to urge and justify in the rival a total and raging revenge thirst.
Clausewitz already warned in his First Book that the war was tending to the limits of violence and not only to impose the will on the enemy. One of the things that brought the modern civilization, which implies living and developing in the cities, is the disappearance of the «containment and respect procedure» of the fighting in and between the tribes. And we see it in Somalia, in Iraq, in The Lebanon, in Mali, where the internal emigrations to the cities did not break the internal cohesion, influence and power of the tribes. But that degraded his migrated members and deprived them of the advantages of their civilization. Other of the vices that the urban members of the tribes have acquired is the excessive greed. And with her, her corollary and the easy way to satisfy her, the rampant and widespread corruption, that is associated with the “clientèle”, spreading this way over the whole infected collectivity. The social equality in the tribes, their «ideological republicanism», expressed in the assemblies of qualified members, was guaranteeing the use and reasonable enjoyment of the resources for all the members. And the support of the group was providing the cases of orphanhood, disease, etc., of the members in misfortune.
The tribes were working or can socially and politically work as a «nation in potential» in situations of isolation, structural poverty, central precarious authority. But they will tend to weaken when the benefits of the ethnic and tribal, regional and local structures are overcome by the provided by the sheik or dominating emir or the despot or democratic central State. And when these have the popular respect, coercion means and respect, to keep the tribes united and cohesion. And following those a general common politics, favorable to the majority of the citizens. Where does not take place the «respect of clans». That is the cancer that has corroded the tribal state unions, for example, in Somalia. Where, in addition, has been absent the sufficiently exemplary, valued and supported figure, to manage to impose a national common politics and the social peace.
The social state structure arises when a tribe can impose to the existing others. Using always for it a variable degree of coercion or violence. It is necessary that arise some characteristics or functions, which allow to develop the new intra state tides and to debilitate those tribal and regional antagonistic. Those might be: the Islam (as simple and very socialized religion); the widespread education, which generates a change of mentality and modifies the culture, without creating social traumas, and specialized, as way of life and progress; the infrastructures and capitals investments; the establishment of a political system, which could guide and realize the whole process, resting on a civil and military, sufficient and reasonably honest public officials. Looking for the economic progressive development and reasonably distributing the obtained products. And showing this way enough attractive possibilities of safety, justice, well-being, prosperity and peace for all. That is to say, highlighting and showing the advantages of the integral and superior state development over the clogging of the social game of tribes and clans, as «previous social surmountable structure».
(TO BE CONTINUED)