The Tactical or Operational Success. Its Signs. 2nd. Part.

(CONTINUATION)

The Signs of Tactical or Operational Success related to the Physical and Environmental Support:

Land transitability will be neutral or favorable to the operation.

Transitability is the geographical (superficial or spatial) dimension where military actions take place. It is principally framed by the superficial capacity of an area to support certain means or military capacities and their movements. It is completed today in a spatial dimension, by the range of heavy fire and aircrafts.

It has independent and absolute functions, as are the passing of specific points during a period of time, the time it takes to travel the distance between them and the not superficial simultaneity of military means. These refer on the transitability, related to how the Nature and obstacles interact with operations. Transitability also has relative functions that are generally dependent on geography. These are more concretely determined by the availability and quality of roads, railways and fluvial nets (urbanized geography), the climate, the hydrology, the orography, the season and meteorology and the hour of the day (physical geography). These functions change with different national and regional surfaces.

Transitability determines the facility or physical difficulty for rapidly maneuvering and, in consequence, determines the total time of an operation, in the phases of execution through the successive «cycles of action«. Roads and railroad networks are the most suitable physical support to obtain low times of execution in operations or high «tempos». Their transitability characteristics will be their availability in the operations zone, the road surface resistance, the traffic saturation conditions and the “narrow or critical” points existing in the ways networks and their “continuity traveling cuts”.

Roads that support a good advance pace are problematic, as outside of developed countries pave roads are uncommon. More often it is the case that a terrain is untransitable as an operational element and will require units to physically struggle in order to going on. The channels, the rivers, as continuity cuts, constitute another relative conditioner of the transitability of a zone. On one hand, they constitute an almost inevitable restraint of the impulse of maneuver. In effect, in almost any direction that follows an operational route during sufficient Kilometers, it ended up confronting the crossing of a natural or artificial water obstacle. The bridges that surpass them, as part of a road network, not always will exist or be at hand. Given the present amphibious means, the main obstacle to the transit will be offered by the water flows banks. It will be necessary to consider the slope of both banks and the characteristics of resistance, adherence, consistency, etc. of them and of their immediate approach grounds.

Resultado de imagen de MILITAR traveling grounds

One can try to use the superficial dimension, or even the spatial one, to improve transitability in different cases when good conditions do not exist. The first leads to employ a cross country mechanized formation, supported logistically. This was the imagined ideal of strategists and tacticians in the 1930s. On one hand, the best all-field or tracked vehicle moves better along a highway than across a field. For a given useful load weight, all-field or tracked vehicles have more tare than wheels vehicles. For total given weights, vehicles on tracks and on wheels that advance cross country have greater wears, more breakdowns and more fuel consumption than those that travel on highways.

Resultado de imagen de MILITAR river fording

This raises a double economic and logistic inconvenience, whose solution is very difficult. For this reason, it is ideal to operate along steady surfaces and using the railroad up to a bit more than one hundred kilometers to the front or the enemy. And to fight cross-country, taking advantage of shooting cover sectors, concealment and so on. Using the tactical characteristics of the field. Specially, rolling grounds that favor the mechanized fighting.

The spatial dimension also encompasses the impossibility, like that of saturated ground roads, of the simultaneous arrival of numerous aircraft at a given point. Or the airships fly in row, arriving at the same time, but laterally extended or they go in line to unload or arrive successively in a «single» operations point. The helicopters give more concentrated results than those of the airplanes, but these have more lifting and ordnance capacity.

Resultado de imagen de Military airborne falling

The effects of climate, season, hour, and hemisphere are superposed on these conditions, worsening or mitigating them. Orography affects transitability when it make difficult the construction of a road layout and when it increases the slope that military marches must cross. The cross-sectional passing of “height lines” can become impassable, except by defiles or mountain ports. Which create bottlenecks that collapse the maneuver impulse and prevent the deployments of the units that cross them. Fights at heights have a generic “gravity center” in order to control these passages.

Resultado de imagen de urban warfare city A RESOLUTE ENEMY  IS STILL WAITING YOU OVER THERE

When “height gradient” diminishes there exists a less evident, but more frequent and very important factor, which is the «drop». “Drop» refers to height variations of a few meters up to dozens of meters in relation to the surroundings. It appears in cross-country running, in areas of more or less waviness, in broken areas and even in roadways sections. It has also an expression in urban zones, both residential and industrial. As well as buildings, houses and facilities form «relative concealing heights«. These generate protection and danger, opportunities and risks. And are the urban expression of the «drop». The forest is a special variant of this case, with obstacles and shorts views for both enemy forces.

Urbanized or industrial zones shape numerous parallel, transverse and interweaving «drop» lines. They channel all military effort in the mentioned zones, generating innumerable «interfaces of action» with the enemy. That are frequently determined under surprise conditions. These zones definitively paralyze the impulse of the units and generate attrition (in military means) and wear (in logistical terms) disproportionate to the results obtainable by their occupation.

THE END.

The Will of Defense of a Society. 2nd Part.

(FINAL)

And the Strategy, the Operational Strategy and the Tactics, as Levels of its Military Actuation.

 

The Levels of Military Actuation.

The first level of activity in the defense of a society is called national strategy or, also, in a some antiquated form, great strategy. In it are included the economic and diplomatic resources of the State. As part of the resources of a nation to get his great strategics aims in a war.

Resultado de imagen de montesquieu  THE BARON OF MONTESQUIEU.

 

Military Strategy, or simply Strategy, in a great second level of activity, refers to the definition of the larger aims of a war, of an operations theater or of a campaign, including the distribution of the generally scanty military resources used to fulfill them.

Tactics refers to the ideal execution of the combats with an enemy, who opposes with armaments, to the achievement of our strategic aims.

Between strategy and tactics exists an essentially practical space of prominent activity, called the operational level or operational strategy. Its mission is to optimize tactics and the means available in a campaign and in the theater of operations. As such, it defines and conceptualizes the battles, marches, etc., both the military operations and its correct succession, according to those decisive aims. It provides the tactics and the decision, a transcendence far beyond of the pursuit and the tactical exploitation of success. That is to say, operational strategy employs tactics as an essential instrument, combining them to achieve the ultimate objectives to which they are orientated and dedicated to achieving, forming then part of its strategic nature.

 

Thus, the operational strategy defines its own aims in the theater or in the campaign of action, which are the incapacity and disorganization of the enemy by exploiting his strategic and operational vulnerabilities. The first is orientated to reducing the enemy’s combat capacity, seeking to functionally or positionaly disable it, while protecting own’s combat capacity. The second is get by occupying or destroying the enemy’s critical vulnerabilities in the operations zone.

Resultado de imagen de refinería de petróleo OIL REFINERY: SYMBOL OF THE ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF A MODERN SOCIETY.

 

The critics vulnerabilities of the enemy are those whose occupation or destruction produces his serious disorganization and/or the loss of his will of defense. They are those elements, characteristics, possessions that give sense to the fight that he maintains. Its loss instills inevitably in the enemy a sensation of hopelessness and a sense of uselessness in continuing the fight at those moments, except for accumulating more losses.

The critics vulnerabilities are different in each one of the levels of military action, although the effects produced in the superior levels are transmitted to the inferior ones.

A strategic critical vulnerability, handled capably by the Spaniards in century XVI during the conquest of America, was the capture of the great chief or emperor of the indigenous confederations of the great invaded countries (Moctezuma in Mexico, Atahualpa in Peru). But, once turned hostage, the symbolic representation of a leader of this type plummeted, because the social vitality of the community which he directed, demands his renovation, as if he had died.

In II World War, the occupation of the capital and the fall of the government were strategic critics vulnerabilities, to which was acceded through an operational strategy of mobile warfare: spring campaign of 1,940 in the Western Front. The same tried Hitler in 1941 in relation with Moscow in the East front. Probably in that total war, almost of extermination, its fall had not the political importance that was attributed to it. But Moscow constituted a great hub, a railway communications center vital for all the U.R.S.S. at the west of the Urales and, in this sense, it had been a critical operational vulnerability.

To achieve these strategic intermediate aims, the operational level has some specific operational means that are the intelligence, the imbalance and the incapacity of the enemy, the time or speed of the operations and combats, the logistic organization and his physical support or line of supplies and the correct sense of the own command.

It uses these means to drive and to use ideally (and without squandering) the tactical-operational means at his disposition.

Resultado de imagen de reuniones sindicales grandes  THE NATIONAL MORAL FLOURISHES IN ALL THE PLACES OF SOCIAL COEXISTENCE.

These are:

The ground transitability (in the whole geographical dimension of the nature of the areas, climate, station and hour of the day),

the combat capacity (military means made concrete in men, equipment, supports and combat vehicles) and the capacity of operational movement (transport of great and small tonnage, the supplies of all kinds and combustibles and the warehouses and accessible parks in the zone) owns available,

the freedom of action and the «favorable interfaces of action» with the enemy (that exist and that they can also be created always, by means of the extension or decrease of the «field of action» on that, as a tactical operational zoom, or by means of his change to another front sector or in the depth of the enemy zone). With these last 2 «systems» we can act always according to our criterion and interest and not simply react to the actions of the enemy.

This way, the mentioned «operational systems» realize the employment and the functioning of all the levels of the national defense. And they go from the conception and the great creation of aims, interests and available resources, received from the command and the nation, up to its practical final accomplishment. Involving in this also the necessary and the inevitable and imposed by the enemy, tactical employments of the military means, as stages for the ideal achievement of those commended aims.

THE END.

The Will of Defense of a Society.

And the Strategy, the Operational Strategy and the Tactics, as Levels of its Military Actuation

The Ideology or Concept and its Range.

The “will of defense” of a nation is its capacity to cause, create, develop and maintain defense forces. The strength of the defense forces, in turn, rely on the necessary support of the economy of the country and the diplomacy of the state. The will of defense is an expression of the will of being and the vital capacity, even biological, of a society. This concept overcomes and perfects the so called hybrid war or of V generation. That implies and supposes the employment of all his «orthodox and heterodox means of intervention» by the social belligerent group.

Resultado de imagen de GUERRA V generación  IMPRECISE ALLEGORY OF THE FIFTH GENERATION WAR.

 

As the term implies, will of defense is healthy, normal and sufficient when defense forces and the strength of the country’s economy and the quality of state leadership and diplomacy are proportional and adapted to the political objectives of society. These must also be adequate to the possible threats that the country may have to oppose, both within and out the country, within its geopolitical region or other sources of threat. This capacity and its performance in different situations stems from a correct “national moral”.

The will of defense is shaped normally in the Armed Forces, in its capacity of specific instruments of the defense function. The resources of the Armed Forces include the human resources, psychological and intellectual resources and material resources. The basis for the will of defense, the source from which these resources flow is the society itself.

At the level of human resources, troops must have suitable training, the combat readiness and a certain esprit de corps. Human resources are shaped by doctrine, military direction and military moral. So, they can carry out the military operations withstanding the effort and the wear of them, while maintaining their conviction in the missions to which they are assigned.

Resultado de imagen de fuerzas armadas

Materials resources must support the military theory of the Armed Forces and have the necessary technological sophistication to serve the military’s objectives. They include the weapon systems and all the military hardware. All of these resources flow from a society that provides, maintains and nourishes them.

Which is operational about this natural phenomenon of the society’s capacity of defense?

In a modern society, the chain of transmission of the popular will to the Armed Forces, passes through a series of intermediate sociological gears of authorities and institutions. In them, crystallize and fulfill the popular will, albeit with all the shades, errors and deviations, derived from the degree of imperfection of society’s institutional system and of some authorities.

Resultado de imagen de misiles nucleares CHINESE INTERCONTINENTAL DF-41 MISSILES.

 

This implies that a direct military attack on the civil populace, does not debilitate the will of defense already shaped within its Armed Forces. So, military action is better focused on undermining the will of defense of the enemy armies, not on the society from which it springs.

To do this, the immediate goal would be the enemy’s Armed Forces, followed by the political system of the enemy’s country including its political objectives, plans, and alliances, as well as its military and auxiliary industries. Only finally would the focus of attack or pressure be on civilians of the enemy country.

The civil population, which is not intrinsically organized but is dominated by the ideological and institutional apparatus of the state, is capable of absorbing tremendous military blows. Examples of this are the bombing raids that Germany and North Vietnam endured for years. Ultimately, only the invasion of Germany forced its surrender. There is also the case of Iraq which was submitted to a kind of military siege in which its people were impoverished. Still, the Iraqi regime was even stronger than at the end of the allied invasion in the winter of l991, having suppressed internal opposition from Shiites and Kurds and having attracted the support or admiration of its resistance in the Arab world. Despite the first war against Iraq and the following siege, Iraqi’s did not rise against their political institutions and the content and expression of Iraq’s national will of defense was not altered. In the most radical case of a nuclear war, great civilian losses would occur initially, yet if the Armed Forces remained relatively intact due to defensive deployment and protection measures, it could prolong the defense of its country and even win.

This brings us to time as the environment in which the will of defense is expressed, and whose “effective factor” is “national moral”.

In effect, the will of defense is constructed in the time. And to destroy it requires actions within time. Those engaged in insurrection come to understand this point well. That a prolonged war directed at the source of the will of defense, the country’s people, will in effect attack the country’s national moral.

The National Moral, source of the Will of Defense.

The “national moral” is the collective conviction of how best to live by following historically-proven trends of peace, progress, own satisfaction, service and justice. This certainty is assumed by a society as its own vision, or conception of its destiny.

When individuals or groups do not subscribe this vision, or when they pervert it, the quality of national moral can deteriorates and often produces messianism. But, without illusion and enthusiasm, societies cannot achieve or create beneficial enterprises. Enthusiasm is a force of spirit, which conquers moral and ideological entropy (that is inevitably generated in societies), enlightened by a «reasonable illusion«.

Resultado de imagen de lideres mundiales THE DOCTRINE OF XI JINPING «illuminating» Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. IT WAS INCLUDED IN THE CONSTITUTION OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY. ONLY MAO AND DENG XIAOPING DESERVED SUCH AN HONOR.

 

When leaders also are in tune with the right social trend, and with the wishes of their people, a moral community is established between leaders and their people, that harmonizes and promotes national and social feelings. This process is the origin and creator of the national moral of societies and is at a different qualitative level than that of purely biased, ethnically-based or group-based interests.

There is an ideological creation from the people and to the people, which reason is that it most be in favor the people. Still, this process remains subject to deviations and historical aberrations.

The process of creating the national moral are positive when leaders act collectively with honesty and inspire their people to follow «correct ways» of living, within all the possible ways of living available to them. This implies and demands a certain ideological control on the part of the state’s leadership, which is one of its main functions. Abuses of this responsibility are best represented by Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda, Mr. Goebbels; the political deputies and the party structure for the proletarian dictatorship with Stalin, etc.

Resultado de imagen de winston churchill

The natural organs for forming and transmitting the “national moral” are far removed from official propaganda offices. The reason is that the natural organs that generate national moral are found in the nuclei of society’s collective action and in its natural and institutional leaders. That is to say, the spaces in which national moral is created are homes, schools, churches, political parties, unions, working centers, and associations in general, etc.

After the battle of England, Churchill said that the future generations would say that «that one was our more glorious hour». This was possible thanks to an unbreakable social discipline, which was not ensuing from the study of manuals of civic education, but of the follow-up of a model spread by infinity of personal testimonies. The diffusion of the moral model of the citizen owed in a great extent to the educational labor of the Anglican Church.

The own Montesquieu admitted that the republican virtues only existed in the tales of the antiquity. This way, they were attractive to a leader minority, but his adoption by the citizens could not be done by legal or constitutional mandate. The moral theoretically proposed values, were seen as something artificial and remote. Without real connection with a practical and known moral code, highlighted with alive examples that could be follow.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

 

THE HATE, THE WAR AND THE EVIL.

THE HATE.

The Hate is always an untidy passion. What might arise initially in the soul as competition and emulation, ultimately displays as distaste, repugnance or rivalry. It is a primary reptilian feeling of survival, compound or mixed with the dread and the rage towards other one, which is perceived as foreign, different and menacing. So, the hate expresses always as negative and destruction, still potential.

The hate breaks personal and social bridges and makes clashing spaces. The hate poisons the relations of different types and takes them to personal and social, antagonistic and irreconcilable situations. And this destructive and self-destructive drive forms a «sinister and mortal curl» in the emotional vital pace of the men. Once created the habit and the accepted and repeated guideline of conduct (by our automatic brain, though we do not notice). We have formed a riverbed for the flow of the hate and his extension. That so turns out to be easier to repeat and to keep live.

The mental Gordian knot of the hate, only can be cut by the collective overcoming. And this is carried out personally, exercising a broad mindness generosity and the personal effort of overcoming and oblivion the circumstances that shaped «that situation«. Looking for the only possible and human solution to the clash as such, to the fear perceived and more or less deformed, to the rage that stultifies and exceeds the spirit.

THE WAR.

The War arises in the armed collective clash. In the violent dialectics of two social rivals groups. That employ the weapons for the attainment of certain aims, which are exclusive for both.

The regional and frontier tribes have been developing a social way, therefore, personified and assumed in his wide culture, of canalizing the hates and differences towards the minor possible hurt. Three are the claiming mechanisms that arise to mediate, smooth or alleviate the affronts and disputes. The first is the «blood price«. It consists in the fact that a related group or a family selection, assumes and faces the «offense» realized by a member of this group. The offense is paid, for example, by the delivery of camels or cereals measures. Then there is the revenge, when a crime is committed or a member of a clan is insulted seriously. This generates a spiral, developed in successive cycles, of violence and misbehaviors. Actions that the honor of the group forces to do. Sometimes, a «mediators council«, accepted by the parts, can arbitrate with success to cut the chain.

Imagen relacionada

Finally, there is the more or less limited war. This establishes a military collective action between faced clans or tribes and has an intermittent and extensive character. The lack of resources is a source of serious clashes between consolidated groups. And his rooting can manage to be like the vendettas. The origins or causes are the nomadism, the pastures, the droughts, the hunger, the drinking troughs, the demographic exclusive pressure and the lack of capital or the underdevelopment. But, also they can be the distribution of political and social roles in countries in precarious social and economic situation. Or of the economic performances that generate the exploitation and sale of his principal producing sources, which generally are monocultures or monoproductions of the mining industry. But, in his tribal origin, the armed conflict is always a limited war in the useless hurt: The children, the women, the animals, the fruit-bearing trees, even the crops that cannot remove, are respected. The premise is more or less not to urge or justify in the opposite one a thirst of and insane total revenge.

The tribes formed the constant flow of native emigrants, who populated and made grow from 1970, all the underdeveloped populations. Sometimes they were joined, from the 80s, by a foreign, more or less specialized emigration. That was devoting itself to the services, the development of the civil infrastructures and the extraction industries. One of the things that the modern civilization brought, which is nothing more that to live and to develop in the cities, it is the disappearance of the «procedure of containment and respect» of the fighting in and between the tribes. His interests were already those of the great city, his values (different from what the autochthonous virtues mean) were those of a disorganized society in ways of acceptance and integration.

It has been said that this «emigration from the lands«, broke the internal cohesion, the influence and the power of the tribes in many countries. It is not totally true. It has not happened in Iraq, which was much more modern and developed. And of it gives faith the devilish and complex guerrilla war generated after the Allied occupation at first of 2003 and against the successive sectarian governments of the shia majority. Not in the Lebanon, where the shiítas of the south of the country form the base of Hezbola‘s ethnic and logistic support.

The tribes were working or can work socially and politically as a «nation in embryo» in situations of isolation, structural poverty, central precarious authority. But they will tend to weaken when the benefits of the ethnic and tribal, regional and local structures were or are overcome by the provided by the dominating sheik or emir or the despot or democratic central state. And these had or have the popular constraint means, the respect and the ancendancy, to keep the tribes sufficiently close and united. And follwoing with a general common politics, favorable to the majority of the citizens, and not forgetting the rights of the minorities.

Resultado de imagen de guerra tribal africa IN THE TRIBAL ZONE OF PAKISTAN, AT THE BORDER WITH AFGHANISTAN.

Where the preference clans does not take place. That is the cancer that has corroded the tribal state unions, for example, in Somalia. Where, in addition, it has been absent the enough exemplary and supported figure, so to manage to impose a national common politics and the social peace. For example, in Iraq, where the government of Saddam Hussein and his aptitudes to keep joined the three etnias of the country. With all his disadvantages of corruption, arbitrariness and clientèle, were making the country to work very reasonably. And it was so much as military, winning the war to the Islamic Republic of Iran, as economically.

Other one of the vices that the «civilized» members of the tribes have acquired is the excessive greed. And with her, her corollary and the easy way to satisfy her, the rampant corruption. The social equality in the tribes, his «ideological rough republicanism», was guaranteeing the use and reasonable enjoyment of the resources by all the members.

Resultado de imagen de guerra tribal africa

The American and European troops are prepared to fight against a military regular enemy provided with a masses army. Or even more modern, of the IIIrd generation, with more elaborated technological means and better trained men to support the lonelinesses and tensions of the awaited current battlefields. Definitively, his «environment», his space of action, is the direct and opened clash in presence of a great profusion of probable enemy targets. His instrument is the attrition, the destruction of the aims that the enemy presents and could be detected and acquired in all the depth of his march or attack deployment. The last two enemy steps, nowadays increasingly remote or deep, are reached by the aviation of tactical support of long range or with the ballistic or autonomous rocketry of middle range.

Which is here the role of the man? To detect and confirm the enemy targets, to try to fix them if it is a question of a patrol or small combat unit and to call his «ordnance» in order that it devastates them. Only his elite units, always scanty and, therefore, exceptional and precious, are formed to only employ his organic means in the infantry close fight.

In Iraq and in Syria the islamist bases are always in the cities and populations most favorable to the activity of his different bands. And they are surrounded or perviosed by military national and foreign forces. Already at the beginnig of the war, the North American intelligence intercepted a memorandum of 17 pages written by Abu Musad al-Zarqawi, former chief of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, and directed to Osama ben Laden. In it he was expressing to him his worry for his survival: «In Iraq there are not mountains where we could shelter, nor forests in whose thickness we could hide. There are spies eyes everywhere. Our backs are exposed and our movements are realized in view of all». And this geographical military space is similar in Syria.

THE EVIL.

The Evil is conceptually the lack and the denial of the good, which is the only virtue or effort (as stable and permanent value) that is positive. And the primary negative force that generates the hate in a wide sense, not necessarily violent, is the one that gives force, life and permanency to the evil of the man.

Sometimes in the History and in the history of the human groups, raises a special and adherent evil, with own reality, that it is difficult to fight and avoid. There existed always the great ethnic, political, social and religious persecutions: the Jews were so by the Nazi Germany; the Christians, yazidis and other minor groups, in the Southwest of Asia; the educated, leader classes and with urban works suffered it in the Red Khmers’ Cambodia, which overcame in the scanty time suffered and in the affected percent of the population, the Bolshevik persecutions against the not proletarian or enemy classes. But, the force, the continuity and the determination that displayed in them, which were generated and channelled by the rage, the habit of unhealthy conduct and the guideline accepted by so many people, overcame the possibilities and the insane imagination of the human mortal collectivities.

Resultado de imagen de victimas del comunismo en el mundo

The Evil as concept, as immaterial entity, needs from instrument, a vector, a vehicle, to display in our physical world. And this material vehicle is provided by the untid and uncontrolled passions of the men, already dominated and dragged by the hate and his corollaries passions. In which and by means of them, the Evil displays enslaver, overflowing and superhuman.

The imposition of the communism in Russia from 1917, caused million dead men, destroyed countless families and persons and eliminated the perspectives and vital paths of many millions more, throughout almost 25 years of widespread and inhuman terror. The enemies of class were liquidated, a wide and confused name where were fitting all the nuisances for the governing class; the Red Army was purged in 1937; many peasants were slowly killed of hunger from 1930, with the implantation of the five-year industrialization plans, which were removing the agricultural resources for it and giving priority to the heavy industry, which would turn the USSR into a great modern Power.

Resultado de imagen de victimas del comunismo en el mundo  HISTORIC STUDY OF RESULTS Y VICTIMS.

And all this became systematic and coldly. As it corresponds to visionaries, illuminated by a considered scientific social doctrine and, therefore, infallibly. That they were detecting the absolute and all-embracing power and were themselves abrogated the right and the sovereignty for it. The three powers of the State were centering in them to be exercised, in a satrapy, a tyranny endowed with the modern means at his disposition. Supposedly they were doing it in name of the people and for the people, but they never did it with the real people. Mao calculated that around 90 generations would be need, suffering the «proletariat dictatorship» in the «socialist countries«, in order that could arise, were appearing the green outbreaks of, the «new communist man«.

Imagen relacionada GULAGS IN THE USSR.

All these putrid, inhuman, insane ideas come from the sewage, pits and black wells of the human intelligence and soul. And they are the valid, sure and permanent instrument for the periodic manifestation of the Evil within the humanity. This Evil, unattainable for the reason and the human capacities, is the temporal manifestation of the Misterium Iniquitatis.

The Evil acts stimulating in a fulfilled, relarge, excessive way our untied passions. On having examined the affected facts, only we can wonder: how was it possible that this happened?, how did it come near to so much?. Except in personal exceptional cases, the Evil acts in the human collective and insane actions. So that, his presence remains diffuse, vague, veiled. There will never be «security» of his action. Because the supra rationals phenomena neither are implied not even are overlapped openly with the material human phenomena. This way, they can conjecture or suppose his presence and his operation, but without confirming them «in stricto sensu».

The Tactical or Operational Military Success. Its Signs.

Introduction.

It is not a question of defining how to act, thing that already we try to do in other published articles or that they will be in a future. But that, perceiving in the operations development certain facts, guidelines or behaviors of the conflicting parts and of the objective conditions (of the ground, etc.), we will be able to diagnose a very probable forecast for the culmination of those operations.

This way, we will be able to trust in and to rest on these favorable forecasts. And to reinforce mental and physically our signs of the Tactical and Operational Military Success. To control better the fears, worries, assignments of the scanty forces, uncertainties, endless lacks, unexpected bad understanding, recoverable frustrations and the partial crises. Which will arise inevitably during the operations development.

The main Signs of the Tactical or Operational Military Success to look for:

The Signs of Tactical or Operational Success about Us:

The operational military plans will be simple, flexible and with capacities of alternative developments. They must be capable of adjusting to the unforeseen and the contingencies. And endlessly incorporating intelligence updates about the intentions and possibilities of the enemy and ground reconnaissance. This is specially important in maneuver operations.

There will exist an operational own initiative, that will allow us to develop our plans. Always using us the activity, even in the defense. And keeping endlessly the action freedom and given priority to its recovery, in case of its loss.

The own exploration and intelligence are fundamental, the more creative and risky is the operation to realizing. Reciprocally, the enemy exploration and his perceptions will be pushed back and/or be disturbed systematically. Will be included in this repulse and mixtify, the security of the units, false positions, advanced detachments and combat patrols, fogs and smokes, the combat for the wireless communications, etc.

The knowledge of the enemy and his actions will be always incomplete and imperfect. And will be extended with the evolution of the situation in relation to him. They will not be known temporarily, even positions, movements, combat readiness, deployments or fundamental units. But not those that affect us direct and tactically in our operation under way. On those we will place the gravity center of our exploration. That will be even “in force” against certain enemy hard objectives.

The own combat capacity for the propose operation will be sufficient and will be equipped, distributed and protected. Considering the friction and inevitable minor errors, derivatives of our own military activity in the hyperfunctional chaotic environment, and the necessary reserves. Our security will inexorably be kept during the operation and in the consolidation of occupied terrain. And specially defending, with combat detachments, the advance sectors of our “mobile groups” operating in the enemy operational rear.

Decisions on which tactical battle areas will be engaged, will consider: accessibility (whether they offer neutral or favorable transitability); vulnerability, whether one’s forces can apply sufficient combat capacity against an enemy, in an area that had not attracted much of his attention; transcendent, the action will produce the decision or will contribute decisively to her and the tactical result will have operational efficiency.

One example is the operational counterattack of the German Armies Group Don of Marshal Von Manstein. That was carried out between February and March of 1943 in the Donbass river basin and around the city of Kharkov. Let us remember the development of this counterattack, its tactical combats and their effect on the “sui generis” Tanks Army of General Lieutenant Popov (Group Popov), the Infantry Armies and both Tank Corps as the mobile reserve of the Southwest Front of General Vatutin and, apart and also, the 3rd Tanks Army of Lieutenant General Ribalko.

The logistics is an essential piece of the victory. When the armies are modern, mechanized and technical. And they are, this way, highly dependent on the fuels, the spares, the supplies of all kinds and on the rotation or reinstatement of units. It is supposed tactic and operationally that the means of all kinds are available and more or less nearby. To support the impulse, the fire and the operative efficiency of all the “units of action”, it is necessary to guarantee them a constant and sufficient flow of the mentioned means. Therefore, the commands must take the actions to defend the «physical support» of the logistic structure. Specially against assaults from the enemy depth or in sensitive and critical points or in the routes most far from our units. Constituted by all the “supplying routes”, from the units up to our operational rear. And that are still more important that the so called “retreat routes”. Though they could coincide in some sections. Among other things, because the modern forces must count with remaining isolated for a certain time. And keeping in this period their tasks, in agreement with the entrusted missions.

The Signs of our Tactical or Operational Military Success about the Enemy:

There will be a passiveness or operational delay in the enemy. Generally he will act with an intention that is not convergent with our own. And, at least, not harmful for our operation, especially in the first stages of the process. When she develops her impetus or push or movement quantity (combat capacity X average sustainable speed, in every stage). This sign of the tactical or operative success is a «pear in sweet», that not always will give itself so clearly, as in the following example.

It is worth to remember the development of the Blitzkrieg in the West and invasion of France by Germany in the spring of 1940. The main part of the French maneuver troops, their three more modern armies, and the British Expeditionary Force rushed toward Holland and Belgium to stop the German scythe-like advance. That was supposed directed at the interior of France and the rear of her Maginot line. The Allied High Commands, whose doctrine had not evolved, were thinking that in May 1940 Germany would repeat their “Schlieffen modified plan” of 1914 in their new invasion of France.

Resultado de imagen de INVASION francia 1940 THE OPERATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

Resultado de imagen de INVASION francia 1940 ITS RESULT

In agreement with the new plan of General Erich Von Manstein, really the “blow of scythe” was given by the Armies Group A of colonel general Von Rundstedt. Which was possessing as spear lance the Panzer Group of general Von Kleist. His five Panzer and five Motorized divisions, integrated in three Panzer Corps, were going to cross the Ardennes and to carry on a wide break in the French line around Sedan. Turning then rapidly towards the west and pressing finally on the flank and the rear of the Allied forces in Belgium. Which would find operationally isolated, with their line of communications, support of their logistics of supply, cut off.

The tactical enemy activity is inevitable. It will be permanent, harmful and even it will be unexpected and will partially affect us. But it will not be fundamental for our plans. Remember that we are looking for signs of our success, not those of the enemy. The best sign of maturity will be that it does not worry excessively to our tactical or operational commands. If this activity did not exist, it would be because the enemy was not there. To overcome and to get used to these tactical accessory crises and not be left to drag by them, harming our principal operation, is the touchstone of the serenity of the commands. Always we must bear in mind the possibility that the enemy appears tactically in «the moment and in the zone» more inconvenient and difficult for us. If it does it operatively it is that we have incurred a mistake of intelligence or of the valuation of the correlation of forces and of the enemy capacities or intentions.

Napoleon, without getting to exhaust the reserves, but without they were exceeding, attended to the different local tactical crises that appeared in Austerlitz’s battle. After the occupation of Pratzen’s heights by two infantry divisions of the Army Corp of marshal Soult. This sealed the destruction of the joint Russian Austrian army and his Austerlitz’s victory.

Resultado de imagen de Napoleon Austerlitz CREATED THE CONDITIONS FOR THE MILITARY DECISION: AUSTERLITZ.

Let’s see the process of development of the tactical containment of the Allied enemy. With the enemy forces concentration attacking the supposed tactical and operative (without protecting the line of retreat towards Vienna) Frenchmen deployment weakness. The grenadiers of Oudinot were sent from the Zurland hill to support the south flank, where the principal battle was getting away. Bernadotte advanced up to Blaswitz village, to cover the Soult’s north flank. The Murat’s cavalry reserve, in the Santon hill, the left flank (at north) of the French deployment, had to fight against Liechtenstein’s cavalry, to support the novices of Lannes’s Corp who were defending it. Kutusov managed to bring towards Pratzen part of the forces of his left wing (at south). And Soult, attacked by three sides, had to employ part of the general artillery reserve to contain the enemy with its wearing fire. Around 1 p. m. Constantine and the imperial Russian Guard counter-attacked the already tired Frenchmen in Pratzen. Their first line yielded. The cavalry of the French Imperial Guard, who had been advanced by Napoleon, supervised by marshal Béssiers and general Rapp, attacked the Russians and put them in escape. And Bernadotte, from Blauswitz, sent a division in support of the center of the punished French deployment.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

THE IDEOLOGIC AND STRATEGIC PREFERENCES OF THE JIHADISTS. 3rd PART.

(CONTINUATION)

And this is the gravity center of the fight against the solitary wolves. To preventive and isolately hunt them is very difficult, because they scarcely do not leave tracks. It is necessary to fight against the necessary instigators of their ideas (persons, companions, mass media of all kinds, trips to their foreign centers). For it, is necessary to adapt the legislations, as it has been done against the family mistreaters or the financial refined crimes, supported by the immediate communication and on line. Without harming with it the due detection and following-up by teachers, disciples, communications of all kinds and their holes.

And of this, as almost all, we have exceeded experience. In July, 1884, the liberal government of Sagasta, implanted the first Spanish law against the attacks with explosives, generally carried out by the anarchists. In her, his instigators were rightly punished; not only the material authors of the outrages, but also its inducers.

The ideologic Adaptation of the Jihad to the present times.

The Islam has to assume that the Jihad was necessary for the establishment and the defense of the believers’ primitive community. The Prophet establishing the Islamic state from the violent destruction of the jahiliyya (the existing barbarism previous to the Islam Arabic). And even the Jihad could be useful for its rapid extension through the world, according with the existing condition of culture and development of the medieval civilizations. But its historical opportunity does not exist nowadays and then it must be replaced by «another type of EFFORT in Allah’s way», the Great personal Jihad. Which concept already exists in the Sunna and that might be recaptured and proclaimed by the ulemas and the pious muftis, which are the ideologists of the real and everlasting Islam. And, certainly, those enjoy the most ample political, social and economic independence: they are respected and/or fearsome by the governments in their respective countries, and usually are those who administer the Zakat or the canonical alms.

Resultado de imagen de imam al-Shafi Islam doctor AL-SHAFII, LEADER OF ONE OF THE ISLAM’S IDEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS.

Since the emergence of 4 principal ideologic Sunnis schools, the principle of the personal reflection effort, the ichtihad, got power in the Islam. The ichtihad is going to allow the development of the Arabic culture, so much for the civil aspects (sciences, trade, literature, art), as for the enrichment of its ideology. It is the base of Islamic lawyers as al-Shafii. The ichtihad is a source of brilliancy, creativity, enrichment, progress and peace in the way of the personal and collective effort towards God (this is the nucleus and the reason of the Islam), when already the Umma has spread and multiplied enormously through the world.

Resultado de imagen de the great Jihad THE «GREAT OR INNER MOSLEM JIHAD»…

But, circa the XIth century (V century from the hégira or march to Medina), the doctors of the Law close the door to the ichtihad. The methodological Islamic approach alters: from then, it is imitating, repeating and abusing of the compendiums.

The Needs of Renovation, Commitment and Action in the Islam.

In the face of his own terrorism (war actions against general, innocent and indiscriminate targets), the Islamic world is paralyzed and do not knows what to say or do. The spokesmen and intellectual affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true. As we know by the facts and the omissions in its disapproval and ostracism. The majority of the Muslims take away from the attacks for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in Western countries. But, when do the ulemas or the muftís intervene in the polemic? Almost never…

Resultado de imagen de al-azhar university AL-AZHAR UNIVERSITY, CAIRO.

Never was carried out inside the Islam a deep reflection on the political and religious opportunity of the violence. Does someone know Islamic active pacifists? It is not the case that the intellectual laymen Moslem react. These are not operative in the way that we know in the West, since for a good Muslim the politics, the society and the religion form the only, exclusive and inseparable Trinity established by Allah. Besides, the social and political failure of the intellectual laymen Arabs remains tied with that of the nationalistic, leftist and Europeanized elite, that stimulated the independence of the different Arabic nations after the World War II. And that created lay, «socialist» regimes rested on the clientism and the internal repression and separated by his ideology and interests from his respective Moslem societies.

Resultado de imagen de al-azhar university AL-AZHAR’S RECTOR WITH TAWADROS II, THE 112th COPTIC PATRIARCH…

Some actions by the spiritual chiefs of the Islam are attainable and they would be estimated by all. The ulemas might declare that the interests of the Islam and of the Umma have Spain and the rest of Europa as good friends, as part of Dar el-Ahd. That are the countries where the Umma does not dominate politically, but that is in peace with his inhabitants and can realize his actions and rites. The ulemas might use the institution of the takfir against the most recalcitrant, dangerous and criminal terrorists. Those who act turned aside perversely (maliciously or after being reproached by those without results) In name of the Islam. And they have not done it historically for the paralysing fear to falling down in a destructive and solvent spiral of mutual and multiple reproaches within the Umma. Let’s remember that the monolithic religious unit does not exist in the Islam. In which the people, in addition, has free access to his «submission to Allah», with only reciting the Profession of Faith. That would be equivalent, in certain form and measure, to the Christian baptism.

THE END.

THE IDEOLOGIC AND STRATEGIC PREFERENCES OF THE JIHADISTS. 2ND. PART.

(continuation)

4) The Islamic terrorists are in many places deeply divided ideologically, institutionally and strategically. Though the rivals bands could occasionally offer between them support, refuge, information or supplies. The real reasons are that the chiefs of principal bands want to be always «emirs or sheikhs and interpreters of the Islam” in his place, his region, his province… The Gaza strip is dominated for years by Hamas, a radical fundamentalist Palestinian sunni group, in direct and violent rivalry with the Palestinian government of al-Fatah in the West Bank of the Jordan. In Gaza, two branches of al-Qaeda organizations, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam, both derisory groups, also violently face Hamas for increasing their influence on the inhabitants. The Pakistani Taliban, principally the group Tehkrit e-Taliban Pakistan and the independenct Cachemirs, realize from time to time attempts against the shii minority of the country. In Iraq, the ISIS uses to attack the shiis that come in peregrination from the country and Iran to the annual acts of this religion in his sacred places of Samarra, Nayaf and Kherbala. And the discrepancies and, still, the offenses between both branches of the Islam, have made come again the violent conflicts in Iraq. Where, already in 1919, Arnold Wilson, the civil British administrator in Baghdad, was declaring that «the union of the mentioned ex-Turkish provinces (Baghdad, Basora and Mosul) to form a nation, was a recipe for the disaster. Because it was implying that it would bind three ethnic-religious very different groups to work together, being known well that they mutually hate”.

Resultado de imagen de arnold wilson SIR ARNOLD WILSON.

5) And the Delirium Tremens of their ideological action. Some of the craziest Islamic guerrillas were the Algerians in the 90s. Without not being at least studious of the Islam and with very earthly interests, they were excommunicated (of the Umma) some groups to others. The takfir or anathema stems from kfur or ungodliness. This directly relates to the religious and moral chaos or jahiliyya, previous to the Islam in Arabia. For it, is declared impious someone who is or tries to be a Muslim. And is exiled, at least morally, of the Umma.

Resultado de imagen de GIA Algerian terrorists THE 7 BENEDICTINE MONKS BEHEADED BY ALGERIAN ISLAMIST TERRORISTS.

6) They have a great operational decentralization. They obtain this partly by the universality of the Umma. That comes out and overcomes the idea of nation or race. And gives them the «assabiya» or personal identity and groupal belonging, by means of a totalizator religion. But that also prevents them from obtaining strategic consistent aims. Though his punctual actions are important, odious, painful, fearsome. And they are so by the brutality, the abandonment, the mutilation and the blood effusion that their victims suffer. That assume and are afraid for all the persons that feel threatened (the impact is subjective). And not by the scantiest probability that exists of suffering them. This is pure terrorism for its intentions, means and implications.

His irregular effective and transcendent action might begin with mobile actions of general harassment in the enemy rear, using the bands sufficiently establised in a territory. Seeking for the wear and demoralization of the enemy forces, his whole dispersion looking for protection and to paralyze them in the more or less static defense of the threatened territory.

7) The strategic communications of the bands are precarious or absent, insufficient, careless and vulnerable within the jihadists groups. And everything is due to his constitution in spread, confused and diffuse networks, that characterizes them. And it is not a question of the messages or alerts, that always can be sent and received, with only tactical transcendency. And it is not a consequence of the alternation of the deployments and concentrations in the military actions.

Those communications are: With the bases, for his rest, refuge, reorganization, indoctrination, information, logistic support and the indispensable protection against the sterile and exhausting «wandering». With the related or associate bands, for the general support, the information and his operational concentration for the different tasks. With the people, for his rest, temporary refuge, support and different means, information and the ideological religious action, to facilitate the later necessary territorial and human extension.

8) One of his strategic aims is to strike any government, of any origin and society, so as which the «possible aims» are attainable to them. Since the expansionist and aggressive Caliphate of dar el-Islam of the beginnings of the sunni Caliphate, does not exist today and they can not integrate in it for its “defense”.

9) They have a deep-rooted, sharpened and consistent zeal to do advertising of his successful actions. With that the West collaborates insensitively and liking of extending and defending the free information. Achieving with all this the magnificence and exaltation of a painful and unconnected results. That offer to them a social and religious protagonism very superior to the operational transcendency of them. This is not any more than the extension of the terror and his political and ideological consequences. By means of the «waves of commotion» that transmit without filter our modern communications to all the peoples, specially to us the Europeans.

Resultado de imagen de jihad propaganda THE JIHAD PROPAGANDA IN EUROPE…

10) But, all the positions and the psychological and ideological attitudes are also objectives to defend and to conquer by West, in this low intensity warfare for the expanse of a radical, out-of-date, exclusive and imposed dominion.

Than all this can be got is demonstrated by the actual precariousness and going back of the ISSI.

Resultado de imagen de ISIS IS MOVING BACK PENTAGON IS FORCING ISIS TO MOVE BACK IN SYRIA…

In Irak, its militar and social situation is of clear moving back up to Mosul. Wich is very difficult to liberate. Because it will be an urban fighting against a prepared, fortified and in deep defense manned by motivated and decided irregular fighters.

Resultado de imagen de ISIS IS MOVING BACK BOMBERS’ ATTACKS OVER ISIS POSITIONS.

Keeping a similar strategy in Syria and Iraq by the ISSI for the creation of his radical salifist independent caliphate has several important mistakes. One is to simultaneously fight in two countries with different strategic approaching. Other is to divide their meagres really trained operational forces in two fronts. In Syria, the valid strategic for the heterogeneous, multiple and divided opposition to al-Assad, is to support, at least, the unit in the military strategy. This way, all the military efforts could converge in different, simultaneous or successive, objectives, that decides a military high command, respected by all the present and active groups in Syria. Already we have seen how al-Assad amounts means and efforts to his cause. These are the trained “militias” of Hezbola; the Brigades al-Quds (Jerusalem) of the Republican Guard (Pasdaran) of Iran, under the command of the general Qassem Suleimani; the Russian Naval and Air Forces and her ground units of defense the installations; armament, equipments and ammunitions reinstatement; political diplomatic support from Iraq, Iran and Russia. This is allowing him to beat in diverse combats the opposition groups and to expel them from positions that were occupying, some during enough time. Not observance of this strategy, of pure survival, would lead the opposition to his progressive destruction by the SNA.

Resultado de imagen DIVISION GENERAL QASSEM SULEIMANI.

The «solitary wolves» and the freedom of unlimited expression in West.

The solitary wolves suicidal terrorists arise for the conjunction of several deficiencies, miseries and human ideologies. Almost all they are young persons full of idealism (sacrifice for his familiar and social group and searching of a promising future) and of vital interests, which are in full boiling of fulfillments. His social and cultural situation is usually deficient and vague. They suffer a real and/or praised by the imagination marginalization. Almost all of us, position to it, can use a heap of insufficiencies or personal and collective, psychological and material, not solve lacks. And, since the others do not solve us, to say that we are excluded from the society, is a cozy flight from the reality. And an intimate and real doubting of our own capacities (this, they will never accept it), to blame the others for our misfortunes.

In addition, the search for the lacks would always lead us to be bogged down in yearning and obtaining the omnipresent and inextinguishable «desires». And this «negative search» can prevent us from to do the utmost in going out forward, having attainable and progressive goals, to interiorly and externally develop as persons and to estimate the “neighbors” with loyalty and confidence. With what we will overcome those «lacks», with the orientation, the intention and the effort that we give to our ideas and accomplishments.

Resultado de imagen de solitary terrorists A KNOWN BRITISH INSTIGATOR OF THE LONE ATTACKS

In that germinal and manure land can easily sow the slanted ideas of a religious attainable, vindictive interpretation, that offers a purpose and a Mission in the life. And that rewards his «mujahidins» fallen in combat, specially the martyrs or witnesses, with a sensitive, clear, sure, showy (this quality of pure vanity is very attractive) and comfortable (it is not necessary to dedicate to it a life of effort, selflessness and renunciation) prize. The jihadists organizations usually facilitate substantial prizes to the families of his «martyrs». With what these also have insured the relative well-being of their most direct family in enough time. The result is that the «losers», «rooted out», «offended», «without empathy towards the neighbor», do not find it hard to take the decision to turn into a martyr of the Jihad. And the case is that the spreading, the explanation and the impregnation, which Lorenz would say, of those poisonous and addictive ideas, are realized with the major facility in our modern societies.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

THE IDEOLOGIC AND STRATEGIC PREFERENCES OF THE JIHADISTS.

The radical fundamentalist Islamic insurgents or jihadistas devoted themselves between the 60s and 80s to attack those that they were qualifying as corrupt and false or socialist or westernized and liberal «Moslem governments». Their fortune was small for all their commited effort. On one hand, the retreat of the Soviets of Afghanistan. But, possessing the logistic western support and the indispensable military action of pashtuns groups and other Afghans etnias, commanded by the regional «lords of the war». That is to say, the out-standing and charismatic maliks of the clans and regional tribes. Between them the most famous was Ahmad Sah Masud, the Lion of the valley of the Panjshir. And, for other one, they got the capture of the power in Sudan, inspired by al-Turabi, a «spider captain», having managed to get strong in its Army. This is still the only case in the sunni world. The propaganda was not appearing between his priorities and the informative fingerprint that they left in the western world was wretched. Few found out that they existed and of those are more less who remember their wanderings of then. From the 90, the jihadist aim turns against the unfaithful West. Considering the Great Satan personified in the United States of North America and his democratic western coreligionists, as the first agitators and corrupters of the Islamic peoples.

The Jihad allowed the rapid spread of the Islam.

The Jihad, expressed in the precise concept that we all understand, is not gathered in the Koran. Nevertheless, though there appear in the Koran approximately 8 «pacifists» verses, exist near 100 aleyas or verses which encourages the Muslims to the defense of the community or Umma, to the fight against the unfaithful people and to the armed spread of the Islam. Established the main lines, rapidly the political chiefs of the Umma, including the Prophet, threw hand of the instrument that so clearly was offering them and that they needed in a “struggle of life or death”.

At the beginning of the Islam, when was reigning the “jahiliyya” (definition of the barbarism previous to it) in the Arabs, the Jihad was indispensable and inevitable for the defense of the new religion. That was arising in the middle of a “stormy sea” of pagan and idolatrous and more or less nomadic tribes and clans, which were populating Arabia. It had not even begun the first expansion of the Islam to the whole Arabic world, and the Muslims groups could be easily eliminated by their enemies. And any radical change, even only new, finds always an initial rejection. Which originates in the conservative «ideological and tradition inertia», which always exists in the society where it appears.

Resultado de imagen de THE FOUR RASHIDUN THE 4 RIGHTLY GUIDED (BY ALLAH) CALIPHS (THE RASHIDUN)…

Three were the reasons that stimulated the Arabic tribes to starting a way of conquest of the wide and distant peoples and lands, strangers to the Arabic Peninsula. The first one was the religious reason. As in any religious primitive community, the Umma was the center of the Allah’s mandates and benedictions. And so, being lived collectivly and keenly, the fulfillment of a monotheistic and simple doctrine. This religion was demanding, in addition, an active and coercive, constant and expansive proselytism, directed to the unfaithful persons and the frontier hostiles. The obligation of the Jihad was similar to other “five basic rules or pillars of the Islam”. The Koran given to Mohammed in the birth of the Islam, has numerous verses or aleyas that demand the armed fight to the faithfuls ones.

Resultado de imagen de muslim conquest in the middle ages

In the side of the mundane interests, the extension of the Arabic conquests, in his uncontrollable advance during more than one century, brought the control over the goods and households of the new and numerous subjects and the political and military power on them. The Moslem domain was established by the presence of a governor with his military garrison, in every conquered important city or region. The relation of the new subjects with the Islamic regime was establishing and regulating by the payment to the governor of the periodic taxes. Owed to the imposed subjection and for practising, by the moment, a different religion. This flow of important and constant money began to come to the conquerors, who established diverse intelligent enough mechanisms for his distribution. The third reason, attainable to the nobles, chiefs and more out-standing Muslims, was the distribution of the quotas of power.That were generating the domain, the defense and the governance of the new territories of al-Islam. That are the lands of the domain of the Islam, the lands given by Allah to his faithfuls, the lands that they must keep or recover, if they are temporarily snatched. This way, the emirs, sheikhs and caids were proliferating, occupying and shaping the political Arabic structure of the islamized territories.

Resultado de imagen de muslim conquest in the middle ages VISIGOTHIC SPAIN WAS CONQUERED IN A FEW YEARS, BY FEW MEN AND WITHOUT MARTYRS… PROBABLY WITH THE HELP OF THE POWERFUL HISPANIC ARRIANS…

The Arabic original tribes of the Islam were receiving a part of the taxes and of the plunders of the conquest, though they were not taking part in any military expeditions. Another part was given to the participants in the Jihad against some bordering people or region with the caliphate. An important part belonged to the authorities of the Umma, centred on the caliphate of Damascus or of Baghdad, and regionally represented by his emirs or caides, to support the expenses of the governing and the maintenance of the theocratic State. From the later was stemming a part destined to pay, equip and forming up the new Jihads, towards the frontier territories of dar al-Islam, that were appearing. Finally, there was the Zakat or the canonical alms, given to the ulemas and muftis. That had as purpose to solve and compensate the Muslims for the punishment and the randoms of the life, with the contribution of their community. And that was distributed to the poor, the disabled and the patients, the orphans and the widows of the Umma. This was closing the process of distribution of the wealth and the power. That was mundanely welding and assuring the religious aspirations of the believers of the new faith.

Strategic contradictions of the jihadists in the irregular war.

The principal characteristics of the irregular war are his prolongation in time, consequence of his low military intensity, and that is civil and political. What imply a great social tear and inevitable acts of great cruelty. By the «ascent to the extremes» of the war, which Clausewitz was saying, without the safeguards of the laws and accepted customs, that get lost in this «born within itself chaos».

To reach the power or his strategic aims, the guerrilla has three aims in his total strategy: the military annihilation of the enemy, who can be simply appearing his disability to solve the problem of the bands in an acceptable time for the popular enemy rear; the destruction of the military and economic infrastructure that supports it and the capture of the people or of his religious, ethnic and/or social base to his ideas. In this dialectics of wills, ideologies and efforts the strategic aspects of the irregular bands of any ideology are three: the guerrilla bases, his forces correlation with the regular enemy and the communications in general.

The deficiencies and miseries of the jihadists, in relation with the strategy and the operative strategy are:

1) The jihadists have failed in actively and firmly joining to a social large group, which gives cover and permanent impulse to their «imperialistic social religious movement». The most mentally ill activists are slowly isolating themselves (at least, emotional and ideologically) of the society in which «they live». And they do it in altars of his violent methods, to which they sacrifice everything for obtaining the efficiency in the action. They continue to be prepared a process of segregation, purification (in his unexpected not orthodox rites fast, use water from sacred places and green, yellow or black banderoles with inscriptions of the aleyas that favor them), consecration and radicalization. This «catechizing of the violence» allows them to mentally come to the glorious and in peace death, and, even to the suicide, in the accomplishment of his punctual actions.

 2) The jihadists groups act with an unnecessary and indiscriminate brutality, which discredits them before his religion and unquestionably separates them of the pure Muslims and, still, of the normal ones. Let’s see some aleyas or verses from the Koran:

Sura (chapter), 4 aleya 33 «… Oh, believers … do not kill yourself (do not kill between you, is another description) …».

2, 10 » When it is said to them: do not commit disorders (voice that defined the crimes) in the Earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in it the good order (the Good)».

2, 11 «Alas!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it».

28, 77 «As Allah makes the Good, also make you the good and do not foment the corruption (the Evil)» (murder of innocent and of peoples that receive you -the lands of dar-el-Ahd-, drunkenness, drugs, unnecessary damages of the things).

They despise and not comply with these moral aleyas, without Allah had changed them for they. Sura 2, aleya 100 «We do not abrogate any verse of this Book, nor we will make erase any one of your memory, without replacing it by other one equal or better».

3) The absolute absence of venerable and pious ulemas and muftis in their side.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

 

THE NATIONAL STRATEGY OF RUSSIA.

The first national foreign aim of Russian is to promote the «multipolarity in the world structure» of the great powers and his allies. Looking that does not exist a world hegemonic power as the USA, which hinders her in the extension of her influence and power from his «Euro-Asian center». For it, she will create alliances and will establish agreements and treaties with third parties in detriment or in substitution of that hegemonic power. And she will be a «intransigent obstructionist actor» in all the actions that this unilaterally promotes in the international forums (UNO, Atomic International Energy Agency).

 NOTHING CALMING…

Another great strategic preference of Moscow is to extend his influence and to enlarge the economic and diplomatic bonds with the nations in development, specially those who have «natural resources and primary crops», that are necessary for the manufacturing production, the feeding and the general development of the nations. She has taken them and will take them even far, beyond of her geographical borders of political influence or military strategic.

The loss of her «controlled allies» in the Warsaw Pact and the COMECON, after the cold war, only leave Russia to geographically look for «new influences» towards the Central Asia, from Syria to the India and Vietnam. Turkey is a proverbial enemy of the Russians. In Afghanistan they could never have situated. Which is social political constant for other powers that have tried it in other moments. Also the Russians try to win and to keep in his «political and commercial sphere» the new Central Asiatic Islamic Turkoman republics and to the ex-Soviets Slavonic republics, these with almost none possibilities.

In the Turkestán Oriental, one finds a rosary of former Soviet socialist republics of approximately 2 thousand Kms of length, which reaches up to the oriental shore of the Caspian Sea. They are, from east to west, Kazajistan, Kirguistan, Tadzikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. That form a set of several ethnics, gathered in the names of them, but simultaneously extended over several countries. That are of Turkoman origin, from the central steppes of Asia, and agglutinated also by their belonging to the sunni Islam. These Turkoman Muslims are potentials allieds of Russia, in all that this puts a bit of dedication and neatness to attract and to attend them. And, till now, the Customs Union created by Russia includes only the White Russia or Byelorussia and Kazajistan. In addition, Russia has signed military agreements with Byelorussia, Armenia, Kazajistan, Kirguistan and Tajikistan. Established in the frame of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). And that guarantee to these countries at the East of Europe and in the Central Asia a defense against external or internal aggressions. And they offer to Russia an extension of her international influence.

PRESIDENTS OF RUSSIA, BIELORRUSIA, KAZAJISTAN, KIRGUISTAN, UZBEKISTAN, ARMENIA AND TAJIKISTAN ASSEMBLED FOR ANTITERRORIST COOPERATION .

If Russia thinks that there are at stake her national interests or her national pride, it proves to be stuck-up and deigns and, even, aggressive. One of the neurotic tics of the exterior politics of Moscow is the dismemberment of the Soviet empire 25 years ago. That many attribute, not to her implosion, for lack of resources and economic expired structures, and of social motivation. But to international abuses, which benefited of her relating to the moment weakness.

When the Russians meet strategic international problems, they demonstrate more freedom of action, initiative, creativity and flexibility in his offers and actions. Russia uses the whole set of means and capacities of a modern State to go forward, to tease, to complicate and to deactivate the actions and the resources used by the West. This way, Russia uses the propaganda of State, employing: a great profusion of audio-visual communications, which we do not know in Spain; immediate refutations of the rivals’ arguments; employment of credible arguments to deny her relation with the observable facts; sending of humanitarian help in great and showy caravans to the zones in conflict. The diplomacy, where there faces John Kerry, a provisional struck politician, with Serguei Lavrov’s extensive career, and keeping meetings and visits with western chief executive agents and of the regional involved countries; doing declarations and agreements, which ended suspended, protested or broken; realizing attempts of bribe to European politicians of second level. The economy, as in the cases of China and of Spanish America. And answering to the western sanctions for her militar actions in Ukraine with measured suspensions and charges of her European imports, which are afraid by the Europe of the merchants. Military, sending: «paramilitary voluntary» forces; regular forces and military modern equipments, sometimes accompanied by the experts in their using or for their training; delivering weapon and military material to hier sponsored; and realizing «diffuse violations» of the air space of the countries at the west of her European border, more concretely in the Baltic sea and his coastal countries.

KERRY AND LAVROV.

Not they all are goodness and advantages in a super presidential regime. The concentrated and decisive power has to be administered in small doses, not to abuse, neither to damage, nor to fall down in the temptation of looking for his indefinite continuity. The despotism (that arises from the rotten conviction of the commands that «they» have «saved» a «his» mother land), the corruption and the clientelism, spread over the power circles and his boundaries, become manifest and customary in the society. The political and ideological opposition, with his critiques, parliamentary actions and street protests, can become almost unbearable. For whom are centered in planning, deciding and executing in altars of the people, but not with the people. The jail and the properties confiscation are reprisals used in all the times, which its origin gets lost in the night of the times, in the prehistory. Used against the dissidents, uncontrollable and disobedient and for all the potential (imagined or not) and real enemies of the regime.

In her relations with the West, Russia distinguishes two great «geopolitical spaces»: the USA and the European Union. The USA is the great rival, but not yet enemy. With that she tries to compete and whom she tries to erode in all the occasions to which she can reach. Russia follows the politic strategic theory of the multipolar world. That would possess several great «radiant centers» of influence and control. Where there would no be hegemonic global powers, which they could control and/or dominate more or less, according to their interests. This global strategy is well see by all the continental and, yet, regional powers, that possess sufficient capacities and international aspirations of projection and ascendancy.

Before the united Europe, Russia is seen herself as an equal. The first one exceeds her in demography and in economic capacity. And Russia has to her favor an AAFF, even the Branch of Strategic Missiles, sufficient and with only one Command. That are supported by her economy and diplomacy. Since she possesses a political, enough monolithic or integrated leadership. That, before a confrontation or an arisen opportunity, can operate with more major forcefulness and rapidity that the endogamic and paralyzed bureaucracy of the Union Europe. And opposite to the great geopolitical region of the Eastern Europe, formed by her former allied in the Warsaw Pact and the Comecom (the former economic communist union based in the specialization in national activities), has to act with a strategy of successive actions or of the artichoke. Because an excess of «pressure» over them, only would achieve that they agglutinate between them more; and link themselves more economic and militarily to the western nations…

But, also Russia uses the more or less veiled interference in the internal matters of her rivals. Seeking to create social problems and centrifugal trends, still heart-breaking, in their social fabric. Taking advantage for it of the freedom of expression, which is one of the values of the western civilization. This way, Russia acts against Europe supporting the most promising solvent movements. Some are populist and antisystem, which operate against the shared values and beliefs, which shape and form the western civilization. Others are nationalists and sovereignists, that fight against Europa’s multinational integration and his construction. This way, in Germany Police has materialized an «alliance» between the Youths of the Party Alternative for Germany (AfD) with the Young Guard of Russia. The man of connection between Moscow and the AfD is his vice-president, Alexander Garland. That re-joins regularly with Alexander Dugin, a man with the confidence of Putin. And the members and Euro MPs of the AfD support the movement of British euroexceptics and hinder the approval of the measures for the European construction in the Eurochamber of Brussels.

The political military extern action.

The operational strategy of Russia consists in acting by means of «emphasized» allies in a given geopolitical theatre. This way, she regionally uses these «interposed actors», more or less strong, independent and «sovereign». In order that they give her in the intervention in the conflict, (that her is seemingly foreign, as Russia is a middle-high continental power), a stamp of international category and legality and of reliability and seriousness before the international community, specially with the not western countries.

Also Moscow acts in the «diffuse external limits» of his former «imperial living space». She does it «supporting», with a great range of possibilities, almost made-to-measure, at different Russian or Christian communities, which are «separated» from the mother land. This way, there are some republics or «ethnic communities», apart from the two that we will mention in the case of Georgia, which receive the opportune help of Russia. They are the Transnistria, of etnia Russian, placed at the East of Moldavia, which is of Rumanian population, and Nagorno Karabaj, where live the karabajos Armenians, that is in the center of Azerbaijan, which is of sunni religion. Azerbaijan is frontier with Russia and with Turkey and receives the support of the last one.

Georgia:

In 2008, in her asymmetric and overwhelming war against Georgia, Russia was served by the «independentof South Osetia and Abjasia (embraced at the North-East of the Black Sea), two «rebels» Georgian provinces. The pretext was to come to the defense of these nations, which had many Russian habitants, to defend them from the Georgian «arbitrarinesses and assaults». Already existed since years «Russian forces of pacification» in Ossetia of the South, which immediately took sides with the independents.

GEORGIAN TROOPS BAIL OUT A VEHICLE AT OUTSKIRTS OF GORI

Ukraine:

Following his direct, imperious and operating manners, in the middle of December, 2013, Putin threw a strong bet to Ukraine. In order that she was happening to form part of the Russian «sphere of coprosperity«: Putin offered her to lower 33 % the price of transfer of the Russian gas, of which Ukraine is recipient and reseller. And, to save her from the financial bankruptcy and she did not have to be thrown for it in hands of the Community Troika, he would yield her until $15 billions in beneficial credits. But, in Ukraine the social politics problems arisen have led to a strong polarization of the country, being formed two almost antagonistic halves. Where the part al the west of Crimea, wants to move away from Moscow and the half at the east of this peninsula, seeks to increase the bonds with Russia. Ukraine is for history and demography part of the Europe limited at the east part by the Urals. And Ukraine is by political opportunity and historical moment, part of the democratic and liberal western center Europe. That forms together with the United States, which operates as another fundamental «vibrant pole» at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the «Western Civilization «.

For Russia, Ukraine is something more than a strategic ally. Ukraine is a part of the national Russian essence. In Ukraine was born many hundreds years ago, the strong and promising germ of the Russian nation, the Rus. And Russia has bet high. Trying to return for his rights, traditions and influences. Or she will have to accept with turning into a «national state«, without «coprosperity sphere» dependent, participative and profitable for all. So, a «regional or second-class power», as named her the president Obama at the beginnings of this crisis.

From the spring of 2014, the opposition armed in the Novarussia (this way, the prorussians separatists autoname his territory in the basin of the Donbass and adjacent zones) is supported by the Russians. That openly send military equipments (intermingled sometimes with convoy of humanitarian help for the civil population of the region); groups of internationalists «volunteers»: Cossaks, Russians, even prorussians veteran Chechenians; specialists (engineers, gunners, instructors, servants of short range missils and of anti-aircraft weapons, elite forces) for the high level military tasks. And pressing the central Ukrainians in the common border with movements and parkings of her motorized troops, at the west of Rostov on the Don. It deserves indicating that Novarussia’s republic is not internationally recognized.

The «national rebels» and the central government of Kiev, with the president Petró Poroshenko at head, have followed till now an operational strategy of give and take, of the strategic «cachumbambe«. Where everything is enough measured and reasonably controlled. To be advancing each part by short and few steps. Without the beast of the open warfare between nations and alliances irreversibly runs away. And so we are and will continue for long time. This way, the points of the Agreements of Minsk are dissolved and in «stand by» or in neutralized wait. Looking that do not break them, for the continuous small violations of the truce agreed by the parts.

POROSHENKO AND PUTIN…

A great problem appears now, not only to Ukraine, but to his neighbors at the east and west parts. And it is to obtain that the today antagonists and irreconcilable forces, that face in Ukraine, crushing his mother land, turn into complementary and necessary forces between them. And it is a great joint, disinterested labor, with height sights and directed by statesmen, which is necessary to develop to obtain it. In the case of not be obtaining this «merger of interests», the alternative would be bad for all, nationals and nearby and distant neighbors. And the wound only would be falsely closed and for an unforseeable time.

Syria:

From the beginnings of July, 2015, the Russians have been increasing his military direct presence in Syria. His armed forces have established themselves principally in the Latakia, covering Tarsus’s surroundings, his only naval base in the Mediterranean and his military airport. They include fighter-bombers, assault and carrier and rescue helicopters (with a centener of machines always operational), not driven aircraft of reconnaissance and bombardment and the corresponding ground units of support and of security. And now, from the ends of September, they are bombarding the positions of the armed rebels to the regime of al-Assad, at Alepo’s southwest; in the Latakia; near to Hama, Homs and Damascus, in the basin of the Orontes; in Idlib’s province and in the Turkoman zone close to the border; in Raqqa and other positions of the IS, in the North-East of the country and in the great desert of Syria. Recovering Palmira at the end of March, 2016, which fell down in May, 2015 in hands of the Daesh or ISSI. A spokesperson of the Russian Defense Department declared that «they would not operate there indefinitely» and that they were calculating that they would need «approximately 100 days» of air assaults. These days have doubled, up to almost the spring of 2015, before Putin was initiating a partial and sufficient withdraw of his military means. The Kurdish peshmerrgas of the YPG, the national allies of the USA, deployed by the whole center oriental border with Turkey, have not been bothered by the Russians. Between those who have suffered his unexpected assaults are the irregular forces of the Front al-Nusrah for the Liberation of the Peoples of the East, the national subsidiary of al-Qaeda. So dangerous and ideologically radical as the muyahidines of the Islamic State, but less cruel and less capable militarily.

To the reproaches of some western countries against this intervention, Putin and Lavrov argued that the «multinational Coalition of the 60 allies» was coming bombarding the salafists jihadists from September, 2014, without having for it a mandate of the UNO. Sure that Obama’s coalition was attacking in Iraq, with the theoretic and «previous daily permission» of the Iraqi government. In fact, the general of four stars James Terry, who is the chief of the American forces in Iraq from November, 2014, acts as an undeserved speaker for his high graduation, with the government and the discredited armed forces and Iraqi militias. But the assaults on Syria of the allies were not possessing the consent of his regime. And were going operationally supporting the peshmergas and debilitating the ISSI. Let’s emphasize that the Russians, as the mentioned leaders have justified themselves, «are very polite and are operating in Syria for invitation of his government».

It is of remembering that Syria was during decades the allied one in the Middle East of the USSR, and today, of Russia. And that Syria was considered also during decades a terrorist antiwestern state. Of the style of North Korea. That literally flooded the whole geopolitical Islamic region with the assault rifles AK and the grenade-launchers of hollow load RPG, for the guerrilla groups of “popular liberation”.

FRIENDS FOR EVER…

Russia wants to recover her international protagonism and respect. In spite of her diminished demographic, economic and structural capacities. And her loss of prestige democratic and politic, gained with the conflict of Crimea and Ukraine. But, with the military intervention in Syria, Putin attacks the root of the problem of the “fled Syrians”: that is the pressure of a cruel and long civil war on them. And it allows him to calm the Europeans with the short-term containment of the massive and constant invasion of those. Looking for an attenuation of the economic sanctions of the European Union to the government of Putin for his shameless actions in Ukraine.

Russia also supports and gives a strong accolade to the Syrian regime with her intervention. After 5 years of war, the National Syrian Army is exhausted and weaked by a bleeding of more than 70 thousand dead men, suffering continuous desertions towards the different rebels groups (from the Free Syrian Army to the jihadists groups) and having great difficulties to mobilize recruits. The soldiers at arms in April, 2011, if still are suitable, have not been licensed of the service. The militias sent by Hezbola’s shiis in 2014 to support them have not been sufficient to change the course of the war against al-Assad. The government already did not have enough men to realize counterinsurgency effective operations, against the armed rebels. Who were harassing him from numerous and divided «attack strips» through the whole Syrian geography. Especially, he lacks the «specialists» and means of the artillery and of the ground assault aviation.

Obama said: «the moral leadership is a weapon much more powerful than the brute force». This is true, when the concerned speakers possess and exhibit the same civil virtues that a democrat. But, when it is a question of beasts, of selfish, of madmen, of unscrupulous opportunists, of peoples that still perceive the force as the instrument of the strongest, this is not useful. It does not matter in the social level in which they are. The leadership is to convince, to direct with the example, to attract the persons towards oneself, for pure pleasure, affinity or mission. To realize a joint labor in benefit of the social group to which one belongs.

And this social role is left out by Obama in Syria. And also some time ago that he ignores, for carelessness or disability and lack of conscience of his identity, the European Union. The one that is not waited in “these fights and by these homes”. But, the political thing, the res politica, has horror and abominates of the «emptinesses», of the «absences». And, this way, he has been attracted by the suction of both, the opportunist of Putin, anxious to lead another more international episode. For that his people, from the first of 2014, proudly endorses him. To compensate his impoverished national revenue and his diminishing demography, Putin gives them international protagonism and national pride.

On March 14, Putin began to dismantle his military deployment in Syria. But left it sufficiently capable, in order that the NSA could expel from Palmira, a few days later, the guerrillas of the ISSI. Possessing the support of the Russians elite infantry forces and heavy air fire for his ground motorized forces. With it, Putin partly removes himself of the peace conversations of Geneva for Syria. And stays, as the only speaker with the not miscible and schizophrenic miscellany of the rebels, the regime of al-Assad. Because, if not, with whom are the jihadists and the National Council of Syria going to negotiate? In this absurd mixture are, between others, the Army of the Conquest, the Muyahidines of Syria, the Army of the Islam, the local Kurds, the Islamist Front anti al-Qaeda and local groups of «partners» to someone. Only in Idbil’s province, at the North-East of the country, in the border with Turkey, there existed more than 100 «different» rebel «groups». And Putin saves himself to return, if he considers necessarily. As he only withdrew around a third of his air operational forces. And he goes forward the movements of the Coalition, which still has not put foot in land. Though Arabia and Qatar offered in February to send ground troops to the conflict. But, how were they going to coordinate and operate in a «polyhostile» territory and without authorization of his government?

Russia uses the Economy as one of the means of her National Strategy.

Using the economy, one of the forces of the national strategy or great strategy of a country, helped by the diplomacy, other one of the potentials of her, Russia seeks to create with the emergent countries «cores of action and shared prosperity». Those Initiated or cultivated in a world that Russia wishes that would be «multipolarized» in diverse «cores and centers of geopolitical power». That they necessarily reduce this way, for their mere existence, the great western powers, today «dependents of the world trade».

The relations with communist China:

China is for Russia a partner, competitor and rival, if serves this polyvalent definition, which does that none of the expressions used is in fullness. Both are «emergent powers», according to the new nomenclature. Determined in growing, in not be directly damaging for the moment and in eroding the hegemonic power and his Europeans allied. This way, the Chinese would not act directly, not by third interposed countries, in Syria or in Iraq, in the boiling cauldron of the Asia of the Southwest: scene of the global contest that sunnis and shiites develop for the control and the supremacy in the Islam.

But they will do it collaborating uo to a point with the interests and the diplomatic propositions of the Russians. Reinforcing this way a political common position of counterweight and neutralization of the influence of West in the zone. And in exchange for a certain Russian reciprocity in favour of the Chinese interests, in other countries in which do not collide the national influences of both.

PUTIN AND XI JIPING, AFTER SIGNED THE GAS AGREEMENT

With his habitual opportunity and operational agility, Putin signed with the president Xi Jinping on Wednesday, the 21st of May, 2014 a strategic contract (30 years of validity) to supply to China around 38 billions of ms3 of Russian gas every year. Certain it is that the negotiations of this transcendental contract have extended during a decade, but the opportunity of his signature for both partners is undeniable. Russia has determined his signature lowering a little the price of transfer, which has not leaked out, and that was the principal obstacle for the agreement between Russian State entity Gazprom and the National Corporation of the Oil of China. There will be begun immediately the installation of a new gas pipeline between Siberia and China, which will cost 55 $ billion and that will be operational in 4 years. China obtains this way a stable supply of part of his energetic primary needs (about 25 %), which will allow him to be reducing his strategic dependence of his national coal. Whose combustion is the principal generating factor of the massive pollution that suffer nowadays the great cities and the industrialized coast of China. It is calculated, according to the official estimations, that China will need 400 billions of ms3 of gas by the year 2020, doubling the current consumption of gas. Which opens the possibility for new extensions of the Russian supply In the frame of this agreement. By his part, looking for alternative markets for his primary energy, Putin reduces transcendency and efficiency with this commercial operation, to the babbling actions of the European Union. For replace part of the supply of the Russian gas, using other hypothetical suppliers of allende the seas. And, in addition, any strangulation of the current service by his buyers, will force the EU to increase his help to Ukraine, to compensate his «reduced income» for the passage of the gas by his territory.

This agreement of energetic supply between Russia and China untied on Thursday, the 21st of May of this year the fears of the European Union and stood out his disability of joint and efficient reaction. The president of the European Commission, Jose Manuel Durao Barroso, sent a letter to Vladimir Putin, demanding from the Russian president that ihe fulfills his commitments and assures «the supply to the European companies in the decided level». Barroso received the order from the European chiefs of Government of answering in their name to Putin. In spite of that this had gone directly to several members states, to indicate them the problem that they would untie with the establishment of economic sanctions to Russia. «I write you in name of the European Union and his 28 States members«, Durao Barroso headed his letter. «I ask you for a constructive approach» to the created situation. And it was useful to indicate him that the fact that Gazprom should assure «a responsible supply» goes «in interest of all», included Russia. In a conference that took place the same day in Poland, the president of the Commission (The Concil of European Commissioners or Secretaries) he said that Moscow exports 80% of his oil and 70% of his gas to the EU. And that «is by far the most attractive market for Russia».

THE FIGHTING AGAINST THE ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAK AND SYRIA III.

(CONTINUATION)

Between the minor international branches of the salafist jihadist terror, that also have recognized the supreme authority of al-Baghdadi, emphasize the al-Shabab Somali militias. This is an excretion of the extinct Union of the Islamic Courts, which spreads over the south and east of the country. Al-Shabab follows a strategy of generalized terror, that resembles that practiced by Boko Haram against the black Christians of the fulani and yoruba etnias in the provinces of the North-East of Nigeria, where he has the bases. From time to time and with increasingly sickening efficiency, the al-Shabab bands penetrate into the neighboring Kenya, even they have come up to Uganda, looking for Christians «hunting trophies». And this in spite of the USA commands assaults with limited aims, directed by his regional command for Africa (Africom), which has forces in Uganda. And of the presence in Somalia of an important African pacification military force, that forms the Mission of the African Union in Somalia (Amisom), principally integrated by Ethiopians and Kenyans troops.

The Evolution of the Conflict.

After the retreat of the DAESH of Kobane, the jihadists have again begun to  kidnap Christians in Hasaka’s Syrian province, in the Jabur valley, a tributary of the high Euphrates. The attrition air raids over opportunity targets or locally supporting and with different fortune, the Syrian or Iraqi peshmergas, as in Tikrit, the Sinyar mount, Kobane or Mosul, and the successes achieved by these, based on time, enormous caution and great effort, finally have done notch in the military capacities of the ISSIL. That now seek to reinforce against the bombardments and the ground attacks and to renew his varied financing sources. In these moments, the influence zones of the Syrian jihadists are in the basin of the Euphrates and in the mountains of the north of Syria. And they try to create them in the Orontes wide basin, with incursions in the Latakia.

The Christians captured as sheep, have in the hands of the ISSIL two hard and exchangeable destinations: to serve as hostages, looking for the rescue price, preferably paid by international organizations or to be used as human shields of the positions, fortifications, formation and training centers, mosques and marching columns of the jihadists against the aircrafts of 60 Allied nations of the Americans against the DAESH. This is the acronym of his name «al-Dawla al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham «, that use the majority of the Arabic countries to refer to the salafist jihadist group that operates in Iraq and Syria. And whose use allows not to call them State in the European languages.

Around the Jabur and up to the population of Qamishli, in the mountains of the Syrian Kurdistan, the jihadists are gathering hundreds of Christians, clustered by families and neighbors. To serve to his harmful and genocidal aims. Father Yatroun Colliana, from The Lebanon, has denounced, how not, in Naharnet’s local newscast, the passiveness of International Community, that limits herself to silently look in the face of the violations to the local Christian community. Finally, we will indicate that are the Arabic local chiefs, the negotiating intermediaries with the humanitarian organizations, the Christian Assyrians, the Kurdish peshmergas and the local self-defense militias, which are like policemen, only capable for labors of vigilance, parade and demonstration.

And now, in the middle of March, the Pope Francisco has not could less that to support the use of the civilized military force against these dressed in black vermin, which offend even their own religion. We will indicate, also, that, in the last months, several dozens of American former military men and civilians have gone to Iraq or to Syria, to help the Kurdish or Christian minorities chased by the ISSIL. Concretely, between December and February a small group of former soldiers trained a «battalion» of Christian Assyrians at the west of the Iraqi Kurdistan. They were approximately 300 civilians, who were joining the Christian self-defense of the territory forces and who received a basic formation in techniques and military tactics. Four voluntary American «advisers» already returned to home, as reports 35-year-old Matthew VanDyke. «We are where the governments fail. We need neither possess the vote of the Congress, nor to surrender to his limitations. And we can work very rapidly», concludes him.

At the beginning of June, 2014, the ISSIL threw a strategic offensive in Iraq, destined to consolidate his dispersed Iraqi enclaves (al-Ramadi, Faluyah, etc.) of the northern and center provinces in an only and extensive territorial unit. After assaulting Samarra, burst into Mosul and threw an «area action» in the provinces of Saladin and Diyala, in which the terrorists also appealed to their «sworn suicides». The assault of the ISSIL to Mosul added to the successively happened in several populations of Nineveh’s province. Confirming with all this the military and organizational capacities and the aggressiveness every day more clear of the salafist imperialist group and the governance and the leadership of his leader, Abu Baker al-Baghdadi. The expansion of the territory that the ISIS controls, so much in Iraq as Syria, are the accomplishment of the intention of al-Baghdadi of displacing the Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahiri, not as chief of al-Qaeda, but as the authentic successor of Osama Ben Laden in the modern jihadism.

The Middle East is the most convulsed and burning geopolitical region of our world. And for his nearness, energetic importance and forming a communications hub between three continents, is specially transcendent for us. In this region of the Southwest of Asia are solving several armed and parallel conflicts. Some, as the so called Arabic Israeli conflict extends for more than 66 years, three generations, between the Muslims, singularly the Arabs, and Israel, for a minuscule chunk of highly wished land. Which is a war between States, independently of his functional, religious and social asymmetry. It is also the » open war» between the Shiite and Sunnis branches of the Islam, some incredible «separated conflicting brothers», for the political social and religious hegemony in this religion. This makes concrete nowadays in the Near East in the civil wars of Syria and Iraq.

THE PASDARAN DISPLAY THEIR FLAG.

At the eastern end of the Southwest of Asia is the anti western Shiite theocracy of the mummied ayatollahs. These, when want important and rapid results against his neighbors, use commands or units of the Republican Guard. Also, they are called the Pasdaran, Persian for Guards. Which is training, equipping and supporting in diverse ways his allies co-religionists of Syria and Iraq. The Republican Guard is overlapped in the Iranian regime, forming the unconditional and effective military wing of the Islamic Republic of Iran, acting as the modern “Immortal of the Shas of Persia». She, as the Egyptian military men, possess an own very wide support economic. That guarantees them the operational independence and that generously rewards their dedication and loyalty in the fulfillment of his tasks and missions. The al-Quds brigades are a special elite group of the Republican Guard. He devotes to the espionage and to realize military actions with incursion forces. He exhibits the whole panoply of capacities for the surreptitious or dirty war between enemy nations. His commander in chief is the general of division 57-year-old Qassem Suleimani, of middle stature, beard and white hair, and is included in the list of the terrorists most looked for by the USA. A detail: the Supreme Leader of the Iranian Revolution, Ali Jamenei, considers him to be a «living martyr of the revolution», to which he incorporated in 1.980, when was 23 years old, in an incipient Republican Guard.

HE WILL BE A FATHER FOR YOU AND YOU WILL BE A SON FOR HIM…

After the advance of the Islamic State in June of 2.014 in the north and center of Iraq and the call of the ayatollah chií Ali Sistani to the fight against him, Suleimani was sent by Teheran to Iraq, to support the activation of the shiits militias, dispersed after the sectarian war. This way, Suleimani has obtained in the latter months the unity of action of all the Iraqi militias against the IS. It has been the IS that who extracted general Suleimani from the shades. And now he appears and there conforms the ideological military clash between the Sunniss followers of the Drawn Sword of the Islam and the foreign mercenaries of the al-Quds Brigades of Iran and the Shiites militias, that they encourage, support and train. At the end of August he appeared in Amerli, Saladino’s province, where he forced the jihadists to move back. Iran immediately distributed photos of his general operating. After the setback of the ISSIL, the shiies militias devastated dozens of Sunniss villages of the zone, as collaborators or sympathizers with the enemy.

Tikrit is a city of approximately 270 thousand habitants, which lengthened embraces both Tigris‘ banks, where from it takes his name, at approximately 140 Kms. from Baghdad. It is the capital of Saladino’s province and was occupied at the end of the June‘s offensive of the IS. In March, Suleimani threw to his conquest with a combined force of 30 thousand men, formed by disconstructed Iraqi military men, who contribute with heavy weapons, Shiites militias (now called Popular Units) and the Anbar‘s Sunniss militias, enemies of the IS, and supporting forces of the Iranian Pasdaran. It is not easy that the EI keeps there more than 5 thousand men for a rigid defense, with which Suleimani’s victory was sung. The Shiites attacked on March 6 at the north of the city and by Saturday, the 13th, already only were resisting 3 principal neighborhoods and a luxury urbanization. The Coalition did not give air support to these operations until the end.

ENCOURAGING THE MEN AND POSING FOR THE NEWS MEANS…

The treatment that they give to Saladino’s Sunnis and of other areas will be an acid test to avoid another sectarian civil war in Iraq. It is not lawful to demand a loyalty due to the civilians, if the authorities are not capable of protecting them from the abuses of his enemies. The secretary of the Army of the Mahdi paramilitary organization, the militias of the clergyman Muqtada al-Sadr, Hadi the-Amari, asked his militias that were trying to save the habitants of Tikrit and that take care of them. But, Sadam Hussein’s extravagant mausoleum, placed near Tikrit, was reduced to a heap of rubbles. Saudi Arabia already has protested for this arrival in force of Shiites militias supported by the Iranian Guard, and the prince Saud al-Faisal, his Secretary of State, has accused Iran of militarily meddling » to take control of the country». Also the Council (Sunni) of Cooperation of the Gulf (Persian), formed by Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman and Qatar (Bahrain, which is Shiite, does not integrate it), has protested for the entry of foreign ground sectarian military forces in the Iraqi conflict. Iran, for his part, does not conceal his participation in the recovery of the Iraqi forces and constantly transmits photos of the general Suleimani in activity. Before this intervention, the general only was appearing in public photos taken during his prayers.

The Destruction of the Bases of the EIISL.

The areas of this great geopolitical region lack in general of concealments and natural covers, in the shape of forests, extensive bushes and mountains. This does that the only refuges and temporary stays for the rebels bands are in the villages and populations and the nearby grounds. Which are gathering, forming elongated rows, which luminous are appreciate in the night from the sky, along the rivers, which relieve his thirst, and theirs banks. For their defense and cover they have to disperse for them, forming «mujahidins squads» of not more than 35 or 40 men. This group is the major one that can be coherently led by a local «sheikh». Throughout this environment are spies eyes. And the guerrilla movements are realized in view of all. In addition, not all the populations are defensible against the powerful military means, not even the rebels have the intention of doing so, in a rigid defense.

These bases are the geographical locations indefinitely controlled by the jihadists. They physically found on the bases to reform, consolidate, train and increase their forces. From them, operating as their principal «departure bases», they throw incursions and assaults with limited aim on their enemy, seeking to scourge or to expel him from the immediate territory that he occupies. The creation of these jihadists permanent cores depends on the measure in which the armed enemy is defeated and expelled from them, with consistency and certain duration. From the bases are carried out the captivation of sympathizers and militants of the revolutionary group, which is scarcely effected among the settlers, but, in its most, they already come motivated and decided from out. And this is like that though a part of their effort in the area of action and propaganda is realized producing videos, interviews, gazettes and papers for audio-visual wireless varied means: the edition, the production and the emission is located in the bases. In the bases, the socio politics action of the ISSIL is as intense or more than the formation and the military training of » mujaidines of Allah». She is necessary to establish and assure the motivation and the loyalty of the fightiers to the jihadist cause in the hostile mean that surrounds and harasses them.

The salafists jihadists groups have failed in active and firmly joining to a social wide group, which gives coverage and permanent impulse to their «social religious imperialistic movement». Their «violence catechizing» allows them to be mental prepared for the glorious and in peace death, and, even for the suicide, in the accomplishment of their military actions and goals. But this insane sermon is not a method for the conversion of social groups. And there is a fundamental reason for it: his radical «creed» lacks possibilities of acceptance, victory and permanency between the all masses, out of the needs in the temporary vicissitudes of a war. The jihadists groups act with an unnecessary and indiscriminate brutality, which discredits them before the Islam, the Koran and the Sunna or Islamic tradition, gathered in the Hadithes or Mohammed’s «comments and facts» wrote. This lack of religious legitimacy, provokes the absence of venerable, respected and pious ulemas and muftis at their side. His supposed «Islamic original ideology» is only based on a few favorable verses of the Koran (this has approximately 4.200 verses, which varied with the versions; the only exact and precise are his total of Arab letters) and on some historical favorable facts and not on the integrity and the intention of the message of the Islam. This socio emotional withdrawal from the local masses unfailingly does that the support of the neighbors to the occupants terrorist groups is involuntary, not attractive, always interested and dismotivated. With it the bases of the ISSIL lose their function of education of the settlers masses, to catch, create and incorporate new volunteers and active sympathizers to the groups; to practice and perfect the methods of action, education and propaganda; to assure to the active groups a strategic protective and received rear, in which they should not need to also be in guard towards those of inside.

The bases are social military forms with «regular and firm structure» of the jihadists. They present continuous and numerous targets to the action of the heavy means of their enemies, the aviation and artillery. Some are “opportunity targets», as all kinds of movements of the terrorists and the discovery of new positions. And others are «hard targets», known or to be reconnoitered: roar or railroad infrastructures, stores, refuges, meeting or command or communications centers, war material warehouses, infantry, heavy fire and defense against aircraft combat positions, observatories, goods transport, crude oil distilling, etc.

Traditionally, the guerrilla or rebellious bases have been protected from the assault of the military men by the distance, as in China; the inaccessibility (mountains, jungles) or the difficulty of the fighting forms (the fight inside a village presents immense secret islands to the sights and protected by all classes of walls, which are reinforced by their partial destruction and the debris accumulation). These jihadists bases are the only substantial, still and definite target that the terrorist bands offer. Where to be able to make them feel all the superior and available military power. Where it is possible to isolate them by sectors, to beat them by parts, without them could collaborate in the decided defense plan. Nor to flee, if the village siege is firm. And where they might act, if they had another spirit and other motivations, which neither offer the trainings, nor the military equipments, the peshmergas, Shiites and Sunnis militias and the national armies of Iraq and Syria.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

THE FIGHTING AGAINST THE ISLAMIC STATE IN IRAK AND SIRIA, II PART.

(CONTINUATION)

Contradictions of the ISSIL.

Since they do not have sufficient rooting between the Iraqi or Syrian population, to leave their temporal positions does not suppose abandoning the habitants to the armed enemy. The habitants of the occupied areas are not gained for the Jihad or holy war. These settlers are frightened, threatened and, at least, neutralized, in order that they give cover, subsistence and support to the jihadists bands and neither hinder, nor importune them in their activities. Only those that they cooperated with the » Enemies of the jihad » can be in danger before them. When they occupy a population, especially in the periphery of the Islamic State, the jihadists always prepare the evacuation routes towards the suburbs, and of retreat, from these to the established nearby meeting points. To escape from them to the reception or of occupation regional positions.

When they are liberated of the jihadists, many habitants, specially in the hamlets, try to flee temporarily and to shelter in the nearby major populations. The reason is that the imperious, inconsiderate and hammering despotism of the jihadists, is joined by the heavy fires of their enemies, used during the capture of the population. Both the military men and the rebels major groups (fundamentally the peshmergas) prefer avoiding their losses and hurrying up the evacuation of the jihadists, using the aviation and artillery, if they have it. Even, the free flight rockets with hollow load like the RPG-7V (an artillery of the poor), thrown in double or triple volleys, cause a devastating effect in the masonry or adobe buildings. This already would serve to make to withdraw towards downtown, the jihadists security forces from their anticipated positions, placed in the limits of the population or in adjacent points. And already finally, the Syrian army usually moves back soon, to realize other attack missions. So, the constant, fluid and up to reversible character of the military operations. Then, the jihadists can return and purify responsibilities. Because of all this, many civilians think: «once, but not more».

The decision, aggressiveness and the scorn to the death of the jihadists has given them military advantages over the lay rebel opponents. And his activity and significance is increasing in the military Syrian opposition panorama. In several Syrian provinces, as Raqqa or Deir al Zor, they have displaced the Free Army of Syria and have «settled» as the only operational rebel force. In December, 2013, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria assaulted the headquarters of the Supreme Military Council of the lay moderate political opposition, in the frontier Turkish city of Bab al-Hawa and plundered the arsenals and depots. And the combats between rebels have been constant in the mountainous Kurdish regions during 2.014. All this took the USA and Great Britain to progressively suspending all kinds of military support to the Syrian rebels. For fear that parts of the proportionate means and supplies and reinforcements for the FAS, like the sunni commands trained in Jordan, lead to the elevation of the Western enemies.

TAKING A CONFORTABLE WALK, BUT, WHERE ARE THEIR ENEMIES?

Al-Baghdadi immediately established the Sharia, as civil and penal law of the caliphate. So, all the women, even the shops manikins, were forced to cover their faces, for not appeal the men with sinful suggestions. His Islamic courts apply the death sentence to different practices considered criminal, as the Muslim women’s rape, the homosexuality, adultery and blasphemy and some cases of thefts. The unfaithful or heretics people (Christians, yazidis, shiites, mandeos, etc.) that do not turn to the sunni Islam (initially they thought to make pay the Christians some exaction for the ISSIL), are violently chased. This way, successively, their houses are marked, their goods, seized, their wives, raped and their children, murdered. The pursued suffer summary executions and are taken as hostages, to collect rescues. There have been denounced of persons’ decapitations that deny to the conversion, including women and children, and the exhibition of their corpses in the public squares. This unleashed a religious genocide specially in the Iraqi areas of the rotter caliphate, which has provoked a massive flight of persons of the minorities towards the neighboring countries, Turkey, Jordan and The Lebanon, generating a refugees’ serious problem in them.

In his zeal for obtaining the adhesion of new followers, the ISSIL looks at West. His preferential aims are the deceived young persons, mentally unmotivated and ideologically, not educated in the virtues of the European civilization. And spoiled and overfed in our mercantile and materialists countries, who have turned all the desires into needs to be satisfied by the markets. This way, the IISIL spread at the end of May of 2.014 the first edition of a weekly magazine in English, the «Islamic State Report» and a video in German, but subtitled in English. In this one, a western jihadist, praises Baghdadi, the leader of the ISSIL, announces as «good news … the return of the Sharia and the Islamic State» and openly asks their sympathizers to come, «and join the ranges» of the ISSIL. The Islamic State Report tries to give an idea of the increasing degree of institutionalization that is acquiring the Islamic State in his bases. The publication gathers an interview with the person in charge of the formation of the new clergymen of this territory, the sheikh Abu Hawraa al-Jazaairi. That indicates that they already have educated dozens of them in a new educational center and that they have prohibited the presence in the mosques of those that they do not study in it.

The «Islamic State Report» published months ago an ironic and sensationalist article: “ Patrolling with the Protection of the Consumer Office». And Abu Salih al-Ansari, in charge of the specialized unit in verifying that food is not sell in poor condition, or that do not adjust to the islamist directives of the ISSIL, warns that a telephone has been enabled to attend the public complaints… Constantly they give images in the social networks of the daily life in the caliphate and spread videos with hostages executions, as response to what they consider the aggressions of the Crusaders. Also, the IS calls his sympathizers in the world to perpetrate individual and isolated actions in the enemy rear. Immediately after the air offensive of the Coalition, they called to commit outrages against the citizens’ life of the countries that form part of her. It is calculated that in March of 2.015 already there are in Twitter more than 40 thousand operational accounts of jihadists, with propaganda and proselytizing eagerness.

The Assault to a Universal Civilization.

Already in the summer of 2.014, after Mosul seizure, the IS began to destroy the heretics temples of the Islam. And presented a video, announcer of the barbarism who would strike on all the territories that rules the Caliphate, titled: «The destruction of the unfaithful sanctuaries and statues in Nineveh (province)». Where without mercy appeared the blowing-up of the shiites and sufis mosques of the city. In all that, al-Baghdadi‘s jihadists emulate with more efficiency, insanity, extension and giving themselves up the blind mullah Omar‘s Taliban. That in 2.001 destroyed with dynamite, because their direct heavy fire was not effective for their technical dimness, both Buda’s giant statues, of 37 and 55 ms. height, in Bamiyan’s mountain, Afghanistan, which were Cultural Heritage of the Humanity.

THE BARBARIAN FLAG…

Following his wild run towards the human sewer, the al-Baghdadi’s bearded at the end of February tackled against the images, statues, bas-reliefs, busts and coins with effigies of the old Mesopotamic cultures. Mosul’s Archaeological Museum was going several years in restoration, to overcome the hurts suffered after the first War of the Gulf (with the repression of the Kurdish revolt) and the insurrection against the American occupation. In it were hoarded great collections of historical art, proceeding from 1.800 archaeological deposits that surround the city, where were standing out the remains obtained in the Assyrian cities of Nimrod and Nineveh. There were statues of the Assyrians kings, a collection of winged lions or bulls, bas-reliefs and friezes showing activities of the daily life, as hunting, and a great statue of Lammasu, his protective god, with body of lion or bull, wings of eagle and human head. In London already has been detected the arrival of a hundred of small pieces, ceramic, coins and crystals, plundered in Syria by the jihadists. Always will exist collectors capable of buying the stolen material, justifying themselves in that «if I do not buy it, another one will do».

But, all these objects were gathered, preserved and hoarded from the beginnings of the written History by the successive habitants of the «Great Mesopotamia» and the «Great Syria». That were turned to the Islam when the Muslims conquer the Sasanian Empire around the 644. Between these settlers are included the primitive Muslims, the pious ancestors of the Islam, the examples to be followed by the Islam of pro, rooted traditions and orthodoxy. That are the models who presume imitate and continue the salafists jihadists of all the epochs. And that form the «group of the ancestors», formed by the Prophet, his companions and the first 4 sunnis caliphs, known as the Rashidun or «straightly guided by Allah». How do they dare to try to destroy what They preserved? Armed with hammers and working maces and radial saws and dressed like messes, working with zeal, we all have seen the videos distributed by them, announcing their deeds and to frighten the foreign people, in the television newscasts.

The most affected places, placed in Mosul’s surroundings, were the ruins of the Assyrian city of Dur Sharrukin, Nineveh, Nimrod and Hatra, the capital of the Phartian kingdom between 247 and 226 B.C. This one was declared Heritage of the Humanity and is included from 2.010 in the list of cultural sites on the verge of extinction by the Fund of the World Heritage, due to the plunders and the lack of protection by the Iraqi government. Impotent, the Iraq government asked the Security Council of the UNO on Friday, the 6th of March, help to preserve all this historical heritage of the humanity, attacked with impunity by the IS. It is of worth indicate that Nimrod is half of way between Mosul, left also to driven to despair by the Kurdish Iraqi peshmergas, when the IS attacked her at the beginning of last June and Erbil, the capital of these. And never the “Kurdish warriors” tried to counter-attack the lightly escorted squads of wreckers of the IS. One sees also that the general James Terry and his American expedition for the formation of the new Iraq army, who came in November of 2.01, go with some delay in their missions. Oh, how easy the al-Baghdadi mujahidins are motivated, trained and fight!! Also, the Mosul’s Christian legacy was a goal, months ago, for Allah’s brainless. That attacked the Chaldean and Syrian orthodox cathedrals of Mosul, two fundamental symbols of the Assyrian Christian inheritance. And the ISSIL immediately replaced the crosses in the exterior of the temples by his black flags with the Shahada.

In parallel and without continuity solution, the hallucinated jihadists attacked also during February of 2.015 the Mosul’s libraries, the third city of Iraq (the second is Basra, with almost 4 million habitants) and the most important in the hands of the IS. For them, for books already have the Noble Koran. And other texts are creations of the human mind, alien to Allah. First, was plundered Mosul’s Central Library, where they extracted from the shelves between 2 thousand and 8 thousand books (according to the different reliable sources that inform us) and took them in a dozen of vehicles and opened light trucks. In the principal racks only Islamic texts stayed. After the theft, the jihadists demolished with explosives part of the principal building of this knowing temple, to condemn it for his activity and rendering useless it for this infidel use. Then, they assaulted the library of Mosul’s University, where burned hundreds of profane books (science, philosophy, literature), in front of his pupils summoned for that witches’ sabbath. Also were object of pillage other known libraries of the city, like that of the Latin Church or that of the Monastery of the Dominicans Friars, whose books also were withdrawn without been destroyed, in vehicles. The university texts were of common use and were handled, but other stolen writings are of major value and are destined for the marketing with international venal buyers. A person in charge of libraries in Mosul calculated that the losses and the thefts concerned more than 112 thousand books and manuscripts preserved in them.

Everybody wants to be in the «Islamic State».

Though without having the operational unity of the irregular forces of the ISSIL in the territories of Syria and Iraq, in other countries of the Muslim wasp’s nest of Southwest Asia and the Maghrib, spontaneous and emotional regional adhesions have arisen for the first sunni Caliphate of the third millennium. Lacking of military operational action unity, it is a question of some «ideological emotional bonds», arisen from the zeal to belong to something more than to a terrorist diffuse and profuse Network, with distant commands and without the feet in the Arabic immediate and desert land, as it is with al-Qaeda.

In Libya, almost irreversibly crushed between the hundreds of local, regional and semi nomadic tribes, spread for his 1.760 thousand Km2. of surface, exist 2 great enemy groups who were disputing the favor of the tribes and that were operationally stagnant. In Tobruk, in the Cirenaica, resides the Libyan government recognized by the community international and supported by Egypt and Saudi Arabia. And in Tripoli, which occupied her in August of 2.014, the «rebel» government of the Libyan Dawn coalition, with high islamist presence, which denies again and again to have links with al-Qaeda, and that are supported by Qatar and Turkey. And this is the original humus, the favorable environment, the fertilized ground where once and again we see that appears and prospers the poisonous, stinking and purulent virus of the salafists jihadists: the social chaos and fracture.

This way, on Wednesday, the 18th of February, the IS local groups occupied the important city of Sirte, placed in the gulf of her name, between Tripoli and Benghazi, the capital of Cyrenaica. Sirte is also Muammar al-Gaddafi’s natal city, whose death 4 years ago initiated the decomposition and the total clash in the country. To celebrate it, the jihadists, which are not bombed here by the Obama’s Coalition of the 60, realized an impressive parade of victory and force. Hundreds of jihadists and sympathizers realized a power exhibition in the streets of the city, where paraded the «battalions» of their irregular infantry and dozens of light armored gunned transport vehicles (type, light opened van) with mujahidins, that were accompanied and greeted with cheers and acclamations by the habitants during their tour for the city. The government in Tobruk did not react to these facts and the «rebel» limited himself to make advance towards Sirte, without other intentions, the Misrata’s «brigade», placed at Sirte’s northwest. This way, the Islamic State in Libyan version has managed to hoist his black flag in Sirte, in Derna, a fishermen town with 50 thousand habitants of the Cyrenaica, where his tribal militias already swore loyalty to al-Baghdadi, and in other minor enclaves of this country, where it began to appear in force.

In Nigeria, the Boko Haram’s fighting chiefs are usually the familiar or tribal chiefs, their local leaders. They attack forming a «swarm» of small units that act simultaneously or successively, coordinated by a «combat chief». This primitive, tribal, «free» character, does that among the regional chiefs exist rivalries, which prevent a vertical integration of the terrorists. His tactics and methods are: all kinds of ambushes; the harassment at certain distance of marching units and garrisons; the liquidation of sentries and small patrols; the harassment to the supply and communication lines of the military and the local self-defense forces; the sudden attacks against small garrisons; the capture of hostages of all classes with varied aims: to execute them, to sell them, to incorporate them into his ranges, to obtain the price of rescue; the execution or mutilation of the enemies or elements that hinder them: journalists, collaborators of foreign organizations, local authorities, religious. They take advantage to the maximum of his knowledge of the ground, of his high mobility, of the people support and of his natural fighting capacit. These bands always plan their retreat from the action zones, because, though they are fanatical and does not matter too much for them to die, it is not in their goals to be immolated deliberately for the Cause.

THE NIGERIA’S CRAZY MAHDI.

Shekau, called the black Ben Laden, is a controversial type at the eyes of the westerns, included his own name, Abu Baker Shekau, because their followers called him Darul Tawhid. He was born approximately 40 years ago in the wide zone between the south of Niger and the North-East of Nigeria. His formation is not known, but he knows the Koran and speaks the tribal languages of the zone (kanuri, fula, hausa and Arab) where the terrorist band operates. He fluently uses the means of the propaganda and the fear. He repeats Ben Laden’s theatrical bits (to raise the finger as a sign of threat towards the cameras, to his lookers) and mounts an equal staging (black flags, Kalashnikovs and Korans) in his appearances to the enemy means. One of a major declarations he did, was in a video taken after killing 180 persons in 2012: «I enjoy killing anyone that God orders me to kill, the same I enjoy killing hens and sheep». It is said that he is solitary, introspective and cruel. And is distrustful up to with his own men. He lives protected by a close loyal group, in the style of Ben Laden, and remains away from the majority of the group. Always, in these more or less chased principal commands, is inevitably developed the paranoia, which ends up by altering their cognitive and emotional functions. One of four wives of Mohamed Yusuf, executed in a police station in 2.009, which was his predecessor and the founder of Boko Haram, has returned to marry Shekau, according to the Nigerian intelligence. Nobody knows who finances him. Not only he is a mystery for West, but for many of his sectarian companions. He was given for dead in 2009, 2012, 2013 and 2.014, but the information was incorrect. He has a bullet wound, already recovered, in the leg. Now, he only goes out to outside the cloudy days, to prevent to be located by the drones or the spy satellites. The USA offers $7 million for the relevant information that leads to capture him.

In a qualitative jump in his terrorist activities, Boko Haram kidnapped in the middle of April 2.014 270 Nigerian girls in a Chibok’s school, at the northeast of Nigeria, which whereabouts are still unknown. These fanatic rebels are called themselves «the disciples of the Prophet for the spread of the Islam and the Jihad», that express «Jama’atu Ahlis-Sunnah Lidda’awati Wal Jihad”. «Boko Haram is a serious threat for Africa and for Europe. His will is to destabilize the north of Nigeria, the neighboring countries and the whole region», declared François Hollande in the high-level meeting celebrated in Paris on Saturday, the 17th of May of 2.014, on occasion of the terrorist escalation. «Boko Haram already is not a local group, but he is clearly operating as an arm of al-Qaeda in the center of Africa. Without the help of all the countries of the African west, we will never be able to win him», declared, in turn, the Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan. The Nigerian government possesses 20 thousand soldiers, planes and intelligence units deployed in the North-East of the country, where Boko Haram is more active. But, «these troops are not prepared to face an armed group with these characteristics», Indicated the British secretary of Foreign Affairs, William Hague. Nigeria and his neighbors Cameroun, Chad and Niger realize «coordinated patrols» to look for missing persons and hostages and to control the traffic of weapon, in the frame of the Commission of the Lake Chad’s Basin.

Three devices exploded in Maiduguri, at the North-East of Nigeria, on Saturday, the 7th of March of 2.015. It was the worst assault to the city realized by militants of Boko Haram, which try to occupy the population from ends of January. It is confirmed that approximately 58 dead and 139 injured have taken place in the explosions that shocked the city. So cruel like al-Baghdadi, but more histrionic and higher stoned than him, Abu Baker Shekau has seized this opportunity and the consequent merits, for declared himself a subject of the Islamic State on Sunday, the 8th of March. “Baya” to the caliph of the Muslims, proclaimed Shekau in an Arab recording. The “baya” is the loyalty oath and submission to a religious politic Islamic authority. And several islamic, but minor groups, of the whole world have given already his oath of loyalty to the caliph of the IS.

WHITHOUT COMMENTS FROM ISLAM’S PIOUS ULEMAS AND MUFTIS…

INSANITY ATTACK TO A KNOWING TEMPLE, UNIVERSITY OF GARISSA, KENYA TO KILL CHRISTIANS…

(TO BE CONTINUED)

THE FIGHTING AGAINST THE ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAK AND SYRIA IV.

(FINAL)

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, nevertheless, has created his bases, from the beginning of his existence, next to his enemies and accessible to them. And they have not been attacked in force and disturbed by the shameful military disabilities of their regional enemies. And al-Baghdadi knew this and he has very well valued it, on having decided to create them this way, with a fine leader «command correct sense» and of the state strategy. Colonel C. M. Woodhouse established that «the art of defeating the guerrillas is the art of getting the people in opposition to them». And in the desert lands of the Islamic State is not necessary to establish how this can be achieved. Already al-Baghdadi is in charge of it, with a zeal worthy of better cause, to make enemies to the death with all that are not of his group or of his pleasure. So now, only motivated, trained and equipped men are absent to do a laborious, but not difficult mission… Already we have seen it. Will they be found by the Iraqis, the Syrians and the air Coalition of 60 countries?

Exemplary and Triumphant Counterguerrilla Campaigns.

In 1.948 the communist Greek guerrilla, in full world postwar period, were on the verge of forming forces semiregulars to openly attack the government. They also wanted to extend the “Steel Curtain” to the South-East of Europe. Their military, not decisive and badly interpreted successes, according to the correlation of forces and the strategic opportunity of the revolutionary communist process, decided them to already face the National Greek Army and to beat it. As did Mao, at the right moment of the Chinese civil war. This way, the Democratic Army of Greece (the DSE or Dimokratikos Stratos Ellados) congregated great part of his guerrilla detachments, which were spreading as a rosary from north to south over Greece, from the Peloponnese up to Macedonia, in the East, to form «regular» units, to which they called «brigades» and «divisions». But this «regular» rebel force, with 12-15 thousand militants, was only the tenth part of the Greek army. Their permanent or temporal bases were allowing them to realize sudden attacks, assaults and ambushes against the governmental authorities, policemen and military men. But, far from them, the bands were lacking sufficient supplies and popular supports for their operations. On the other hand, the guerrilla principal bases, placed in the zone of Vitsi and Grammos, at the northwest of the country, near the border with Yugoslavia, were vital for the revolutionaries for the receipt of the logistic support from this country.

  COMMANDERS POSE AFTER AN ENCOUNTER IN MOUNTAIN GREECE…

A Greek Army patrol sweeping in search of Communist guerrillas.

But they were constituting some orthodox, tangible and attainable targets for the heavy fire and the military force at the disposal of Greece. For this time, the break of Titus with Stalin and the Komintern was total and irreversible. And Titus already was not interested in promoting in the neighboring country a revolution that would derive towards “not revisionist positions”. The principal Yugoslavian faucet was closed and immediately afterwards Albania and Bulgaria also stopped their minor helps. Presented this way the clash, in a month of orthodox operations of march, assault, siege and annihilation, the Greek forces advised and supported by the British and with the military help of American material, occupied the mountainous zone of those guerrilla essential bases, in August of 1.949. That constituted a conventional, hard and definite aim, which had to be defended by the Popular Red «army». With it the Greek democrats stemmed definitively a communist insurrection of «national liberation», which was extending, insoluble and menacing, to a civil war from 1.945.

At the end of World War II, the British awarded Chin Peng the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for his heroics in leading guerrillas against the Japanese. He became the leader of the Communist Party of Malaya.

The first attempts of the Malay guerrillas to create bases and establish in them the communist administration were in 1.945. The irregulars of the so called Army of the Malay People went out of the refuge of the jungles, where they were hiding of the Imperial Japanese Army. In 1.948 they initiated the military revolt against the British, establishing in isolated communities of Chinese colonists, seated in Malaya. The communists were expecting to attract to their cause the workers of the mines, plantations and estates and extending this way their bases. But their political propaganda was not tuned with the people in general. And, specially, with the not Chinese community, which was the great majority of the Malays. The general Henry Briggs took advantage of their weaknesses and attacked the lines of supply, preventing them from creating big detachments and forcing them to be dispersed. Briggs was possessing battalions of Gurkhas, of Malays, of British and of Chinese and soon realized that these units were too much heavy to operate against the bands. And with a part of them he formed platoons and companies of “guerrillas hunters”. That were penetrating in the surrounding jungles, were living on the ground, were gathering information of all kinds and were scourging, ambushing and attacking to the communist groups.

GENERAL BRIGGS

GENERAL TEMPLER

And his successor, the general Gerald Templer systematicly attacked them, and they already could not consolidated in any place. This way, the Chinese Malay communists never overcame the primitive stage of stray persecuted guerrillas and only could use the isolated assaults as principal tactics. The tenacity and the patience of the British, who did not propose to prevent them from creating directly bases, but to methodically destroy them, rooted out the guerrillas of the inhabited zones and thrown them again to the jungle and, finally, to the surrender. The following pacification of the infected zones by the communist bands, realized with firmness and consideration, with a strong fist sheathed in a velvet glove, consolidated the support of their habitants to the Greek government. The revolt was definitively suffocated in 1.955. The local communists wanted to imitate Mao and to fight an irregular protracted war. But they lacked two strategic means for get it: enough popular support and stable bases.

THE END.