THE IDEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ISLAM. 2nd Part.

THE SECOND TRANSFORMATION

FIRST HALF VIII CENTURY TO BEGINNING XII CENTURY

The salafist Ideology.

Salafism, from «salaf«, predecessor or ancestor, is the other ideological school of the Islam. As salaf, the Muslims call Mohammed and his disciples: the first four caliphs and the next two generations. The expansion of the Islam in the 7th century assumes to the purity of his faith. Since this brought them the Allah’s favor and support.

Since then, whenever the Moslem societies are sufering an economic, political or social crisis, prominent figures will arise that will praise a return to the Islam of the Salaf. Ibn Hanbal, in the 9th century, gives a literal interpretation of the Islam, based in recovering the ancestors and in the condemnation to the ideological innovations. Ibn Taymiyya resorted equally to her in the 14th century, when the Middle East was suffering the Mongolians invasions. These would be the initiators of this current or school.

The Imam, Ahmad Bin Hanbal - Alchemiya
IMAM AHMED IBN HANBAL

The salafist currents are renaissance movements of the Islam, through the return to the original faith, that of the «pious predecessors«. They reject everything that identify as «human interpretations after the revelation of the Prophet«. They are radical reformists movements, which condemn the practices of the «popular Islam« (accused of being superstitions) and great part of the ideological Moslem thought, considered as carrier of «innovations». That is to say, «creations of the human reason«, that move away from the divine message. The salafists reject in turn the influence of the Western civilization, particularly the democracy, the relativism and the laity, that «corrupt the Moslem faith«.

Was Ibn Taymiyyah the spiritual father of jihadists? - Teller Report
IBN TAYMIYYA

The salafists become emancipated of the tradition founded by the 3 sunnis canonical schools. And they invent another Islam, which they affirm is founded on the Coran and the Sunna. Also they seek to imitate Mohammed in all the acts of the daily life, included the way of eating or dressing.

The wahhabism or the salafism at the political Power.

The modern salafists begin with the preaching of the Arabic ulema Mohamed Ibn Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792). Who thought that the decline of the Moslem countries opposite to the West, ensues from the oblivion of the original message of the Islam. Ibn Abdul Wahhab preaches the literal and puritanical reading of the Islam, following the Hanbalist and Ibn Taymiyya traditions. Searching for «the correct way of acting in the teachings of the pious predecessors». His sermons were not well received and was expelled from his natal locality, in the Nejd region. He went to Diriyah’s city and there formed an alliance with the sheikh Mohamed ibn Saud, founder of Saud’s House. Ibn Saud promulgated the idea of the «wahhabí» Islam as the official way of practising the Islam in the country. For his part, al-Wahhab gave the religious legitimacy to Ibn Saud in his conquest of Arabia.

muhammad-bin-abdul-wahab – Vridar
Ulema Mohamed Ibn Abdul Wahhab

Finally, in 1902, the emir Abdul Aziz ibn Saud reconquered Riyadh. In 1924 occupied Mecca and Medina and in 1932, all the Saudi Arabia. This was giving them the control on the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to the Muslim Sacred Places and the opportunity to preach the wahhabism to the pilgrims from all the countries. But, the wahhabism was a minor current of the Islam until 1938, when the oil reserves were discovered in the zone. The immense incomes from this new wealth gave a great impetus to his ideological expansion for the world.

The imans near to the Saudi regime, reject the jihadist way, that tries to impose a Moslem regime by means of the violent and revolutionary action. On having considered it to be condemned to the failure. One of his great figures, from the 60s up to his death in 1999, the sheikh Mohamed Nasiruddin al-Alabani, was declaring that «nowadays, it forms part of the good politic, to leave the politic». For al-Albani it was necessary to follow a strategy of purification of the education: on one hand, to regenerate the faith, purifying it of ideological «innovations», that remove it from his origins; and to educate the Muslims in this regenerated faith, in order that they leave his religious «corrupt» practices.

Pin on Y Chromosome
Sheikh Mohamed Nasiruddin al-Alabani

The «Jihadist salafism» or Qutbism.

This current of the school makes the Jihad one of his activity centers. The jihadism seek to accelerate the liberation of the Moslem countries of any foreign occupation. It is based on Sayyid Qutb’s ideas, a theoretic and revolutionary born within the Moslem Brothers. He was sure that the Western Society was sick with individualism and ungodliness. And the Moslem countries would suffer the same thing, if they were influenced by West. And affirmed that the actual Moslem regimes were apostates, on having applied lay laws, instead of the Sharia.

sayyid-qutb | tarnmoor
Sayyid Qutb

Qutb‘s thought was one of the principal influences in the sects Muslims’ Society or Excommunnication (takfir) and Hegira (migration), arisen in 1969 in the bosom of the Moslem Brothers in Egypt, and in al-Qaeda, and his leaders, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Osama Ben Laden. Sayyid Qutb, was detained, judged and executed at August 29, 1966, for planning the murder of the president Nasser. After his death, the Muslims Brothers evolved towards organization and fight forms inside the existing political system.

The actual salafist jihadism is born in the 80s, during the Afghanistan’s war against the Soviet occupation. The salafists jihadists arrived from Saudi Arabia met the Moslem Brothers. It drove them to adopt the political speech of the Moslem Brothers and to restoring in it the salafistst preaching of Sayyid Qutb.

Epilogue.

The practice praised by the salafistas introduced a strong ingredient of instability and of violence, still physical, between the Muslims and, therefore, between their ideological schools. That was depending and was a function of the antagonistic contradictions (insoluble in a pacific synthesis) that in every historical stage were generating and appearing in the Umma or in located parts of her and in the borders with the hostile peoples. The practical result was that the armed way became consubstantial and intermittently, in the mean of defense and spread of the Faith for many Muslims.

And though only a minimal percentage supports her nowadays and still they are less those who apply it, this conduct, as the red of the blood, turns out to be showy before all the men. That by extension and ignorance, attribute it to the totality of the Moslem community or Umma.

In addition, the sword is an enemy of the pen and of the abstract or scientific ideas. Or, at least, it fades and suffocates them. Though Mohammed already warned it in a hadis: «The ink of the pens is sometimes more useful for the Umma that the blood of the martyrs». At about the 5th century of the Hegira, our 11th century, the ideologists, in a political decision, closed the door to the ichtihad. And the methodological Islamic approach altered. From then, it was imitated, it was repeating itself, it was abused with the compendiums. There got lost the curiosity, the scientific personal effort, the flexibility, the intercommunication of studies and results. And, finally, since it could not be less, this ideological crystallization, moved also to the Moslem arts and sciences, that started a long declining.

This way, this second Transformation of the Islam remained largely frustrated and faded. By the new outcrop of the «minor Yihad», which constituted the first Transformation of the Islam. And that turned out to be completed and profitable with the incredible extension of the Islam in the known world in something more that one century. This reappearance of the first Transformation of the Islam, which was the use of the force for the extension and the implantation of a monotheistic religion, would turn into a complex, multiple, repetitive and violent action throughout the following centuries. Creating effusions of blood and spreading stertors of childbirth for different and numerous countries. On having searched with a new birth of the first Transformation of the Islam, the solution of the inevitable crises (for being vicissitudes of the personal and colectives lives) of the Muslims with the unfaithfuls or their chiies separated brothers…

Creating a permanent civil war, with a rosary of truces, within Islam, within the Umma, between Shiites and Sunnis.

THE IDEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ISLAM.

THE SECOND TRANSFORMATION

FIRST HALF VIII CENTURY TO BEGINNING XII CENTURY

General Introduction.

After a belligerent and expansive beginning, the Islam had established inside long and distant borders. That included extensive territories, placed in three known continents, in his parts more out-standing active and fundamental.

It was already time to realize a reflection and an internal doctrinal debate. That was interpreting and adapting towards the future, the whole Islamic revelation. That then was contained in the Koran, the hadises of the Prophet (his verifiable facts and sayings) and the behavior of the salaf or predecessors of the Islam, the primitive and pious Muslims. It is the work of ideological organization of the Islam and the believers’ community. And it shapes a second Transformation in the Islam.

There arise soon the Islamic schools, the cores of ideological work and his social projection. That vertebran around groups of believers and experts, who were living in the principal environments of dar al-Islam. These schools commenced and elaborated in a beginning the criteria and ideas that his neighbouring thinkers were mantaining. In an epoch of difficult communications. They were representing and assembling the expressions and the experiences of the Muslims of diverse origins and races. To that were added the contributions of Moslem eminent travelers, who traveled the ideological centers of the Islam from al-Andalus up to Baghdad.

All this was rethought, consulted, debated and decided by the members of the school, his collaborators and some out-standing thinkers of the country or the region. This way, they were creating different teaching corps by his different origins, to illuminate and direct the ideology and the actions of the Umma. And to project, with major or minor intention and result, towards the future, always changeablly and unknown, an ideological instrument that guarantees and allows an adaptative and rigorous evolution of the Islam.

Hazrat Imam Shafi'i - Al Hakam

In this mental and spiritual emergence, happened only one century after the death of Mohammed, concentrating all their human energies, the Muslims also devoted themselves to translate to the Arab all the knowledge of the epoch (VIIth and VIIIth century). This way, they founded libraries and submitted to the study of the universal knowledge and to apprehend it (from “aprehendere”, to grasp). Raising this way his humanities and sciences to a position of total preponderance, which they would preserve for 350 years, up to the 12th century.

A fundamental reason of this cultural bloom of the Islam was his multinational, global character. Already we saw that, once established the incorporations of countries and regions to dar al-Islam, existed initially a broad tolerance over the lives of the new subjects. This way, the cultural Islamic community took up, incorporated and synthesized in his specific task, the contributions of all kinds of cultures and races. And this also derived in the respect and the material support that the Muslims offered to this humanist culture that they created.

In addition, from the emergence of the 3 principal ideological sunnis schools, gathered strength the principle of the personal reflection effort, the ichtihad, in the Islam. The ichtihad allowed the development of the Arabic civilization, so much as for the civil aspects (sciences, trade, literature, art), as for the enrichment of his ideology (it is the base for lawyers like al-Chafii). The ichtihad was a source of brilliancy, creativity, enrichment, progress and peace in the way of the personal and collective effort towards Allah (this is the authentic core and the reason of the Islam). When already the Umma had spread and enormously multiplied all over the known world.

Certainly, this really religious, mystical effort, is called the Major Yihad (in Allah’s way). Unlike to the purely military one, which is only a minor Yihad, to follow this way… All this exuberant ideological development constituted the second Transformation of the Islam.

Origin, need and transmission of the Islamic Tradition.

The histories orally transmitted of «the customs and sayings» (the Sunna) of Mohammed, transformed soon in writings. That were, in turn, objects of great summaries. Each story or written comment is called the hadith or hadis. The term also is used to refer to the generality of them. The length of the hadises is very variable, according to the topic of the writing. More interesting and definer for us is his intelligent internal structure. This characterizes them and gives faith of their verisimilitude. In each hadis is usually first exposed the «transmission chain» up to its writing or the checking of her, from his oral origin, with the figure of the «transmitter«. Nowadays, we would call this the historical traceability. They are of first importance as «transmitters» of the hadises, Aixa or A’, isa, the second and preferred wife the Prophet, and Ali, his cousin and son-in-law. Then, there comes the content of the story or the comment, called the «matn«.

Aixa - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

                                                          A’,ISA

The Koran in the chapter 4, verse 59, guarantees and grants a special power of decision and of explanation to the Prophet or Envoy of God and to the sovereigns, successors or Moslem caliphs, who are those who hold the authority in the Umma. This would explain and justify the need of a qualified interpretation, foreseen by Allah, for the practical application of the Koran along the geography and the history of the peoples. With Mohammed acting as interpreter, as exceptional and privileged «intermediary» of Allah.

Ali Ibn Abi Tálib - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

            THE SEAL OF ALI, THE FOURTH CALIPH OF THE ISLAM

There exist hundreds of thousands of hadises that have come up to us. And between them numerous contradictions appear. In addition, the total text is excessive for have commented or saying and lived or realized by Mohammed. Even using for it all his life. From almost the beginning, the own exegetas and apologists of the Islam saw this. The hadises were in the risk of turning into a chain of myths, tribal embellished stories and realities more or less preserved from a vaporous and insecure Tradition of the Prophet. And soon was established a critique system of the «isinad» or transmission. To guarantee in strict sense the quality of the content or «matn» of the hadises, as written Tradition.

The sunni ideological schools.

Abu Hanafi, an Iranian died in Kufa, city at the south of Baghdad, in 767, established the hanafi school. This school is outlined in the rigor in the selection of Mohammed’s hadises. And she accepts the employment of the istihsan or personal approval, as criterion for the social conduct. It is extended in Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangla Desh and the turkishmens territories of Central Asia (ex-soviet republics). The hanafism was the official Moslem doctrine of the Ottoman Empire.

Abu Hanifa | The Asian Age Online, Bangladesh                                               IMAM ABU HANAFI

The maliki school was founded by Malik ben Anas, who died in Medina in 795. The doctrine turned into the rite of the Muslims of the West and North of Africa. She regarded that was following the Moslem practice of Medina. And that was the most authentic, for being that the so called city of the Prophet and of the first four caliphs, the Rashidun. In his version, Malik applied the criterion of the usefulness, when sure texts did not exist, to defend the reason, the religion, the persons, the families and the goods.

Malik ibn Anas - Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia

                                           IMAM MALIK BEN ANAS

The most opened and flexible school, the chafii, founded by the Palestinian al-Chafii, died in Cairo on 820 at the age of 53 years, opened an encouraging door for the pacific evolution of the Islam. This current accepts the «consensus of the sages of the Umma» and the analogical reasoning or qiijas, as correct inspired routes for the adjustment of the Islam to all the times and places. Departing from his original «rural, illiterate, poor and medieval origin and surrounded of hostiles and barbarism«.

Al shafi`i poster with others

It worth indicating that, having jointly and in the essence of his thoughts the Koran and the tradition of the Prophet, the three ideological schools had a strong common ideology. This way, it was always admissible, especially in the origins, that the Muslims were changing its school of thought.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

News on Modern Conflicts. Novedades en Conflictos Modernos.

Utilizamos esta Sección de Novedades para dar a conocer en avance los próximos artículos que irán apareciendo en las distintas «categorías» de temas de esta página, dedicada a conflictos y crisis modernos.

The Writing in the Study of the Military Themes.

There is something important in the writing, as instrument of fixation and reflection of the learned theme. Not simply to make a summary or a few notes of the well-read thing.

This is what has motivated me to preparing and presenting a brief summary of the function, which exercises the writing for the student of the Military Topics. As seal and final flourish of the preparation or the control of a text that his intelligent reader will make good use of it.

La Escritura en el Estudio de los Temas Militares

Hay algo importante en la escritura, como instrumento de fijación y reflexión de lo aprendido. No simplemente para confeccionar un resumen o unos apuntes de lo leído.

Esto es lo que me ha motivado a preparar y presentar un breve resumen de la función, que ejerce la escritura para el estudioso de los Temas Militares. Como marchamo y broche final de la preparación o del dominio de un texto que será aprovechado por su lector inteligente.

La campaña del Khalkhin-Gol (Mongolia) de 1939.

Zhukov detiene el expansionismo japonés hacia la URSS…

En 1939, en sus remotas fronteras orientales, la URSS sostuvo una corta y dura guerra con el Imperio japonés. En esa época la atención de Europa, el núcleo del mundo entonces, se centraba en la suerte inmediata que iban a correr Checoeslovaquia y Polonia. Además, los nombres de Manchuria o de Mongolia eran poco conocidos en Occidente. Sin embargo dicha guerra regional iba a tener una consecuencia trascendental para Europa y su destino. Gracias a la rápida y decisiva victoria de la URSS en ella, los soviéticos no tuvieron que sostener 2 años después una guerra en dos frentes convergentes y extensos, a cargo de sus dos grandes enemigos, los imperios japonés y alemán.

Ello permitió a la URSS resistir y sobrevivir a las poderosas y sucesivas embestidas estratégicas y operativas alemanas, hasta fines de 1942. A partir de Stalingrado y, sobre todo, Kursk, las tornas se volvieron. Y la vieja Rusia, que parece renacer y crecerse en la desesperación y con dificultades terribles, comenzó una crecida militar firme, sostenida, progresiva e irresistible, aunque muy costosa, hasta Berlín.

THE MILITARY SURPRISE: concepts, effects, realization and types.

This way, this surprise less elaborated conceptually produces fewer fruits that have operational or decisive transcendency. Everything indicates that, in order that it should take place and increases qualitatively the transcendent efficiency in our actions, it is necessary that the quality of the surprise reaches another dimension in his action.

It is necessary, so, in the operational level of the surprise, that this would be an «ungrateful surprise» for the enemy. That has catastrophic effects, though they are local, on him. And that the «commotion waves» in the area or the affected sections, propagate for the enemy military system attacked. Damaging his capacities, his general and grupal moral (a section, the fighters of a weapon) and his intentions and perspectives. It would be equivalent, in the raised scene, to an «exploitation of the success» of our actions. That are encouraged and perfected by the operational surprise obtained.

The following battle during World War II illustrates the use of unexpected «field of action» on the enemy, and the use of ordinary and heterodox forces. That allowed General Walther Model to take the initiative and destroy a Soviet army inserted in his operational rear.

LA SORPRESA MILITAR: conceptos, efectos, realización y tipos.

Así, esta sorpresa menos elaborada conceptualmente rinde menos frutos que tengan trascendencia operativa o decisiva. Todo indica que, para que se produzca y aumente cualitativamente la eficacia trascendente en nuestras acciones, es necesario que la calidad de la sorpresa alcance otra dimensión en su acción.

Es necesario, pues, en el nivel operativo de la sorpresa, que ésta sea una “sorpresa ingrata” para el enemigo. Que tenga efectos catastróficos, aunque sean locales, sobre él. Y que las “ondas de conmoción” en el área o las secciones afectadas, se propaguen por el sistema militar enemigo atacado. Dañando sus capacidades, su moral general y grupal (una sección, los servidores de un arma) y sus intenciones y perspectivas. Ello equivaldría, en el escenario planteado, a una “explotación del éxito” de las acciones propias. Que son animadas y perfeccionadas por la sorpresa operativa conseguida.

Veamos un ejemplo de cómo el empleo de un “campo de acción” inesperado para el enemigo y el uso apropiado de las fuerzas ordinarias y heterodoxas, con sus respectivas características de actuación, permitió al general Walther Model, tomar la iniciativa, crear una sorpresa ingrata y destruir un ejército soviético insertado en su retaguardia operativa.

Qassem Suleimani, la Espada Desenvainada del Imperialismo Iraní

Hacia las 0:30 hora local del viernes 3 de enero de 2020, los EEUU mataron al general Quassem Suleimani cuando se retiraba del aeropuerto de Baghdad, a donde acababa de llegar en un vuelo directo desde el aeropuerto de Damasco. Se emplearon en el ataque dos drones Reaper, probablemente de la CIA, que lanzaron 4 cohetes Hellfire II AGM-114 de cabeza explosiva (H.E.), guiados por láser, (nombre, el “Fuego del Infierno”) sobre los dos vehículos sin especial blindaje, que los llevaban a él y a sus 9 acompañantes a Baghdad.

Introducción.

El Oriente Medio es la región geopolítica más convulsa y furente de nuestro mundo. Y por su cercanía, importancia energética y formar un nudo de comunicaciones entre tres continentes, es especialmente trascendente para nosotros. En esa región del Suroeste de Asia se dirimen varios conflictos armados y paralelos.

LA EXPLORACIÓN Y LA INTELIGENCIA COMO SISTEMA OPERATIVO.

La exploración y el reconocimiento del terreno generan información de los diferentes niveles de actuación militar. Entonces debe ser convertida en inteligencia. Ésta es el conocimiento razonablemente fiable y suficiente del enemigo, de sus intenciones y capacidades, y del terreno en sus posibilidades de lucha, transitabilidad, etc. Que nos permitan tomar una resolución fundada sobre el empleo de nuestros medios y de las formas de lucha, en función de nuestros objetivos.

THE SOCIAL PROPAGANDA. CHARACTERISTICS AND MEANS.

Being an eminently practical phenomenon, the praxis of propaganda is defined by «norms or principles of action«.

Propaganda must be «simple, easy.» Both in its structure and in its concept and transfer to its «objective.» Therefore, the basic concepts of our doctrine and interests must be sought and exploited with it. And state and present them in a clear, easy and appropiate manner. Both in the words (texts and slogans) and in the images we use for their diffusion and impregnation in the social group. And taking into account the means employed and the immediacy and depth that our ideas have to acquire in the group to which are directed.

LA PROPAGANDA SOCIAL. CARACTERÍSTICAS Y MEDIOS.

Al ser un fenómeno eminentemente práctico, la praxis de la propaganda se define por unas “normas o principios de actuación”.

La propaganda debe ser “simple, sencilla”. Tanto en su estructura, como en su concepto y transferencia a su “objetivo”. Por ello, se deben buscar y explotar con ella los conceptos básicos de nuestra doctrina e intereses. Y enunciarlos y presentarlos de una manera clara, fácil y oportuna. Tanto en las palabras (textos, consignas y lemas) como en las imágenes que empleemos para su difusión e impregnación en el grupo social. Y teniendo en cuenta los medios empleados y la inmediatez y profundidad que tengan que adquirir nuestras ideas en aquél al que van dirigidas.

La Voluntad de Defensa de una Sociedad.

Y la Estrategia, la Estrategia Operativa y la Táctica, como Niveles de su Actuación Militar

Llamamos “voluntad de defensa” de una nación a su capacidad para propiciar, crear, desarrollar y mantener unas fuerzas de defensa, que cuenten con el apoyo necesario y sinérgico de la economía del país y de la diplomacia del estado. La voluntad de defensa es una expresión de la voluntad de ser y de la capacidad vital, incluso biológica, de una sociedad.

Este concepto supera y perfecciona a la así llamada guerra híbrida o de V generación. E implica y supone el empleo de todos sus “medios de intervención” ortodoxos y heterodoxos por el grupo social beligerante.

Como tal expresión, será sana, normal y suficiente, cuando las fuerzas de defensa y el apoyo diplomático y de la economía nacional que se les brinde a aquéllas, sean adecuadas y proporcionales a los objetivos políticos de la sociedad. Y también, a las posibles amenazas que tenga que soportar, tanto desde el interior de su territorio como desde el exterior, bien de su región geopolítica como de otras.

Esta capacidad y su actuación en los diferentes casos brotan de una “moral nacional” correcta.

The Will of Defense of a Society.

And the Strategy, the Operational Strategy and the Tactics, as Levels of its Military Actuation

The “will of defense” of a nation is its capacity to cause, create, develop and maintain defense forces. The strength of the defense forces, in turn, rely on the necessary support of the economy of the country and the diplomacy of the state. The will of defense is an expression of the will of being and the vital capacity, even biological, of a society. This concept overcomes and perfects the so called hybrid war or of V generation. That implies and supposes the employment of all his «orthodox and heterodox means of intervention» by the social belligerent group.

As the term implies, will of defense is healthy, normal and sufficient when defense forces and the strength of the country’s economy and the quality of state leadership and diplomacy are proportional and adapted to the political objectives of society. These must also be adequate to the possible threats that the country may have to oppose, both within and out the country, within its geopolitical region or other sources of threat.

This capacity and its performance in different situations stems from a correct “national moral”.

The modern Hybrid Warfare. The Multifunctional, Total or Multisubject Wars.

Now, closing the historical and definer curl, the wars of V generation are called hybrid or multi functional wars, which, really, always have existed. With the major or minor participation of each one of the «available means of intervention» (Foreign Relations, regular and irregular Armed Forces, Economy, Cybernetics, etc) in the social group, to obtain the «functions of intervention» search for. Forming a “means” mix, adapted to all situations and confrontation theaters.

Not for nominating nowadays with an exotic and new word, preferably foreign, one makes this way a «mean or a function of intervention» fresh and promising. The problem is that the ignorance of the history, still the recent one, impoverishes the new concepts, ideas and situations of conflict. Without winning in application, efficiency and cognitive capacity with it. With this, only it falls or repeats the previous history, returning to learn it. And that, as in a spiral screw, only changes the phenomenon temporal «plane of execution«. Where are kept safe and now partly secret, the different «essential parameters» of the phenomena of the conflicts and fights.

La Guerra Híbrida moderna. La Guerra Multifuncional, Total o Multidisciplinar.

Ahora, cerrando el bucle histórico y definitorio llaman guerras de V generación a las guerras híbridas o multifuncionales, que, realmente, siempre han existido. Con la participación mayor o menor de cada uno de los “medios de intervención” disponibles (Relaciones Exteriores, economía, cibernéticos, Ejércitos regular e irregular, etc.) en el grupo social, para conseguir las “funciones de intervención” buscadas. Formando un «mix de medios», adaptado a los distintos teatros y situaciones.

No por nominar hoy en día con una palabra exótica y nueva, preferentemente extranjera, se crea así un “medio o una función de intervención” fresco y prometedor. El problema es que el desconocimiento de la historia, aún la reciente, empobrece los nuevos conceptos, ideas y situaciones conflictivas. Sin ganar en aplicación, eficiencia y capacidad cognitiva por ello. Con esto sólo se incide o se repite la historia anterior, para volver a aprenderla. Y que, como en una hélice helicoidal, sólo se cambia el “plano de ejecución” temporal fenoménico. Donde se mantienen incólumes y ahora ocultos en parte, los distintos “parámetros esenciales” de los fenómenos y epifenómenos de los conflictos y luchas.

Reflections about Spain and Catalonia

The nation is one and unique by essence. And it arises from the commitment of the citizens to live in community. And it is kept and preserves in the defense of this union, which is loved, against his enemies of inside and outside. A nation is provided with one social politics selfconsciousness. And collaborate to create and support it the history, the tradition and the customs, and the own language and moral sense. And contribute secondly to it the own ethnia and the territory, that not always exist, specially the first one. This way, the territory of a country is not a nation. Nor it is not the inarticulate population of a territory under an only one government.

Though the territory that occupies is necessary to give a nation the possibility of supporting a social administrative structure, that guarantees the exercise of his sovereignty. In a nation fit several not antagonists ethnias. Because his base is the life together conviviality, the respect and the rights and duties for all. And so long as they love this «harmonic set» of persons and his well-being, peace and jointly progress destinies.

When the nation is loved by his components and there exists in them the desire to serve and defend her in community, the concept of the mother land appears. Both ideas are interrelated essentially. And, the absence of the patriotism or the shame to practise it by members of a «social political community», leads to the defenselessness and the dismemberment of his nation, in major or minor degree. Being formed then «groups of associate individuals» with dissolvent ideas and interests of the naional group.

It is not of surprising that the Defense Forces of a nation are, as institutions and in his members, which hoist, teach and practise the patriotism, as one of his essential virtues. Because it is possible only to die for what is loved. The Defense Forces of a nation are the specialized set of the «nationals or patriots» for the belligerent and complete Defense of his «national country«.

Reflexiones sobre España y Cataluña

La nación es una y única por esencia. Y surge del compromiso de los ciudadanos de vivir en comunidad. Y se mantiene y conserva en la defensa de esa unión, que se ama, contra sus enemigos de dentro y de fuera. Una nación es dotada de una auto conciencia socio política. Y colaboran a crearla y vertebrarla la historia, la tradición y las costumbres, y la lengua y el sentido moral propios. Y contribuyen en segundo lugar a ello la etnia y el territorio propios, que no siempre existen, especialmente la primera. Así, el territorio de un país no es una nación. Ni lo es la población inarticulada de un territorio bajo un único gobierno.

Aunque el territorio que ocupa es necesario para darle a una nación la posibilidad de mantener una estructura socio administrativa, que garantice el ejercicio de su soberanía. En una nación caben varias etnias no antagonistas. Porque su base es la convivencia, el respeto y los derechos y deberes para todos. Y con tal de que amen ese “conjunto armónico” de personas y sus destinos de bienestar, paz y progreso en común.

Cuando la nación es amada por sus componentes y existe en ellos el deseo de servirla y defenderla en comunidad, aparece el concepto de la patria. Ambas ideas están interrelacionadas esencialmente. Y, la ausencia del patriotismo o la vergüenza de profesarlo por miembros de una “comunidad socio política”, lleva a la indefensión y a la desmembración de su nación, en mayor o menor grado. Formándose entonces grupos de individuos asociadoscon ideas e intereses disolventes del conjunto nacional.

Genesis and practice of the Russian strategy of deep attack.

The Soviets tried to have a scientific unbeatable study for his military art. Like his social economic doctrine was based on the supposedly scientific postulates of Marx and Engels. Taken to the practice by the Bolsheviks led by Lenin. And achieving an undoubted success in the stages of conquest of the Power and his indefinite and ferreous maintenance, the phases of force and oppression, by the central and inevitable postulate of the proletariat dictatorship.

One of the paradigms of his military doctrine was the attack to the deep rearguard of the enemy. That is the low abdomen of his military deployment. There, the units have his refuge, his site to rest and, also, to reform or to be equipped; from there they begin the marches to form his assault deployments near the lines.

To seek for the attack at these enemy areas, without combat availability and much more vast and vulnerable than that he presents near the front, was a characteristic of the military Soviet theory.

We will see here how this was generated and was implemented. Creating for it, the appropriate specialized units and the successive adjustment of the strategic previous ideas. Up to having, in 1944 and until the end of the war, 6 Tanks Armies in the order of battle of the Soviet Army, new name of the Red Army of Soldiers and Peasants. Those were endowed with the most prepared soldiers and the best equipments and logistics support of the USSR.

And we will see how the friction, the failures and the human mistakes, the exhausting efforts of the commands, the central direction without clear and elaborated criteria (inevitable initially to any doctrine) and the climatology, do that the studied and implemented plans are scarcely fulfilled in the practice, after the first days of operations.

Génesis y praxis de la estrategia de Rusia del ataque profundo.

Los soviéticos pretendían tener un estudio científico imbatible para su arte militar. Al igual que su doctrina socio económica se basaba en los postulados supuestamente científicos de Marx y Engels. Llevados a la práctica por los bolcheviques liderados por Lenin. Y logrando un éxito indudable en las etapas de conquista del Poder y su mantenimiento indefinido y férreo, las fases de fuerza y opresión, a través del postulado central e inevitable de la dictadura del proletariado.

Uno de los paradigmas de su doctrina militar era el ataque al interior de la retaguardia del enemigo. Que es el bajo vientre de su despligue militar. Allí, las unidades tienen su refugio, su sitio para descansar e, incluso, para reformarse o equiparse, desde allí comienzan las marchas para formar sus despliegues de ataque.

El buscar el ataque a estas áreas del enemigo, sin disponibilidad para el combate y mucho más extensas y vulnerables que las que presenta junto al frente, era una característica de la teoría militar soviética.

Veremos aquí cómo ésta se generó y se fue implementando. Creando para ello, las unidades apropiadas especializadas y el ajuste sucesivo de las ideas estratégicas previas. Hasta tener, en 1944 y hasta el final de la guerra, 6 Ejércitos de Tanques en el orden de batalla del Ejército Soviético, nuevo nombre del Ejército Rojo de Soldados y Campesinos. Aquéllos estaban dotados con los más preparados soldados y los mejores equipos y logistica de apoyo de la U.R.S.S.

Y veremos cómo la fricción, los fallos y los errores humanos, los esfuerzos agotadores de los mandos, la dirección central sin criterios claros y elaborados (inevitable al principio de toda doctrina) y la climatología, hacen que los planes estudiados e implementados apenas se cumplan en la práctica, tras los primeros días de operaciones.

THE HATE, THE  WAR  AND  THE  EVIL

The Hate is always an untidy passion. What might arise initially in the soul as competition and emulation, ultimately displays as distaste, repugnance or rivalry. It is a primary reptilian feeling of survival, compound or mixed with the dread and the rage towards other one, which is perceived as foreign, different and menacing. So, the hate expresses always as negative and destruction, still potential.

The mental Gordian knot of the hate, only can be cut by the collective overcoming. And this is carried out personally, exercising a broad mindness generosity and the personal effort of overcoming and oblivion the circumstances that shaped «that situation«.

The War arises in the armed collective clash. In the violent dialectics of two social rivals groups. That employ the weapons for the attainment of certain aims, which are exclusive for both.

Other one of the vices that the «civilized» members of the tribes have acquired is the excessive greed. And with her, her corollary and the easy way to satisfy her, the rampant corruption. The social equality in the tribes, his «ideological rough republicanism», was guaranteeing the use and reasonable enjoyment of the resources by all the members.

The Evil is conceptually the lack and the denial of the good, which is the only virtue or effort (as stable and permanent value) that is positive. And the primary negative force that generates the hate in a wide sense, not necessarily violent, is the one that gives force, life and permanency to the evil of the man.

The Evil as concept, as immaterial entity, needs from instrument, a vector, a vehicle, to display in our physical world. And this material vehicle is provided by the untid and uncontrolled passions of the men, already dominated and dragged by the hate and his corollaries passions. In which and by means of them, the Evil displays enslaver, overflowing and superhuman.

The putrid, inhuman, insane ideas come from the sewage, pits and black wells of the human intelligence and soul. And they are the valid, sure and permanent instrument for the periodic manifestation of the Evil within the humanity. This Evil, unattainable for the reason and the human capacities, is the temporal manifestation of the Misterium Iniquitatis.

EL ODIO, LA GUERRA Y EL MAL

El Odio es siempre una pasión desordenada. Lo que podría surgir inicialmente en el alma como competencia y emulación, se manifiesta al final como aversión, repugnancia o rivalidad. Es un sentimiento primario, reptiliano, de supervivencia, compuesto o mezclado con el temor y la ira hacia el otro, que se percibe como ajeno, diferente y amenazador. O sea, el odio se expresa siempre como negatividad y destrucción, aún potenciales.

El nudo gordiano anímico del odio, sólo se puede cortar con la superación colectiva. Y esto se lleva a cabo personalmente, ejerciendo la generosidad de miras y el esfuerzo personal de superación y olvido de las circunstancias que conformaron “esa situación”.

La Guerra surge en el enfrentamiento armado colectivo. En la dialéctica violenta de dos grupos sociales rivales. Que buscan por las armas la consecución de determinados objetivos, que son excluyentes para ambos.

Otro de los vicios que han adquirido los miembros “civilizados” de las tribus es la codicia desmedida. Y con ella, su corolario y su modo fácil de satisfacerla, la corrupción rampante. La igualdad social en las tribus, su “republicanismo ideológico”, garantizaba el uso y disfrute razonable de los recursos por todos los miembros. Y el zakat o limosna canónica musulmana y el apoyo de su colectivo suplían los casos de orfandad, viudedad, enfermedad, calamidades, etc.

El Mal es conceptualmente la falta y la negación del bien, que es la única virtud o esfuerzo (como valor estable y permanente) que es positivo. Y la fuerza primaria negativa que genera el odio en un amplio sentido, no necesariamente violento, es la que da fuerza, vida y permanencia al mal del hombre.

El Mal como concepto, como ente inmaterial, necesita de un instrumento, de un vector, para manifestarse en nuestro mundo físico. Y este vehículo material se lo proporcionan las pasiones desordenadas e incontroladas de los hombres, ya dominados y arrastrados por el odio y sus pasiones corolarias. En las cuales y mediante ellas, el Mal se manifiesta avasallador, desbordante y sobrehumano.

Las ideas pútridas, antihumanas y vesánicas provienen de las cloacas, de los pudrideros y pozos negros de la inteligencia y del alma humanas. Y ellas son el instrumento válido, seguro y permanente para la manifestación periódica del Mal en la humanidad. Este Mal, inasequible para la razón y las capacidades humanas, es la manifestación temporal del Misterium Iniquitatis.

THE SPANISH NACIONAL POLITICS

A STERILE AND INEFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT

The dispersion and inefficiency that the authorities show in the complex labor of uniting the popular wills and in implementing clear policies of reinforcement of the national unity and of control of the hackneyed and unsuccessful ideas of dissolution and substitution of that one, have different original reasons.

A nation does not congregate and galvanize, re-joins and advances with procedure, laws and regulations. Called to juridically confine the public thing. A nation is not governed in times of dangers and incipient decadences only by the economic and accounting ideas and policies. That only serve to create and preserve the material wealth. But that at least nowadays can not avoid the hardness and the cruelty of the phases of crisis and decadence of the economic successive cycles. That literally can crush the collaboration between the social strata and deepen their differences. And these policies are bored, affected and pissquiets. Because the action of the money, which is his essence, has these natural qualities.

This makes and defines a rachitic, defensive politics and without worthy horizons of the best efforts. And, also, serious and reliable of the duty. As serious and reliable were Cervera’s, when they sank his fleet in Santiago de Cuba and Montojo’s, when the same thing happened to him in Manila to his Spanish fleet of the Pacífico, presences.

The lack of virtues in the exercise and the example of the power and the leaders, have drained and withered the right of the country, as political national instrument.

LA POLÍTICA NACIONAL ESPAÑOLA

UN INSTRUMENTO ESTÉRIL E INEFICAZ

La dispersión e ineficacia que demuestran las autoridades en la compleja labor de aunar las voluntades populares y en implementar políticas claras de refuerzo de la unidad nacional y de control de las trasnochadas y fallidas ideas de disolución y sustitución de aquélla, tienen varias causas originales.

Una nación no se congrega y galvaniza, se reune y avanza con normas, leyes y reglamentos. Llamados a encorsertar jurídicamente la cosa pública. Una nación no se gobierna en épocas de peligros e incipientes decadencias solamente con las ideas y políticas económicas y contables. Que sólo sirven para crear y conservar la riqueza material. Pero que ni siquiera hoy en día pueden evitar la dureza y la crueldad de las fases de crisis y decadencia de los ciclos económicos sucesivos. Que literalmente pueden triturar la colaboración entre los estratos sociales y ahondar sus diferencias. Y esas políticas son aburridas, melindrosas y meaqueditas. Porque la actuación del dinero, que es su esencia, tiene esas cualidades naturales.

Esto crea y define una política raquítica, defensiva y sin horizontes dignos de los mejores esfuerzos. Y, también, seria y cumplidora del deber. Como serias y cumplidoras fueron las presencias de Cervera, cuando le hundieron su flota en Santiago de Cuba y de Montojo, cuando le ocurrió lo mismo en Manila a su flota española del Pacífico.

La falta de virtudes en el ejercicio y el ejemplo del poder y de los gobernantes, han drenado y agostado a la derecha cabal del país, como instrumento político nacional.

THE PERSECUTIONS TO THE MODERN CHRISTIANS.

There is taking place in the last months a real «planetary conjunction». It is about the «temporary coincidence» of a bloody and fierce pursuit of the Christians, whose «green outbreaks» are in the Arabic Islamic countries. That is coincidental with the solvent, quiet and cunning action of the European «trendies», against the virtues of the European societies. Both actions are surely a «cosmic part» of the so called » mysterium iniquitatis» or agree to the Darkness.

The Agony of the Christianity in the Frame of the Human rights habitually recognized.

The UNO is considered by many a bureaucratized and crystallized multinational organism. And it turns out to be already arthritic and almost ineffective in the steps and resolution of the most serious international problems, specially the conflicts. But his «Universal Declaration of Human Rights», approved on December 10, 1948 by his General Assembly, is still the paradigm and the principal reference of the civil, political, social, cultural and economic rights of all the men. The following are the articles most distinguished from that, relating to the topic that occupies us:

Article 2. Every person has all the rights and freedoms proclaimed in this Declaration, without distinction of race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion or of any other nature, national or social origin, economic position, birth or any other condition…

Article 7. All the people are equal in the eyes of the law and have, without distinction, right to equal protection of the law. They all have right to equal protection against all discrimination that infringes this Declaration and against any provocation to such discrimination.

Article 12. Nobody will be an object of arbitrary interferences in his private life, his family, his domicile or his correspondence, neither assaults to his honor or to his reputation. Every person has right to the protection of the law against such interferences or assaults.

Article 18. Every person has right to the freedom of thought, of conscience and of religion. This right includes the freedom of changing religion or belief, as well as the freedom of demonstrating his religion or his belief, individual and collectivly, so much publicly as privately, for its education, the practice, the worship and the observance.

Article 19. Every individual has right to the freedom of opinion and of expression; this right includes of not being bothered because of his opinions, of investigating and receiving information and opinions, and of spreading them, without limitation of borders, by any way of expression.

Article 28. Every person has right to which there is established a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms proclaimed in this Declaration become fullly effective.

The «Enemies» of the Christian Churches. Ideological, political and moral Reasons for their «Permanent Pursuit».

The most certain and zealous enemies, along the History, of the ideas and the religions have always been the political or politician religious closed and despotic systems, the Messianic totalitarianims and the absolutist and exclusive States. In all of them we can see the same identity characteristic: the inflexibility and the immanence of his «statutory ideology». And it happens independently of that agrees with another religion. Or that it does in a social, political, economic and Messianic doctrine. That offers an «empire of domain» for thousand years, which scarcely lasts a decade. Or the appearance of the «new social man», at the cost of the sacrifice violently imposed on 200 previous generations (this was the estimate of “the Great Steersman”), and that crumbles in little more than four decades.

THE FUHRER ADOLF.

THE GREAT STEERSMAN, AS A MORTAL DEITY…

Or, more vulgarly, that it is the expression of the personal power or of clan of a governing minority (not a real social elite) compelling monopolizer, wilted and exclusivist. And in the practice, these «dictatorial societies» have a «lack», that will end taking them to his social sterility and to his vital ruin. And it is his total lack of a «sociological empathy» towards the stranger, the opposite one, the nearby neighbor, «other one». From which his religion, his political system or his political intention guide, abruptly separates them. And that works and operates in opposition to the desires and realities of the persons who live in these closed societies.

The Christians would be «less” pursuit by some of his State or particular enemies, if his labor was coming down to giving «worship to his God» and to slightly or null proselytism. But, apart from the preaching of «Good New» or Gospel to the men, the mission of the Churches includes to treat the «ethical foundations of the temporary order». And to give and to orientate their faithful and the men, on «the morality in the actions and temporary situations», private and public. This way, when the bishops or priests and even the faithful are quiet before an objective and serious immorality for reasons of «opportunism, education or relativism seudopolitic», they are incurring what, in Apocalyptic words, would be «the fornication with the kings of the land». This ideological oppression, with which it is tried to restrict «politicly and softly» the Christian doctrine, is summarized very well in a joke of the 60s, referred to the catholic Church and using an encyclical of Juan XXIII: “Mater, yes, Magistra, no”.

The virtues as identity and defense of the human societies.

It is now a question of something that affects and attacks a human virtue. The virtues are the kindness and reference qualities, hihgly regarded and permanently valued by the societies and human groups.

The virtues are very resistant and lasting in the time. The values, on the other hand, are the kindness and human qualities, temporary and/or local estimated by some societies and human groups. And they are so, principally, due to his idiosyncrasy, the living conditions and the pressures received from the exterior. These cultural and social values are evolving with the contingencies, the displacements and the fortunes of the human societies.

Inside our extensive Western Culture, which reaches to all the continents of the West and, in minor measure, to Asia, the identity virtues are provided by the different Christian churches and by Cicero’s speeches and Plato’s Dialogs. One of these essential virtues is the respect and the worship to the divinity. As recognition and worship to the Necessary Being who creates us, supports us and, in some cases, helps us. This makes concrete, according to the education, the culture and the social environment.

The armed Pursuit to the Christians in the Arabic Countries.

There are given in the last months diverse cases of violent pursuit to the Christians, in countries where the Moslem religion predominates. They are the lands of “dar-al-Islam”, where the Umma or Moslem universal community politically dominates. But some not Muslims who live in dar-al-Islam have a «protection agreement» with her. To this the Jews and the Christians have theoretical right, as peoples mentioned in the Koran. And that hold some of the Books also considered prophetic by the Islam.

In Iraq, al-Qaeda attacked the Christians, as part of his strategy of crushing the Iraqi civil society. Generating the hatred between the different religious, ethnic and social classes. And facing them violently between themselves. The victims here were the Syriacs and Caldeums Iraqi Catholics. Whose number is today less than 1/3 of those who existed in the epoch of the defamed Sadam Hussein al-Tikriti. Neither the former prime minister, Nuri al-Maliki helped to smooth the things. In effect, he carried out a Islamization campaign in Baghdad. And his targets were the masculine scattering places, where alcohol is sold, the jeweler’s shops and the bagdadies Christians.

BOKO HARAM

Since the Sharia was implanted in 1999, as consolidation of the Moslem power, in 12 northern States of the federal Nigeria, the dead men in the ethnical religious fights that struck, were more than 15 thousand persons. Only in March, 2010, the (Moslem) ranchers of the fulani etnia realized diverse assaults against the Christian farmers, who caused approximately 500 dead men. In eve of the Christmas of 2010, one new radical violent Islamic fundamentalist group, autocalled Jama atu Ahlu «SUNNA» Lidda Awati Wal «YIHAD» realized a simultaneous multiple assault in a Christian neighborhood of Jos’s city. They did explosion 9 or 10 devices in his streets and the market, looking for the persons’ major concentrations, causing near 90 dead and 190 injured Christians.

In Pakistan, the local groups of Tehkrit-e-Taliban Pakistan and related, attack the Christian churches and the faithfuls whom they can accuse of some verbal slip or of an improper conduct. Those are established at the west of the Indus, from Quetta, in the Pakistani Baluchistan, up to the north of the valley of the Swat. They connect with the independence Muslims of the Indian Kashmir, which assumed the terrorist assaults in Bombay. In Egypt, the Coptic Christians are usually squeezed by the republican oligarch regime. And now after the military revolution of Marschal Abdel Fattah al-Sissi against the Moslem Brothers, their social situation is lastly more deteriorated. This way, for example, it is denies to them the right to substitute or repair his worship places. This has provoked some Christian local revolts.

MOSLEM BROTHERS’ COAT OF ARMS

Everything with the consent of the omnipresent and theoretically illegal Moslem Brothers. This is one of the veteran organizations in the Arabic expansion of the politicallly active violent Islamism. Whose principal original ideologists ended hung by the Egyptian authorities of the epoch. In the Upper Egypt numerous Coptic churches can be visited. The Christians came to Egypt several centuries before the appearance of the Islam. Their churches are frecuently being surrounded with palisades or with protective fences. But a church is a place of popular reception and encounter.

And, finally, let’s speak about the sealed off and infected case of the Sudan. Where the northern Arabs want to impose the Islam by the force over the black tribes of the west (Darfur) and of the south. These are of Christian or animistic religions (natives primitive, in constant setback). This religious and ideological oppression is anchored in the secular mentality of slave-trading of the Arabs at the north of Khartoum. That already had from before the times of the Khedive or «viceroy» in Cairo of the Sublime Door. The succesor and nominal owner of the Arabic Caliphate. This was complicated and established in the last decades, with the fight for the rich oilfields and miners deposits of the south and the west of Sudan.

These natural resources, exploited in collaboration with the Chinese (certainly, the new Economic imperialists of the developing countries), would guarantee the viability of a of the free and independent South Sudan. That was initially stimulated and directed by the Popular Movement for the Liberation of the Sudan. Whose military wing (and more known by the public) is his Sudan People Liberation Army. The movement was born in 1983 as popular, religious and of classes reaction to Yafar al-Numeri’s attempt of imposing «manu militari» the Sharia and the Islamization (a “legal”, but illegitimate and reactionary religiousness), in the south of the country.

As in all the civil, concealed and irregular wars, the figures of the «volunteers» appear here, next to the government. As usual, having scanty military orthodox formation and an enormous zeal. On having been newcomers or upstarts, to demonstrate his loyalty and his usefulness to the governmental owner. The nomadic Arabs of Darfur and the frontier Chad form the Janjaweed militias, of light irregular cavalry. Khartoum franchises them in order that they terrify, disperse and decimate the settlers of Darfur. In the bordering lands with Kenya, the Muslims use a combination of Arabic militias (of the etnia misseriya) and renegade (or converted, as look) blacks. To terrify, scourge and displace the black settlers from their lands. In some cases, these «patriots» are supported by the regular aviation and the artillery of Khartoum.

Finally, let’s indicate that a Great Perpetrator of these violations, the president of the North Sudan Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, of 70 years, is processed as person in charge of these violations, for “genocide and war crimes” by the Penal International Court of The Hague. Nevertheless, this pajarraco defies the international arrest warrant against him. And since its emission he have went to Egypt, Qatar, Lybia, Saudi Arabia, Eritrea (50 Moslem %), Chad, all countries of Islamic religion.

THE GREAT PERPETRATOR…

Finally, to remember that we have already published numerous articles about the wars that devastate the geopolitical zone of the Asia of the Southwest and the fraticide fights between sunnis (93 % of Muslims) and shiies (7 % of Muslims) in her, looking for the prevalence in the Islam. We suggest to our nice readers, who should wish know with more actuality and extension the rage means committed against the Christians and other minorities by the salafist islamists, to reread these articles.

The juridical religious Pursuit of the Christians in the Islamic Countries.

In major or minor intensity and inflexibility, according to the cases, the sharia establishes nowadays against the Christians:

Death sentence against the blasphemers (to offend, according to his criterion, Allah, the Islam, the Khoran, the Prophet) and to the converted from the Islam (for his apostasy).

Burning and demolition of the temples and closing of Christian schools, hospitals and orphanages.

Prohibition of entry to the country, expulsion and inclusive death sentence to the Christian missionaries.

Prison for carrying Christian symbols. Prohibition of meeting to pray or to celebrate the Holy Mass, even in the homes.

Compulsory conversion to the Islam.

Nigeria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwai, Malaysia, Indonesia, Syria, apart from Saudi Arabia and Iran, are the countries where the sharia is more or less established.

In these countries, the not Moslem communities in general pay taxes, for not being harassed by the Muslims and living in peace under his protection. These taxes are the “administrative link” between the «protected» unfaithful persons and dar al- Islam.

But, any «doctor» of the Islam can teach that a collective duty of the Umma or believers’ community is the spread of the faith. That is realized imposing and not catechizing her (or «preaching the catechism» or text of the doctrine). Carrying out with it the consolidation and the extension of dar-al-Islam, the lands submitted to the Koran, the sunna and the sharia or civil and penal laws based on them.

Consequently, in agreement with his doctrine, when expires an «agreement of protection», the Moslem authority only can accept that it is renewed, if the amount of the taxes is increased or if in the new contract is stipulated the transfer to the Islam of more lands or cities, additional to the before yielded by the dimmíes (the Jews and Christians, the peoples also mentioned in the Koran and that hold part of Allah’s revelation). Also they use the legal principle that if some member of the «protected» community damages a Muslim, all his collectivity loses the “protection right”.

How do Moslem Authorities react to these local Violations?

Well, they look to other side. As if the Christians did not have acquired rights, according to his religion. As if in Europe we were pursuiting and condemning death, to the jail and to the confiscation of goods, to the millions of Muslims who live and prosper here, taking refuge in the kindness of the State of the well-being. The majority of the Muslims takes distance from the aggressions for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in West.

His spokesmen affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true. Not with the attempts of the jihadists that we suffer in name of the Islam, not with the extensive pursuit, in many countries, which the Christians suffer. This contrasts with his attitude of directed, noisy and bad-tempered protest, always threatening, when, for example, a few Mohammed’s cartoons, publish in territories outside the Sharia, in another physical and cultural continent. That, according to their strict and inappealable criterion, are offensive for themselves, acting as judge and part. And it turns out that, out of his countries, the Sharia lacks legal or religious jurisdiction. It is not any more than wet paper. Another thing is that they “accept” this. And say so to the persons that understand very little about the Islam.

YOU WILL BE A SON FOR HIM (ALI JAMENEI) AND HE WILL BE A FATHER FOR YOU (GENERAL QASSEM SULEIMANI, IRAN’S REVOLUTIONARY GUARD

The radical contemporary Islamics (Moslem Brothers, al-Qaeda and his regional exemptions, the Taliban cis and trans over the Durand frontier line between Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran and his henchmen fellow soldiers of Hamas and Hezbollah, the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant, Boco Haram, the al-Shabad militias, etc.) see in the Western Civilization, the worst enemy of their ideas and plans.

Because our civilization is founded on the reason, the scientific and philosophical knowledge, the freedom, the rights and the Christan faiths. Because by these clear advantages, we can conquer his despotism and his radicality; the discrimination of the women for mundane very old reasons, in which the religion and the protection of them are the theoretical excuse; the rejection of the scientific assumptions of progress and culture, on having had retired as Islamic orthodox method of study, the ichtihad or analogical common sense reasoning, from the 11th century.

Finally, in the Christianity, the believer perceives his God as a Father and a nearby, just and rewarder Saviour, with the arms receiving in Mercy. However the Newests are not preached very much nowadays, to not alarm the «trendies». In the Islam, God is separated from the man by a natural insurmountable abyss and is just and rewarder with him. But it is more feared by his justice and separation, that considered as intimate and nutritious Father.

And, how reacts the many-colored European trendy ectoplasm?

This one is generally of central control «ideology» (because they want to direct us, up to the minimal social and personal details, as if we were immature), despotic (because his postulates are not debatable by others), imperious (because his method is the imposition, not the conviction) and, today, shamefully socialist. It is shamefully socialist, because his “dream of sofa, coffee and scholarship or prebend” was to recreate a “paradise of the proletariat». That would have more or less «oasis and houris», according to his cases, in his lands. Though none went to live in the USSR or another socialist countries, to be employed at them, already at the time.

And this dream turned into nightmare, of difficult, agonizing and hasty awakening, with the fall of the Socialist States through all the Eastern Europe. And the discovery by all the rest, that to the «new social man» of these countries, the «cause of the proletariat» nothing, nothing motivated him. The technological armament career that imposed the USA in the decade of the 80, absorbed the best resources of the USSR. And it shrivelled up her to the entrails. Following a national strategy of wear, without direct threats, or melodramatic maneuvers. Some “not principal” members of the «nomenklatura» later admitted that «we did not have anything to eat» then. And the Red Empire, empty of contents, messages and illusions, social and economically implosioned. And the Soviet Army formerly feared by the Western Europe (the classic NATO), remained turned for many years into a «paper tiger».

So, the proper thing of the «trendies» (or peoples of ideas with few theoretical or ethical conditions) it is also here to kept silent before the violations to the Christians, away the sure borders of the great Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Urals. It also takes place here a social paradoxical, but not unusual phenomenon: the islamist feverish militants and the decadent «trendies», though placed in two social antagonistic and irreconcilable ends, have the same operational intention:

The destruction of the European society, as it is still built-up, on the foundations of the Classic and Christian virtues. And his substitution by an amorphous society, without coherent, protective and stimulant virtues, satisfied, mangery and worker. Where the immediate material desires, which before we were calling «caprices», for its inconstancy and superfluousness, are looked for as small indispensable goals. Because they are the consoling of the lives lacking vital transcendency and substance.

AL-KORAN II.

(CONTINUATION)

Genesis, chapter 39 narrates Jose’s arrival to Egypt sold by his brothers to a merchants and his entry to the service of Potiphar, the secretary and chief of the Guard of the Pharaoh, where he rapidly rises at the first position of confidence of his owner. There appears the attempt of seduction of the wife of his master, Jose’s final rejection and her immediate denunciation out of spite, which takes Jose to the king prisoners’ jail. In view of the crime and the serf’s character of Jose, it is clear that Potiphar did not totally believe his wife. The XIIth sura of the Koran is entitled Jose and is dedicated to him. In her this Jose’s temptation is detailed with major extension: his tunic is ripped in the back, sign that was fleeing from the woman and that was not throwing her. Already with her friends, she was returning to try to attract him, who confesses that he was on the verge of yielding.

This way, an isolated incident, selected to demonstrate Allah’s Providence on Jose and his ventures, through all the vicissitudes that he suffers, goes on in the Koran to the category of detailed important story. Exemplifying this way th Lord’s Providence on all his faithfuls, in spite of the problems, displeasures and difficulties that they have to live. God takes care of theirs, though they do not see it clear or immediately sometimes. Of there, the faith, the hope, the domain of the ego and the merit, far from any desperation or mundane fatalism, that suppose the «trusting abandon of the believer in Allah’s will or Islam». This doctrine is very similar to the doctrine of the «spiritual infancy» of saint Teresa de Lisieux. For which the pope John Paul II nominated her Doctor of the Catholic Church in October, 1997. In spite of having been a poor enclosed nun, died with 24 years and that her writings were saved almost by miracle of being rejected or destroying after his death.

The Koran clearly prevents of the danger that the Jews suppose for the faithfuls. That stems from the perversion of their character and from their deviation from what they was prescribed and revealed by God in the Torah. And this happens in spite of having been a privileged people, being carriers and guardians during centuries of the faith in the Unique God. In the History and the Development of the Revelation they would constitute a «chosen unsuccessful people». This way, in 5, 85 he says about them: » You will admit that those who feed the most violent hatred against the believers are the Jews and the idolaters. And those who are readier to love the faithfuls are the men who call themselves Christians; this is because they have priests and monks and because they lack pride». Mohamed’s relations with the Jews were initially very cordial. Mohamed was got as a friend by the Jews of Medina, after the Hegira. And he undoubtedly thought, to attract them to the new faith. He even instituted a fasting, which fixed for the 10th of Tishrei or the seventh month, the Day of the Jewish Pardon. One year later he abolished it.

Not getting his apostolic hope, Mohamed replaced the preaching by the force. The Jews resisted up to the end to the implantation of the Islam in Arabia. But, unable to join, the Jewish tribes were submitted one after other. Sometimes, Mohamed only expelled them from their living places, as in case of the Ben Cuainuca, who went out of Medina healthy and safe. In general, the Jews were coming to terms in honorable conditions, obtaining guarantees that would use as base, to establish their future “modus vivendi” inside Dar al-Islam, the lands been ruled by the Muslims, given to these by Allah.

The Gospel in the Koran.

The presence or the reference of the 4 Gospels or the Good New of Jesus, the Christ, the God’s Anointed, is scarcely testimonial in the Koran. «This is my very dear Son, in whom I have all my complacencies», after the baptism in the Jordan and «This one is my Son, my First-born one, listen to him», in the transfiguration, are two teophonias, expressly devotes in the Gospels, to Jesus as «anointed». The reason of not going further into the NT, beyond indicating his existence, is that Jesus names himself as the Son of God. And that is the Second Person of the Holiest Trinidad, who acquires the human nature of Maria and of the Holy Spirit, to redeem us of the “original sin” and to give us example of life. In the Second Person both natures would join in hiphostatical union. The first three gospels (Inyil) are stories of Jesus’ life, telling the most out-standing facts that happened in his life. To demonstrate that he was the awaited Messiah (specially Saint Mateo, aiming to the Jews) and the Son of God who was coming to save all the men (Saint Lucas, for the unfaithful persons and Saint Marcos).

And San Juan, in the Fourth Gospel (Inyil), deals more on what Jesus said. Of his speeches and comments, and here the thing is more direct and unequivocal. «Philip, why you say to me, show us the Father? Who has seen me, has seen the Father. Do not you believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me?». «The Father and I are the same thing». » Nobody knows the Son, but that to whom the Father has wanted to reveal». «Nobody goes to the Father, but by Me«. «The Father loves the Son and has put in his hands all the things» «I am the way, the truth and the life». «The one who believes in Me, will live forever». «Father, those you have given me, I want that where I am, they are also with me, in order that they see my glory, which you have given me, because you loved me before the creation of the world».

For Allah, Jesus (Isa) is an out-standing prophet. In 3, 37 it is said that «Mary (Maryam), his mother, is immaculate and chosen between all the women». His conception is realized by action of the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel). And he was violently dead, as it happened to other prophets. God specially stands out Jesus and allows that he realizes miracles in order that he convinces the Jews about his mission. This way, Jesus before realizing his signs, always announces «with the God’s permission». In the chapter 3, «Imran’s family», is detailed on Jesus and his preaching: «you were filling with pride and incredulity, whenever was coming to you a messenger, an apostle, bringing what your souls were not wishing. To some of them you took for liars and you killed others». «I come to confirm you the Torah, which you have received before than I». «I will allow you the use of certain things that had been prohibited you». «I come with signs in behalf of your God. Be afraid of him and obey me. He is my God and yours». «When Jesus warned their infidelity, said: who will be my auxiliary, to drive the men towards God? We, answered his disciples, will be the God’s auxiliaries». After his death, Jesus waits for the final Reappearance of the men, to be resuscitated.

«Jesus is to Allah’s eyes, what is Adam. God formed him from the powder and said: «Be», and he was. This comes from your Lord, guard in doubting it». God neither needs sons, nor has anybody associated like him. For the Koran this would be like another God or a second God. In 43, 14, it is said: «Nevertheless, there have attributed him children between his servants. Really the man is ungrateful”.

Being One, everything else is created and lower than he. This way, the transcription of the Gospel in the Koran is minimal. The Khoran is connected with the preaching of the God One of always. That was contemplated again and again in the Torah, to defend the God’s Unit and to separate the people of Israel of the polytheistic idolaters, who were surrounding he. That were attributing «divinities» to the great natural power (rain, fire, storm) and anthropological (love, war, revenge). The pre Islamic Arabs were adoring Lat, Ozza and Menat as sons of God and it was also necessary to separate them of these diversions.

Origin, path and concepts of the Yihad.

The Jihad expressed in the precise concept that we all understand, is not gathered in the Koran. Nevertheless, in the Koran appear numerous verses which encourages the Muslims to the defense of the community, to the fight against the unfaithful people and to the armed spread of the Islam. Established the main lines, rapidly the political chiefs of the Umma, including the Prophet, threw hand of the instrument that so clearly was offering them and that they needed in a “struggle of life or death”. And they named it “Jihad”. This is really the “Little or Minor Jihad”, as we will see.

The Islam establishes the obligatory nature of the Jihad as Holy War, comparing her to the so called «5 pillars of the Islam», which are symbolized by the back of an opened hand. They are the elementary obligations, of ritual and collective character and simple, of every Muslim in his «submission to the God’s will». At the beginning of the Islam, when was reigning the jahiliyya (definition of the barbarism previous to it) in the Arabs, in the times of Mohamed, the Jihad was indispensable and inevitable for the defense of the new religion. That was arising in the middle of a “stormy sea” of pagan and idolatrous and more or less nomadic tribes and clans, which were populating Arabia. It had not even begun the first expansion of the Islam to the whole Arabic world, and the Muslims groups could be easily eliminated by their enemies. Any radical change, even only new, finds always an initial rejection, which originates in the conservative «ideological and tradition inertia», which exists in the society where it appears.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

AL-KORAN.

Koran is the knowledge and his reading, and al-Koran or the Koran is the Noble Book par excellence. Mohamed did not try to found a new, different, distant or enemy religion. But gathered and departed from the written and oral traditions of the Jews (the Torah or our Old Testament (OT) and Christians (a very poor Gospels) of his epoch. Because all of them were adorers of the Only, Eternal and Almighty God. That personally approaches the men, good and bad, to reveal them His full, happiest and self-sufficient existence. And to give them a message of eternal salvation, by His freest will. In the Koran are narrated and repeated through numerous chapters the histories of different and numerous Jewish prominent figures of the OT. Even, like in case of Joseph, the son of Jacob, it spreads in details that are not in the Jewish and Christian texts.

Approximation to the Koran.

The matters treated in the Koran relate directly to the worries and pains that, along his flow of live, were in Mohamed’s soul. At the beginning of his preaching, during his first stay in Mecca, the descended suras are religious and then, after the Hejira’s, the medinesas gather orders from a statesman, an organizer, a driver command. From the point of view of his style, the Koran is written in the rhythmic prose (say), which was used by the priests and magicians of the idolatrous Arabia. But, unlike the language used by these, it does not use high-sounding, dark or without meaning words. But it possesses an unusual wealth of new ideas, which do it a model of the Arabic literature. The text of the Koran is a stone of scandal for many men, because not they all treat it with the perfection that it asks and deserves. In effect, some take it textually, interpreting it to the letter, without admitting any possibility of ideological variation or of logical adjustment; but others, probably too studious of the language and his expressions, understand almost everything allegoric, veiled.

The Koran has 114 chapters or suras, that contain around 6200 verses or aleyas. The discrepancies in his number, according to the compiler schools, led to the inventory of his words, 77934, and of his letters, 323631, as these numbers were coinciding. The Koranic language is simple and nearby and the methodology of expression is simple and very repetitive. The Koran is directed to humble and uncultured peoples. That have to learn his messages, procedures and mandates with allegoric and metaphorical literary formulas. Using bucolic, hunting and pastoral similes, that turn out to be near their simple and natural ways of life. And to remember and assimilate them by their frequent repetition, firstly in local group (the first madrassas or Koranic schools) and then in the loneliness with God.

Again and again, the Koran insists that the obligations of the Muslims are to establish the daily prayer (the salat), to give the canonical alms (the sakat) and to do the good in general. It is evident that, before any obligation and his fulfillment, it is the recognition and the submission to Allah, specified in the recitation by the neophyte of the ritual formula «Only God (Allah) is God (Allah) and Mohamed is his prophet”. Formula that would have a similar effect to the Christian baptism. The peregrination to The Mecca and his holy places is more blurry, because in the stage of the descent of the suras from Allah, the Muslims were a minority, were not organized and well established, and were threatened by multitude of unfaithful enemies.

In 28, 37 specify: «As Allah does the Good, also do you the good and do not promote the disorder (the Evil) in the Earth». The Evil would comprise, among other things, the murders or homicides of innocent, the drugs and drunkenness, the unnecessary destructions of all classes of goods or crops and useful trees. Also the Koran warns the Muslims, against the mistaken and smug attitude of the villains, the false announcers and apostles in his name. That are, in turn, leaded away by Allah, in order that they suffer the punishment for their malicious and recalcitrant actions. 2, 10 «When it is said to them: Do not commit disorders (crimes) in the earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in her the good order (the good)». 2, 11 «Ah!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it». But, Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful, always will punish the villains and the unfaithful person, below the deserved by their sins, crimes and ungratefulnesses.

Origin, need and transmission of the Islamic Tradition.

The histories orally transmitted of “the customs and sayings» (the Sunna) of Mohamed, were transformed soon in writings, which were, in turn, objects of big summaries. Every story or written comment is called the hadith or hadis. The term also is used to refer the generality of them. The length of the hadithes is very variable, depending on the theme. Its intelligent internal structure is highly interesting and important. This characterizes them and gives faith of their verisimilitude. In each hadith is usually first exposed the «transmission chain» up to its writing or the checking of her, from his oral origin, with the figure of the «transmitter». Nowadays, we would call this its historical traceability. Aixa or A’isa, the second and preferred wife of the Prophet, and Alí, his nephew, are of first importance as «transmitters» of the hadithes. Then, there comes the content of the story or the comment, called the «matn».

The Koran in 4, 59, guarantees and grants a special power of decision and explanation to the Prophet or Envoy of God and to the sovereign, successors or Muslim caliphs, who are those who hold the authority in the Umma. This would explain and justify the need of a qualified interpretation, foreseen by Allah, for the practical application of the Koran along the geography and the history of the peoples. With Mohamed acting as interpreter, as exceptional and privileged «intermediary» of Allah.

There exist hundreds of thousands hadithes that have come up to us. And between them appear numerous contradictions. In addition, their total text is excessive for have commented or said and lived or realized by Mohamed. Even using for it all his life. From almost the beginning, the doctors and apologists of the Islam saw this. The hadithes were in risk of turning into a chain of myths, tribal embellished stories and realities more or less preserved of a vaporous and insecure Tradition of the Prophet. And soon was established a system of critique of the «isinad» or transmission, to guarantee the quality of the content in strict sense or «matn» of the hadithes as written Muslim Tradition.

God, his manifestation and his multiple anthropological expressions.

The God’s names arise in the Jewish religion and in the Islam as the impassioned expression of the overflowing qualities of the only divinity. They do not include only the name with which God wants to be called by the men (Yave, Allah, God), but also the name of his most out-standing and transcendent or near the man anthropological characteristics. Famous «99 Allah’s names» of the Islam are principally based on the qualities that likewise Allah assumes in the verses of the Koran. And in the deduced with the qiyas or analogical reasonings by the ulemas and mufties during the first centuries of the Islam.

It is interesting the origin and the development of some of these meanings. The Jews of the Kabalah claim their «72 God’s names» from Exodus 14, 19 to 21. Each verse in Hebrew has 72 letters and taking a letter of each one, are created the only 72 combinations of the Hebrew letters. The mystical interpretation says that they would be like the spiritual vibrations of a divine diapason. These esoteric frequencies would protect the men from the negative energies of the ego (the deviant, enlarged and exclusive ego) and would communicate them, at their low level and according to each receiver capacity, the powers of the divinity. Nowadays, it would be said that they act in the DNA, the telometers, the mother cells and the mithchondrias, to reach every benefited person.

These «special wonderful sounds», these rhythmic mantras, appear in other books of the OT. That was the method decided by God to knock down the walls of Jericho, happened during the conquest of the Promised Territories to Israel and is narrated in Josue’s book, chapter 6. For 6 days, the people surrounded once a day in total silence the perimeter of the sieged city. 7 priests were accompanying his march, sounding their trumpets. There was going the «God’s presence» and the Ark of his Alliance with the people. At the seventh day, at one time, Josue also ordered the Jews to clamorously shout, each one in his position in the line of march and looking to the city. The action powered by God knocked down the walls of Jericho. And the Israelite milites, an infantry between light and irregular, already without defensive obstacles to overcome to get at close combat, assaulted her. And gave to the edge of the sword men and women, children and old men, oxen, sheep and asses of the city.

The Jewish tradition in the Koran.

Mohamed was influenced in his formation by Jewish merchants taken root in Arabia, who not necessarily were rabbis. Not even they were taking the totality or the purity of the Torah with them. Along numerous chapters of the Koran appear the histories of different prophets or witnesses of God and some of his enemies, taken from the Torah and forming a similar story with the Sacred History of our infancy. The passages referred to every prophet or informer of Allah are distributed along a part of the text, even intermingled between them. This way, the specific story is not fluid and continues, but, rather divided and repeated, as didactic method to illiterate people. Some specific episodes, such as Joseph and the wife of his master Potiphar, have narrative unity.
The prophets, apostles or warners of Allah are successively sent to
put in order the various ancient peoples. «I have not destroyed any city, without having sent before a warner.» But in general, the words of his envoys fell in many «deaf ears», idolatrous, evil, stubborn. They disdained the apostles and warners because were mortal men like them and preach against their ancestral beliefs and customs, inherited from their parents. They also required them to prove their doctrine, using special and distinctive «signs», that almost always the apostles did not give. But they answered, preaching the obvious and multiple signs of the creation of the Unique God: Who is like him? And they also called them the attention of if their false gods were capable of helping them, of doing something for them or of saving them in the vicissitudes and the misfortunes. Also they were reproaching their headstrong and their mean and crooked quality: the pagans were turning more or less to God, looking for his benevolence and his refuge, when the things were twisting and were pressing them. But, when the danger or the need was eliminating, they were turning sure, ungrateful and disobedient to God. These were called again and again fools, ingrates, bads and losts. Their end was the gehena, the sakar, the immortal fire. Allah also repeatedly calms his envoys: «your mission is to preach my teachings; you are not responsible for the final conduct of your listeners».

This way, in the Koran appear with sufficient extension the histories of Adam (Adam), Abel (Habil), Abrahan (Ibrahim), Noe (Nuh), Lot (Loth), Job (Aiiub), Jonas (Junis), Moses (Musa), the Pharaoh (Firaun), the king Saul (Talut), David, Zacarias (Zakariyya). Being connected with the Torah and developing it, to demonstrate the base and the continuity of his doctrine of the submission to Allah, as The Only God. About Abrahán does not speak of the legal primogeniture of Isaac, miraculous son of Sara, who was sterile and already major, about the God’s promise: «I Will do of you a great people and your descent will be major that the number of the stars», that extends in the future through him. The Arabs descend from Ismael, older than Isaac and son of Abrahan and Agar, slave of Sara. Isaac is mentioned together with Jacob, his son, in the line of the prophets and warners of Allah.

(TO BE CONTINUED)