AL-KORAN II.

(CONTINUATION)

Genesis, chapter 39 narrates Jose’s arrival to Egypt sold by his brothers to a merchants and his entry to the service of Potiphar, the secretary and chief of the Guard of the Pharaoh, where he rapidly rises at the first position of confidence of his owner. There appears the attempt of seduction of the wife of his master, Jose’s final rejection and her immediate denunciation out of spite, which takes Jose to the king prisoners’ jail. In view of the crime and the serf’s character of Jose, it is clear that Potiphar did not totally believe his wife. The XIIth sura of the Koran is entitled Jose and is dedicated to him. In her this Jose’s temptation is detailed with major extension: his tunic is ripped in the back, sign that was fleeing from the woman and that was not throwing her. Already with her friends, she was returning to try to attract him, who confesses that he was on the verge of yielding.

This way, an isolated incident, selected to demonstrate Allah’s Providence on Jose and his ventures, through all the vicissitudes that he suffers, goes on in the Koran to the category of detailed important story. Exemplifying this way th Lord’s Providence on all his faithfuls, in spite of the problems, displeasures and difficulties that they have to live. God takes care of theirs, though they do not see it clear or immediately sometimes. Of there, the faith, the hope, the domain of the ego and the merit, far from any desperation or mundane fatalism, that suppose the «trusting abandon of the believer in Allah’s will or Islam». This doctrine is very similar to the doctrine of the «spiritual infancy» of saint Teresa de Lisieux. For which the pope John Paul II nominated her Doctor of the Catholic Church in October, 1997. In spite of having been a poor enclosed nun, died with 24 years and that her writings were saved almost by miracle of being rejected or destroying after his death.

The Koran clearly prevents of the danger that the Jews suppose for the faithfuls. That stems from the perversion of their character and from their deviation from what they was prescribed and revealed by God in the Torah. And this happens in spite of having been a privileged people, being carriers and guardians during centuries of the faith in the Unique God. In the History and the Development of the Revelation they would constitute a «chosen unsuccessful people». This way, in 5, 85 he says about them: » You will admit that those who feed the most violent hatred against the believers are the Jews and the idolaters. And those who are readier to love the faithfuls are the men who call themselves Christians; this is because they have priests and monks and because they lack pride». Mohamed’s relations with the Jews were initially very cordial. Mohamed was got as a friend by the Jews of Medina, after the Hegira. And he undoubtedly thought, to attract them to the new faith. He even instituted a fasting, which fixed for the 10th of Tishrei or the seventh month, the Day of the Jewish Pardon. One year later he abolished it.

Not getting his apostolic hope, Mohamed replaced the preaching by the force. The Jews resisted up to the end to the implantation of the Islam in Arabia. But, unable to join, the Jewish tribes were submitted one after other. Sometimes, Mohamed only expelled them from their living places, as in case of the Ben Cuainuca, who went out of Medina healthy and safe. In general, the Jews were coming to terms in honorable conditions, obtaining guarantees that would use as base, to establish their future “modus vivendi” inside Dar al-Islam, the lands been ruled by the Muslims, given to these by Allah.

The Gospel in the Koran.

The presence or the reference of the 4 Gospels or the Good New of Jesus, the Christ, the God’s Anointed, is scarcely testimonial in the Koran. «This is my very dear Son, in whom I have all my complacencies», after the baptism in the Jordan and «This one is my Son, my First-born one, listen to him», in the transfiguration, are two teophonias, expressly devotes in the Gospels, to Jesus as «anointed». The reason of not going further into the NT, beyond indicating his existence, is that Jesus names himself as the Son of God. And that is the Second Person of the Holiest Trinidad, who acquires the human nature of Maria and of the Holy Spirit, to redeem us of the “original sin” and to give us example of life. In the Second Person both natures would join in hiphostatical union. The first three gospels (Inyil) are stories of Jesus’ life, telling the most out-standing facts that happened in his life. To demonstrate that he was the awaited Messiah (specially Saint Mateo, aiming to the Jews) and the Son of God who was coming to save all the men (Saint Lucas, for the unfaithful persons and Saint Marcos).

And San Juan, in the Fourth Gospel (Inyil), deals more on what Jesus said. Of his speeches and comments, and here the thing is more direct and unequivocal. «Philip, why you say to me, show us the Father? Who has seen me, has seen the Father. Do not you believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me?». «The Father and I are the same thing». » Nobody knows the Son, but that to whom the Father has wanted to reveal». «Nobody goes to the Father, but by Me«. «The Father loves the Son and has put in his hands all the things» «I am the way, the truth and the life». «The one who believes in Me, will live forever». «Father, those you have given me, I want that where I am, they are also with me, in order that they see my glory, which you have given me, because you loved me before the creation of the world».

For Allah, Jesus (Isa) is an out-standing prophet. In 3, 37 it is said that «Mary (Maryam), his mother, is immaculate and chosen between all the women». His conception is realized by action of the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel). And he was violently dead, as it happened to other prophets. God specially stands out Jesus and allows that he realizes miracles in order that he convinces the Jews about his mission. This way, Jesus before realizing his signs, always announces «with the God’s permission». In the chapter 3, «Imran’s family», is detailed on Jesus and his preaching: «you were filling with pride and incredulity, whenever was coming to you a messenger, an apostle, bringing what your souls were not wishing. To some of them you took for liars and you killed others». «I come to confirm you the Torah, which you have received before than I». «I will allow you the use of certain things that had been prohibited you». «I come with signs in behalf of your God. Be afraid of him and obey me. He is my God and yours». «When Jesus warned their infidelity, said: who will be my auxiliary, to drive the men towards God? We, answered his disciples, will be the God’s auxiliaries». After his death, Jesus waits for the final Reappearance of the men, to be resuscitated.

«Jesus is to Allah’s eyes, what is Adam. God formed him from the powder and said: «Be», and he was. This comes from your Lord, guard in doubting it». God neither needs sons, nor has anybody associated like him. For the Koran this would be like another God or a second God. In 43, 14, it is said: «Nevertheless, there have attributed him children between his servants. Really the man is ungrateful”.

Being One, everything else is created and lower than he. This way, the transcription of the Gospel in the Koran is minimal. The Khoran is connected with the preaching of the God One of always. That was contemplated again and again in the Torah, to defend the God’s Unit and to separate the people of Israel of the polytheistic idolaters, who were surrounding he. That were attributing «divinities» to the great natural power (rain, fire, storm) and anthropological (love, war, revenge). The pre Islamic Arabs were adoring Lat, Ozza and Menat as sons of God and it was also necessary to separate them of these diversions.

Origin, path and concepts of the Yihad.

The Jihad expressed in the precise concept that we all understand, is not gathered in the Koran. Nevertheless, in the Koran appear numerous verses which encourages the Muslims to the defense of the community, to the fight against the unfaithful people and to the armed spread of the Islam. Established the main lines, rapidly the political chiefs of the Umma, including the Prophet, threw hand of the instrument that so clearly was offering them and that they needed in a “struggle of life or death”. And they named it “Jihad”. This is really the “Little or Minor Jihad”, as we will see.

The Islam establishes the obligatory nature of the Jihad as Holy War, comparing her to the so called «5 pillars of the Islam», which are symbolized by the back of an opened hand. They are the elementary obligations, of ritual and collective character and simple, of every Muslim in his «submission to the God’s will». At the beginning of the Islam, when was reigning the jahiliyya (definition of the barbarism previous to it) in the Arabs, in the times of Mohamed, the Jihad was indispensable and inevitable for the defense of the new religion. That was arising in the middle of a “stormy sea” of pagan and idolatrous and more or less nomadic tribes and clans, which were populating Arabia. It had not even begun the first expansion of the Islam to the whole Arabic world, and the Muslims groups could be easily eliminated by their enemies. Any radical change, even only new, finds always an initial rejection, which originates in the conservative «ideological and tradition inertia», which exists in the society where it appears.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

AL-KORAN.

Koran is the knowledge and his reading, and al-Koran or the Koran is the Noble Book par excellence. Mohamed did not try to found a new, different, distant or enemy religion. But gathered and departed from the written and oral traditions of the Jews (the Torah or our Old Testament (OT) and Christians (a very poor Gospels) of his epoch. Because all of them were adorers of the Only, Eternal and Almighty God. That personally approaches the men, good and bad, to reveal them His full, happiest and self-sufficient existence. And to give them a message of eternal salvation, by His freest will. In the Koran are narrated and repeated through numerous chapters the histories of different and numerous Jewish prominent figures of the OT. Even, like in case of Joseph, the son of Jacob, it spreads in details that are not in the Jewish and Christian texts.

Approximation to the Koran.

The matters treated in the Koran relate directly to the worries and pains that, along his flow of live, were in Mohamed’s soul. At the beginning of his preaching, during his first stay in Mecca, the descended suras are religious and then, after the Hejira’s, the medinesas gather orders from a statesman, an organizer, a driver command. From the point of view of his style, the Koran is written in the rhythmic prose (say), which was used by the priests and magicians of the idolatrous Arabia. But, unlike the language used by these, it does not use high-sounding, dark or without meaning words. But it possesses an unusual wealth of new ideas, which do it a model of the Arabic literature. The text of the Koran is a stone of scandal for many men, because not they all treat it with the perfection that it asks and deserves. In effect, some take it textually, interpreting it to the letter, without admitting any possibility of ideological variation or of logical adjustment; but others, probably too studious of the language and his expressions, understand almost everything allegoric, veiled.

The Koran has 114 chapters or suras, that contain around 6200 verses or aleyas. The discrepancies in his number, according to the compiler schools, led to the inventory of his words, 77934, and of his letters, 323631, as these numbers were coinciding. The Koranic language is simple and nearby and the methodology of expression is simple and very repetitive. The Koran is directed to humble and uncultured peoples. That have to learn his messages, procedures and mandates with allegoric and metaphorical literary formulas. Using bucolic, hunting and pastoral similes, that turn out to be near their simple and natural ways of life. And to remember and assimilate them by their frequent repetition, firstly in local group (the first madrassas or Koranic schools) and then in the loneliness with God.

Again and again, the Koran insists that the obligations of the Muslims are to establish the daily prayer (the salat), to give the canonical alms (the sakat) and to do the good in general. It is evident that, before any obligation and his fulfillment, it is the recognition and the submission to Allah, specified in the recitation by the neophyte of the ritual formula «Only God (Allah) is God (Allah) and Mohamed is his prophet”. Formula that would have a similar effect to the Christian baptism. The peregrination to The Mecca and his holy places is more blurry, because in the stage of the descent of the suras from Allah, the Muslims were a minority, were not organized and well established, and were threatened by multitude of unfaithful enemies.

In 28, 37 specify: «As Allah does the Good, also do you the good and do not promote the disorder (the Evil) in the Earth». The Evil would comprise, among other things, the murders or homicides of innocent, the drugs and drunkenness, the unnecessary destructions of all classes of goods or crops and useful trees. Also the Koran warns the Muslims, against the mistaken and smug attitude of the villains, the false announcers and apostles in his name. That are, in turn, leaded away by Allah, in order that they suffer the punishment for their malicious and recalcitrant actions. 2, 10 «When it is said to them: Do not commit disorders (crimes) in the earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in her the good order (the good)». 2, 11 «Ah!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it». But, Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful, always will punish the villains and the unfaithful person, below the deserved by their sins, crimes and ungratefulnesses.

Origin, need and transmission of the Islamic Tradition.

The histories orally transmitted of “the customs and sayings» (the Sunna) of Mohamed, were transformed soon in writings, which were, in turn, objects of big summaries. Every story or written comment is called the hadith or hadis. The term also is used to refer the generality of them. The length of the hadithes is very variable, depending on the theme. Its intelligent internal structure is highly interesting and important. This characterizes them and gives faith of their verisimilitude. In each hadith is usually first exposed the «transmission chain» up to its writing or the checking of her, from his oral origin, with the figure of the «transmitter». Nowadays, we would call this its historical traceability. Aixa or A’isa, the second and preferred wife of the Prophet, and Alí, his nephew, are of first importance as «transmitters» of the hadithes. Then, there comes the content of the story or the comment, called the «matn».

The Koran in 4, 59, guarantees and grants a special power of decision and explanation to the Prophet or Envoy of God and to the sovereign, successors or Muslim caliphs, who are those who hold the authority in the Umma. This would explain and justify the need of a qualified interpretation, foreseen by Allah, for the practical application of the Koran along the geography and the history of the peoples. With Mohamed acting as interpreter, as exceptional and privileged «intermediary» of Allah.

There exist hundreds of thousands hadithes that have come up to us. And between them appear numerous contradictions. In addition, their total text is excessive for have commented or said and lived or realized by Mohamed. Even using for it all his life. From almost the beginning, the doctors and apologists of the Islam saw this. The hadithes were in risk of turning into a chain of myths, tribal embellished stories and realities more or less preserved of a vaporous and insecure Tradition of the Prophet. And soon was established a system of critique of the «isinad» or transmission, to guarantee the quality of the content in strict sense or «matn» of the hadithes as written Muslim Tradition.

God, his manifestation and his multiple anthropological expressions.

The God’s names arise in the Jewish religion and in the Islam as the impassioned expression of the overflowing qualities of the only divinity. They do not include only the name with which God wants to be called by the men (Yave, Allah, God), but also the name of his most out-standing and transcendent or near the man anthropological characteristics. Famous «99 Allah’s names» of the Islam are principally based on the qualities that likewise Allah assumes in the verses of the Koran. And in the deduced with the qiyas or analogical reasonings by the ulemas and mufties during the first centuries of the Islam.

It is interesting the origin and the development of some of these meanings. The Jews of the Kabalah claim their «72 God’s names» from Exodus 14, 19 to 21. Each verse in Hebrew has 72 letters and taking a letter of each one, are created the only 72 combinations of the Hebrew letters. The mystical interpretation says that they would be like the spiritual vibrations of a divine diapason. These esoteric frequencies would protect the men from the negative energies of the ego (the deviant, enlarged and exclusive ego) and would communicate them, at their low level and according to each receiver capacity, the powers of the divinity. Nowadays, it would be said that they act in the DNA, the telometers, the mother cells and the mithchondrias, to reach every benefited person.

These «special wonderful sounds», these rhythmic mantras, appear in other books of the OT. That was the method decided by God to knock down the walls of Jericho, happened during the conquest of the Promised Territories to Israel and is narrated in Josue’s book, chapter 6. For 6 days, the people surrounded once a day in total silence the perimeter of the sieged city. 7 priests were accompanying his march, sounding their trumpets. There was going the «God’s presence» and the Ark of his Alliance with the people. At the seventh day, at one time, Josue also ordered the Jews to clamorously shout, each one in his position in the line of march and looking to the city. The action powered by God knocked down the walls of Jericho. And the Israelite milites, an infantry between light and irregular, already without defensive obstacles to overcome to get at close combat, assaulted her. And gave to the edge of the sword men and women, children and old men, oxen, sheep and asses of the city.

The Jewish tradition in the Koran.

Mohamed was influenced in his formation by Jewish merchants taken root in Arabia, who not necessarily were rabbis. Not even they were taking the totality or the purity of the Torah with them. Along numerous chapters of the Koran appear the histories of different prophets or witnesses of God and some of his enemies, taken from the Torah and forming a similar story with the Sacred History of our infancy. The passages referred to every prophet or informer of Allah are distributed along a part of the text, even intermingled between them. This way, the specific story is not fluid and continues, but, rather divided and repeated, as didactic method to illiterate people. Some specific episodes, such as Joseph and the wife of his master Potiphar, have narrative unity.
The prophets, apostles or warners of Allah are successively sent to
put in order the various ancient peoples. «I have not destroyed any city, without having sent before a warner.» But in general, the words of his envoys fell in many «deaf ears», idolatrous, evil, stubborn. They disdained the apostles and warners because were mortal men like them and preach against their ancestral beliefs and customs, inherited from their parents. They also required them to prove their doctrine, using special and distinctive «signs», that almost always the apostles did not give. But they answered, preaching the obvious and multiple signs of the creation of the Unique God: Who is like him? And they also called them the attention of if their false gods were capable of helping them, of doing something for them or of saving them in the vicissitudes and the misfortunes. Also they were reproaching their headstrong and their mean and crooked quality: the pagans were turning more or less to God, looking for his benevolence and his refuge, when the things were twisting and were pressing them. But, when the danger or the need was eliminating, they were turning sure, ungrateful and disobedient to God. These were called again and again fools, ingrates, bads and losts. Their end was the gehena, the sakar, the immortal fire. Allah also repeatedly calms his envoys: «your mission is to preach my teachings; you are not responsible for the final conduct of your listeners».

This way, in the Koran appear with sufficient extension the histories of Adam (Adam), Abel (Habil), Abrahan (Ibrahim), Noe (Nuh), Lot (Loth), Job (Aiiub), Jonas (Junis), Moses (Musa), the Pharaoh (Firaun), the king Saul (Talut), David, Zacarias (Zakariyya). Being connected with the Torah and developing it, to demonstrate the base and the continuity of his doctrine of the submission to Allah, as The Only God. About Abrahán does not speak of the legal primogeniture of Isaac, miraculous son of Sara, who was sterile and already major, about the God’s promise: «I Will do of you a great people and your descent will be major that the number of the stars», that extends in the future through him. The Arabs descend from Ismael, older than Isaac and son of Abrahan and Agar, slave of Sara. Isaac is mentioned together with Jacob, his son, in the line of the prophets and warners of Allah.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

The Great War of the Islam II.

(THE END)

SHIITES VS. SUNNIS

The Separated Conflicting Brothers.

The shiite schism was trying to snatch the majority of the Muslims, followers of the Tradition, the legitimacy of Mohammed’s legacy. In it were included the concepts of the legitimate origin, of the social and military direction, of the religious control and development and of the organizational and social perspectives of the Islam. The sunnis have the political religious control of the Umma in the caliphate and his emirs and representatives sheikhs, who were advised and supported by prepared pious ulemas and mufties.

The chiíes, to get and support their survival, rested the political power, the direction of their great strategy or national strategy and the religious conduction, in the «clerical caste», as intermediaries favored between the faithfuls and Allah. This keeps their believers firmly joined concerning their unique and monitored interpretation of the Koran. Though they have an ideological and social projection towards the future: it is the liberating, severe and maker return of the Mahdi, personified in his twelfth missing Imam (in the year 874), that has not died. But this is the social and psychological need of the recovery, consolidation and exaltation of the established original order, which was disturbed by the sunnis, and a prize, the peace and the luck for the orthodox believers (they) before the God’s Final Judgment.

The evolution of the Jihad towards the “personal submissiveness effort towards Allah: The real Islam”.

Before their own terrorism, so much centrifugal (against the unfaithful persons and the lay traitors) as centripetal (against the schismatic Muslims), the Islamic world is paralyzed and do not know what to say or to do. Terrorism are the collective or personal actions of war against «general, innocent and indiscriminate goals «, so much of the unfaithful persons or idolaters, as of the «separated conflicting brothers». Looking with them to extend the terror within the affected groups and to provoke political, religious or social changes in them. It is the blackmail of the terror, elaborated with long goings to and fro, which looks, with the «waves of commotion» that transmits to the attacked social groups, optimizing to the maximum the effect of his tactical and generally spasmodic actions.

The majority of the Muslims move away from the attacks for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in Western countries. Their spokesmen and intellectual affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true. In addition, and this is more serious, the ulemas and muftíes that favor the «compassionate and merciful interpretation» of the Koran do not present solid arguments against the verses favorable to the Jihad. Which are use efficiently and imperiously by the armed radicals. That are those who give course and support to the «belligerent terrorist hackneyed Jihad misinterpretation».

Never was carried out inside the Islam a deep reflection about the political and religious opportunity of the violence. It is not the case that the intellectual laymen Muslim react. They are not operative in the way that we know in the West. As for a good Muslim the politics, the society and the religion form an only, exclusive and inseparable trinity established by Allah. Besides, the social and political failure of the intellectual laymen Arabs remains tied with that of the nationalistic, leftist and Europeanized elites, that stimulated the independence of the different Arabic nations after the World War II.

The Jihad was necessary for the establishment and the defense of the believers’ primitive community, the Prophet establishing the Islamic state from the violent destruction of the jahiliyya (the existing barbarism previous to the Arabic Islam). And even the Jihad could be useful for its rapid extension through the world, according with the existing condition of culture and development of the medieval civilizations. But its historical opportunity does not exist nowadays. And then it must be replaced for another type of personal effort in Allah’s way». Which concept already exists in the Sunna and that might be recaptured and proclaimed by the ulemas and the pious muftis, which are the ideologists of the real and everlasting Islam. And, certainly, these enjoy the most ample political, social and economic independence: they are respected and/or fearsome by the governments in their respective countries, and are usually those who administer the Zakat or the canonical alms.

Difficulties for the Reunion of the conflicting Communities.

A fundamental problem for a sincere and stable approximation of the «sisters conflicting communities» constitute the concepts of the legitimate origin of the command, of the control and development of the «dogma and morality» and of the immense economic politician religious structures, alive and with own interests, created by both expressions of the Islam, almost from his beginning. Another serious origin of damages and irreconcilable distancing, especially at national level, are the forms of violent fights between both beliefs. When they attack between themselves, they try to damage the utmost, coming up to the intimacy of the kinship. And this way the targets are looked in the mosques, markets, peregrinations, concentrations and in the frequent or in mass movements of the peoples. Places where there usually are members of the same family. It is the uncontrolled violence and taken to her unnecessary, immodest, insanity and paradoxical (do not they practice the same religion?) social limits. Between the clans and tribes, only ethnically speaking, this wave of murders, outrages and hurts in the goods, always generates an “intergenerational chain” of “unavoidable vindications” for the assaults, the reprisals and the «blood offenses» suffered. This essential and indestructible Gordian knot, for what it seems, only can be cut by the sword of the generosity, the altruism (looking not what we «lack», but looking forward in communion and construction) and the pardon, which should be more attainable between a confession brothers.

At the end of the Middle East is the shiite antiwestern theocracy of the ayatollahs. These, when want important and rapid results against his neighbors, use commands or units of the Republican Guard. That can train, equip and support his allies of Syria and Iraq. And that are capable of fighting at the near and of assault distances, as a specially trained light infantry, and better than the normal units of the Western armies. These armies always use and need to attack the support of their heavy fire. The Republican Guard is overlapped in the regime, forming the unconditional and effective military wing of the Islamic Republic of Iran, acting like modern «Immortal of the Shas of Persia». She, as the Egyptian military, possess an own economic very wide support. That guarantees her the operational independence and rewards generously her dedication and loyalty in the fulfillment of her tasks and missions. The regime shiite is taken root in a complex of councils, boards and assemblies, designed, created and organized to assure, keep and perpetuate his oligarch social religious functioning. But the regime is unable to develop modern and economically a country with the resources and the demographic exuberance of the Iranians. Iran is a Great Shiite Island, with his archipelago, placed in an enormous Sunni Ocean. That embraces her, from the west to the east, through all her south, from Turkey to Pakistan, passing for Afghanistan, Arabia, Jordan, Palestine. Her «islands and adjacent capes» are The Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Bahrain; having more strength in Iraq and The Lebanon. The results of the so called «Arabic spring» have not been favorable to the shiites, which are kept immersed in the sunni «hostile ocean». The «big seas» tributaries of that ocean are Egypt and Saudi Arabia, as principal protagonists and representatives of the sunnis. The former offers his strength and his demography and the later uses his economic exuberant capacity, to support and to extend the reason of the sunnis throughout. And the loss of the regime of the Assad in Syria not only will reduce a convenience ally, that not of religion, to Iran. As the Syrian alauis are really, «the heresy inside the heresy (shiite)», according to the sunnis. But it will obstruct very much all the logistics of the immense and strategic support to Hizbullah and to Hamas, in the Gaza strip. That is the form of expression of Iran of a «belligerency by third parties interposed» opposite to the West and his allies in the geostrategic zone. This is confirmed by the recent operational indefinite entry in the Syrian civil war of Hizbullah‘s regular militias in favor of the government, seeking to recover the progressive social wear of Assad’s regime.

What is crudely appearing at semi continental scale, in a most ample geostrategic zone, is a fight to the death between the shiites and sunnis for the political religious hegemonic power in the mentioned zone. Qom’s clerical gerontocracy is caressing the idea that, to nuclearly level the Israeli capital, would put them at the head of the Islam. The Islam that was big and powerful, according to them, when it carried out the Jihad. Also the Turks think that the Sublime Door only was prosperous and strong in the long periods of the Modern Age in which it faced the Europeans, for the control of the Mediterranean and the East Center Europe. Turkey, with almost 80 million habitants, can try to do a sunni «moderating paper» towards the Republic of Iran. The great operational problem for Turkey it is that she was the dominant power of the zone until less than a century ago. In addition, the Turks are not ethnically Arabic and their culture is different. Already Jomeini’s revolution gave an accolade to the shiites and an influence then unthinkable between the yearning, young and/or bellicose Muslims, including sunnis. There is a mesmeric attraction for the Iranian leaders, for «That» action would be the loud knock to the secret Mahdi. In order that he reappear and was putting at the head of his faithful shiites in the definitive victory of the Islam at the culmination of the History…

The Great War of the Islam

SHIITES VS. SUNNIS

The extension of the masses movements and of the motor means at attainable prices, by the employment of the oil products and the internal combustion and of reaction engines and the exponential development of the wireless communications, especially in the digital age, have allowed the proverbial Sunni Shiite rivalry to concentrate in the beginnings of the 21st century in a new and major clash in the geostrategic center of the Islam. That has showed in numerous simultaneous and unconnected poles in his respective nationals political processes. But that, integrated in an expression of higher range, allow to define a clear, expressive and sufficient trend of how and why these clashes happen. It is an irregular networks war with multiple politician social knots, realized in different national theaters that spreads over the Dar al-Islam ecumene. They are the lands where the Muslims govern and are a qualified majority, though the sharia does not always apply. This hard core or center heart («nuclear core») of the Islam is the so called Middle East, that geographically corresponds with the southwest of Asia and Egypt. It is the Great War of the Islam. And, as in all the violent dialectics, it has its own strategies, opportunities, actions, aims and times.

The War inside the Umma is inconceivable.

The Koran, religious common source of the shiites and sunnis, is not highly revealing about the internal armed disputes within the believers’ universal community. In the epoch of the Prophet this problem was not contemplated. And if those had existed, on having joined with the external harassment that the Muslims were suffering, probably they were leading together to the dispersion and the disappearance of the faithful group. In the Sura (chapter) 49, aleya (verse) 9 is ordered: «When two believers’ nations are in war, try to reconcile them… The believers are your brothers (it is the maximum relation of consanguinity). Arrange, so, the differences of your brothers and be afraid of God, so that He has piety of you.» And in 4, 33: «Oh, believers… do not kill between yourself … (or, do not kill yourself)». The beginning of the verse is directed against the greed and the illicit appropriation. And the Legislator could have extended it to the murder (death of the innocent) and its variants (as example, the suicide).

The Shiites.

There exists a great ideological and practical difference between the sunnism and the shiism. This feels chased, in reason of the dynastic (the rights of the family of the Prophet to the conduction of the Islam) and ideological (it admits fewer sources of revelation) orthodoxies, that proclaims and defends. The chiism arises in 680 A.D., from the fourth caliph, Ali, cousin, son-in-law and distinguished companion of the Prophet. His supporters being called in Arab, shi’at Ali or, summarizing, shi’is. But, the chiíes had neither organization, nor means to triumph and to dominate in the territories where they were abounding. This way, the shiism, in demographic minority always, assumes historically a fatalistic, passive attitude, even of physical suffering for it. They wait for the return of the (caliph) missing Imam. This is the name that the political – religious guides take in the chiism and that does not have to do with the sunnis imames, of lesser range and ideological formation, which direct the prayer in the mosques. That one will come as al-Mahdi (guided by Allah) at given moment in the History, to make triumph the orthodox Umma (the shiites). But also cases of insurgent or warrior action have been given in the shiismo, even successfully and with popular implantation, as in Jomeini’s Iran and in The Lebanon with Hizbullah or Allah’s party. The principal shiíes national communities are in Iran (65 millions), India (22 millions), Pakistan (36 millions), Iraq (17 millions) and Afghanistan (5 millions), being a majority in Iraq and Iran.

The Sunnis.

The sunnism, which follow nowadays near 90 % of the Muslims, also accepts as divine revelation the Tradition or Sunna of the Prophet, where from they take the name. The facts and Mohammed’s comments form the tradition. The major or minor rigor in the selection for the purity of its origin and in the acceptance of this tradition, which was gathered and transmitted by his more immediate followers, characterize the four sunnis «ideological schools», founded astride between the VIIIth and IXth century. The most opened and flexible school, the chafií founded by the Palestinian al-Chafii, died in Cairo on 820 at the age of 53 years, opened an encouraging door for the pacific evolution of the Islam. She accepts also the «consensus of the wise persons» of the community or Umma and the “analogical reasoning or qiijas”, as correct routes for the temporal adjustment of the Islam to all the times and geographical places. Departing from his «rural, illiterate, poor, medieval and surrounded of hostile and barbarism» origin. For it, it departs from the hadis: «Allah recognizes the good in what the Muslims have judged as such».

At Mohammed’s death, the tribal Arabic alliances that he created were threatening to dissolve, when all did not recognize his message and/or the political religious control from Medina. The first caliph Abu Baker al-Siddique, two years minor that Mohammed, affirmed his authority in the community and consolidated the caliphate as the «religious politician successors of the Prophet». Not as «Legislators of the Islam», institution that went out with that one. And for it he used the Jihad, in the so called war of the riddas, establishing a regular army, but without receiving any regular pay.. The first 4 caliphs, from Abu Baker to Alí, are known by the sunnis as the Rashidun, «the straightly guided (by God)». In this historical original stage, the Muslims realize their first conquests, departing from his initial core Meca-Medina, towards the north, east and west it. The transmission of the caliphate would enter already immediately in irreconcilable conflict with later called shiís.

Origin, need and transmission of the Islamic Tradition.

The histories orally transmitted of “the customs and sayings» (the Sunna) of Mohammed, were transformed soon in writings, which were, in turn, objects of big summaries. Every story or written comment is called the hadith or hadis. The term also is used to refer the generality of them. The length of the hadithes is very variable, depending on the theme. More interesting and important for us is its intelligent internal structure. This characterizes them and gives faith of their verisimilitude. In each hadith is usually first exposed the «transmission chain» up to its writing or the checking of her, from his oral origin, with the figure of the «transmitter». Nowadays, we would call this its historical traceability. Aixa or A’isa, the second and preferred wife of the Prophet, and Alí, his nephew, perform first importance as «transmitters» of the hadithes. Then, there comes the content of the story or the comment, called the «matn».

The Koran in the chapter 4, verse 59, guarantees and grants a special power of decision and explanation to the Prophet or Envoy of God and to the sovereign, successors or Muslim caliphs, who are those who hold the authority in the Umma. This would explain and justify the need of a qualified interpretation, foreseen by Allah, for the practical application of the Koran along the geography and the history of the peoples. With Mohammed acting as interpreter, as exceptional and privileged «intermediary» of Allah.

There exist hundreds of thousands hadithes that have come up to us. And between them appear numerous contradictions. In addition, their total text is excessive for have commented or saying and lived or realized by Mohammed. Even using for it all his life. From almost the beginning, the own doctors and apologists of the Islam saw this. The hadithes were in risk of turning into a chain of myths, tribal embellished stories and realities more or less preserved of a vaporous and insecure Tradition of the Prophet. And soon was established a system of critique of the «isinad» or transmission, to guarantee the quality of the content in strict sense or «matn» of the hadithes as written Muslim Tradition.

The Origin of the Jihad.

The Jihad expressed in the precise concept that we all understand, is not gathered in the Koran. Nevertheless, though there appear in the Koran approximately 8 «pacifists» verses, exist near 100 aleyas which encourages the Muslims to the defense of the community, to the fight against the unfaithful people and to the armed spread of the Islam. Established the main lines, rapidly the political chiefs of the Umma, including the Prophet, threw hand of the instrument that so clearly was offering them and that they needed in a “struggle of life or death”. And they named it Jihad.

The Islam establishes the obligatory nature of the Jihad as Holy War, comparing her to so called «5 pillars of the Islam», which are symbolized by the back of an opened hand. They are the elementary obligations, of ritual and collective character, and simple, of every Muslim in his «submission to the God’s will». At the beginning of the Islam, when was reigning the jahiliyya (definition of the barbarism previous to it) in the Arabs, in the times of Mohammed, the Jihad was indispensable and inevitable for the defense of the new religion. That was arising in the middle of a “stormy sea” of pagan and idolatrous and more or less nomadic tribes and clans, which were populating Arabia. It had not even begun the first expansion of the Islam to the whole Arabic world, and the Muslims groups could be easily eliminated by their enemies. Any radical change, even only new, finds always an initial rejection, which originates in the conservative «ideological and tradition inertia», which exists in the society where it appears.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

Military Operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

A Fourth Generation (asymmetrical, Guerrilla) War in Central Asia.

How do Western and Pakistani Armies develop their military operations against the Taliban and al-Qaeda?  What is the idiosyncrasy of the 40 million Pasthuns who live in the territories infected by them? How is the Pashtunwali or honor’s code of their tribes? How can be better attacked the presence, a perfect control does not exist, of the rebels and terrorists in the wide zone on both sides of the «Northwest border» Afghan Pakistani? The instruction, the omnipresent use of the heavy fire support and the mentality of the great modern armies, do they facilitate the efficient military operations against indomitable fanatic religious rebels in their own lands?

The social and military situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

The Taliban and al-Qaeda form two vertically organized movements and from below to up. The ideological and geographical nearness allows them to collaborate tactically. That does that its cells do not know exactly which are the higher chiefs. They only know where they have to go to receive support or to send or to receive information or to communicate with another «peer» cell. The commands of these movements act by exception, not by presence or by deliberate action. This allows them to operate well, without the intervention of its high commands. The death of the mullah Omar and two or three chiefs in an American bombardment, would concern little its efficiency, its real military irregular levels of action. The «martyrdom» of the aforesaid or Bin Laden or his «managing director» al-Zawahiri would perform almost equal importance as their existence.
The operative key of the Taliban resides in their innumerable local chiefs (sheiks), with their small guerrillas bands. They are the persons in charge of intimidating, teaching, scaring, attacking and occupying more or less temporarily some of the numerous settlements and hamlets. According to the pressure degree that they should exercise on the villagers in order that they inform them, hide them and support them. Evidently its elementary degree of operative development keeps the movement at the defensive. Without being able to dispute to any of the present Armies in these areas, any territory or village. Without being able to realize other attack actions beyond ambushes, assaults to very small enemy isolated units, harassment by medium range fire, kidnapping, short duration isolated incursions and ways and paths mined. Ideologically concentrated in the conversion to their movement, to their semi nomadic cells, of the most related or nearby Pashtuns. In a minor and less extensive degree, operate the more independent cells of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Their usual procedure for assault a weak defended or without fighting spirit position is this: at dawn they bombard with the fixed rocket launchers heavy fire, then they approach to use mortars, finally, the assault it is realized by several independent squads, that converging advance shooting AK and RPD or PK machine gun bursts and their RPG and RL personal grenade-launchers.
Afghanistan almost lacks asphalt roads: there are only two. The most important gives itself a round turn all over the country, joining the principal populations, Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, etc. So they called it Ring Road. Then there is the North-South Road, which follows this tour, at the east of the country. They are not great thing. The asphalt have between half and one inch of thickness; the heats soften it and pot-holes and bubbles are easily formed. But, under a protuberance can hide an explosive device. It is necessary to cross slow the roads, looking at the soil and looking over the horizon, searching for carelessness observers, not very distant. The Taliban have the habit of recording on video the ambushes, to hang them on Internet. They are not in the habit of using cables activators; these are expensive and weigh, and the rebels are in isolated zones and the logistics is weak and complicated. The devices are activated by the pressure of the vehicle or by an frequency  transmitter with a given range; even serves an electronic opening door device. With the frequency inhibitors, the soldiers try to offset the radio waves in the probable frequencies used in the zone. Being the most expensive and complicated transmitters, that with more range, power and frequencies range. It is the game of the cat and the mouse. The problem is that the guerrillas of an area receive a radio activator that uses an unforeseen frequency.
As for the usual attack by the light and medium weapons fire, the guerrillas do not approach too much. They are less trained and equipped than that the professional military men. They act roughly scourging. Their more frequent weapon, the AK in its variants 47 and M are not precise beyond 150-175 m., in linear shooting. The mortars fire turns out to be imprecise and can be eluded against a mounted patrol. Nevertheless, against the civilians and the vehicles and goods traffic these assault skills are sufficient and effective. The most  terrifying and effective weapon of the Taliban is the illuminated fanatic suicidal. That looks for, as passport to the Houris’ Garden (it is not an eternal prize!!), to carry with him the major number of dead and mutilated enemies. But the attacker could be a religious madman, but is not an idiot. The suicides do not attack the military prepared or fortified positions. Endowed in their defensive perimeter with complicated wire fences, pits, walls, spaces between obstacles, alarms. Because they know that the explosion will vanish in the air and that they will not let him to approach the sentries outposts, because already they are waiting for him. The principal weapon of the suicide is not his explosive belt or jacket. They are the surprise, the freedom of action and the initiative.
The units of the Allied armies (in Afghanistan) or of the Pakistani army act employing battalions and regiments. With the battalion forces they try to sweep a zone in a direction, in whose opposite limit they have deployed a military «bolt». With a regiment they are in the habit of carrying out a search and annihilation operation in a given area. They are probably too much forces. The highland guerrillas have a natural weapon which lack the soldiers trained in «our way «: the patience and sobriety. In Vietnam they were lonely raised to the trees, and there were silently and stilly waiting, until the crossing of the soldiers who were sweeping the operational zone. Covering with mud the roof of an Afghan hut, it prevents the observation of its interior by the thermal vision airborne devices, crewed or not.
In 2002 the Pakistani began to send troops to the Waziristan and other Pashtuns zones, reaching progressively 80 thousand deployed men there. In their operations, destroyed Taliban training fields and captured many terrorist chiefs. But their regular war tactics and techniques, alienated them the favor or the neutrality, according to the cases, of the tribes, since there were taking place very easily civil innocent victims with them. Finally, in the autumn of 2005 the Government reached an agreement with the tribe chiefs or Maliks, moving back from the zone. It was a low intensity conflict: in the last 2 years 700 military men died. The problem was that it was clearly seen that the military men could not dominate the Pashtuns areas and clean them of terrorists. Since then, the reprisal raids are sporadic and punctual, over detected and given targets, which not always is obtained or destroyed.

The geographical space of the Pashtuns tribes (Afghans and Pakistani).

From Pakistan, looking from the Punjab (or «the land of the five rivers») towards Afghanistan, appears the great bed of the Indus river. This acts as geographical border with the Pashtuns lands, forming an enormous natural moat, which never stopped their raids. Then appears an irregular mixture of plains and mountainous spurs, in lands that turn out to be fertile when they can be watered, shaped by the first heights of the Suliman great mountainous chain. Beyond, the big mountains crown. Towards the north, forming perpetual snow zones, there are Alpine type pastures and heights forests, up to reaching the spurs of the massive chain Hindu Kush. Towards the south, spread the lowest Waziristan mountains, in which appear rocky outcrops at more than 3000  m. of altitude. Descending more toward south, are bush covered spurs and gullies, up to the desolation of Zheb and Mekran areas, already near the Indian Ocean, in the Baluchistan.
These intricate heights provide a wall that prevents massive invasions from one or another side of them, provided the passes are dominated. The most famous still nowadays is Khiber, since it opens the way between Kabul and Peshawar.
In the Baluchistan live the Baluchi, Braui and Pashtun (in the northern part) etnia tribes. In the South and North Waziristan’s regions the Pashtuns are more concentrated, forming a real Pakistani Pashtunistan. Within the great pashtun etnia, the Mahsuds (these specially inclined to break the agreements and treaties) are in the Waziristan central zone, the Wasirs and the Afridis live in the zone of Tirah and the Mohmands, at the north of Tirah. The zone of Chitral, at the north of the border, is formed by the Bajaur, Dhir and Swat districts. The Waziristans are the most problematic, independent and turbulent tribes. Their lands are poor and rough, in which scarcely they find an elementary sustenance. Formerly, up to the first third of last century, they were in the habit of descending occasionally in armed raids up to the Indus valley. To obtain value goods, mounts, jewels, foreign women, attacking and harvesting its inhabitants, which were Hindu of race and religion, and therefore, unbelievers. More to the south-east of the lands of these tribes, without coming yet to the Indus valley, are the lands also mountainous of the Khattaks, Bangashis and Yusufzais, all also Pashtuns. Tribes that produced first class Sepoys for the semi irregular British units operating in these zones.
The Afghan heights around the border with Pakistan are the other great slope west of the mentioned mountainous chains, crowned at the north of the country by the great Hindu Kush. The absence of European explorers in the Afghan side (Afghanistan was an independent country opposite to Russians and British), does that they are less studied and very little known by non specialist people.
In Afghanistan, the Pashtuns are at the south and south-east, reaching 35% of the population and around 12,5 millions persons. Another important Afghan etnia are the Uzbecs (10%) and the Tajiks (25%), which live in the north of the country, bordering the Tajikistan and Uzbekistan independent republics. In the center live the Hazaras (20 % of the population), related with the Persian and in the south are the Baluchis (10 %), related, in turn, with the Pakistani Baluchistan tribes. The flow of Afghans, specially Pashtuns, towards Pakistan or coming back home, when the military conditions are smoothed, does that the figures, lacking for decades of an official census, are variable and vague.
In Pakistan are 4 great etnias: the Pashtuns, the Punjabis, the Sindhi and the Baluchis. Precisely, the country is nowadays divided in four big provinces: Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan and the Northwest Border, each one formed by numerous administrative districts. There exists an autonomous tribes zone, that goes between the last province and the border with Afghanistan and that is governed by the central federal authority. The tribal zone possesses 7 tribal agencies and 6 small districts. The individuals of Pashtun etnia are approximately 25 millions in the country.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the dispute arose with Afghanistan for the possession of the wide frontier tribal zones, which was looking for its exit to the sea. Both countries almost came to the armed conflict, until they signed in 1963 an agreement of borders determination. The borders existing during the British domain were ratified in it. And Afghanistan stayed as an interior country, without access to the sea routes.

Social anthropologic particularities of the Pashtuns tribes.

The internal relations of the groups, families and local families groups and clans, are characterized by incorporating into them certain rites, rules, attitudes and taboos. These gather, value and quantify their vital needs, their primary emotions and their beliefs. The Islam is rigorously followed in the wide zone we treat. They are all of the sunni branch, that accepts the Koran and the Prophet Sunna, his acts and remarks (hadices) due gathered by his disciples, as the orthodox sources of Allah’s revelation to the men. The differences reside in the rigor with which they examine and accept the sources of the Sunna. This assumption forms a part of the social inculturation, strengthening and cohesion of these groups.
These societies agree and are ruled by an authority, more or less respected and obeyed. The more be perfected and advance towards the exterior the society, the power of this authority will become strong and grow and will spread in influence areas. The smaller and isolated is the group, the authority power will be more moderating and integrating, acting as the first between the «equal ones». In these last cases, the meeting of the active members (men, hunters) of the clan in assemblies, “jurgas” (in its language), etc., has supreme and sanctioning value of the deviant or solvent conducts for the group. Evidently, in these local councils, the prestige and the power of each individual member counts, and in them some are more «equal» than others. These local chiefs or Maliks are like favored negotiators with the different governments, who enjoy a personal more than institutional authority, and whose agreements can be ignored by the adult males, if are not confirmed by the assemblies.
Their code of customs and honor is the Pashtunwali. It establishes to the individual certain rights and demands from him certain social duties towards the family, the clan and the tribe. The basic disputes on women, gold or valid money and lands are in the origin of the durable hatreds in these tribes. And that must be kept up to avenging the perceived affront. The own fragility and weakness of the society demands the appearance of the protective values. These might be the hospitality, the loyalty, the friendship, the scorn of the strange, the revenge of affronts and damages, the individual and collective honor. Each of them protects and enlarges in some measure or shade the small human group. As we will see the relations they are interpersonal, in the areas of the family, the clan and the region. They are projected by the opportunity, the nearness, the exchange of goods and the relation. And become strong with the loyalty, the respect of the accepted procedures and the treatment time. And depending on the accumulation of these elementary successive acts. A stranger can aspire this way to his integration, in a personal manner. And not for the quality or importance of his category or institutional position.
The hospitality takes implicit the reciprocity, when one travels, is alone and is not aggressive. This sometimes is perfected by the endowment of an escort to the traveler through insecure zones. The violation of this «escort» by an assault supposes a serious affront for the clan that provided it. The loyalty between the members of the group, sometimes very unstable, cohesion it. The honor inflates the self esteem and appearance before everybody. The revenge, in absence of a real justice, search to punish and then to repair the damages and affronts real or perceived. The scorn of strange not adorned with good qualities or menacing the group, seeks to prevent a priori their integration in it, as a passive defense form. The friendship embraces the ties with the equals and within the group. If someone joins these elementary groups, he is object of loyalty and friendship in a personal way. These values would increase by his performance, ways and personal behavior. It would be the case of a native forces chief, accepted by them for the pays, the honor and the status that they offer and project on the regional clans. The acceptance is not with the cargo, but with the person.
Another characteristic of the social organization of these frontier semi independent tribes is that they stimulate a relative endogamia. With it they seek to isolate, to protect, to support or to increase their idiosyncrasy, influence and patrimony. But, without been biological harmful its use. As it would be between the members of the same family or small or nearby clan. In effect, the marriages not only suppose and carry individuals exchanges between the families of the married. They also produce exchanges and flows of gifts, visits, relations and power plots. In a few little evolved societies, living in a difficult way and, sometimes surrounded temporarily by hostile, the matrimonial relations produce a «revenue», an increases of social positions, influences and goods, which are very estimated by the families.

How is it necessary to confront the approximation towards the frontier tribes and foment their pacification? So that they isolate and expel the violent radical elements. And assume a more lasting and strong ties with the central authorities of both implied countries.

The highland villages are numerous, small and spread for both sides of the common border. In them can be camouflaged a small group of «regulars» Taliban, waiting that the jerky military flood passes away. Apart, the Taliban enjoy a complicated system of natural caves, reinforced by communication tunnels, endowed with extended zones for waiting and the storage of all classes of goods. This system is used to facilitate the traffic between both countries, without having to use the frontier passages or the most habitual and known gorges, as «parts» of the complete journey. And as temporary refuge, when the Allies carry out reprisal or rebels searching operations, on Pashtun zones where they have been more active. Taliban are Pashtuns. Only are distinguished from the local tribes by their major religious proselytism and military activity. Some of the villagers whom the soldiers meet in their patrols and searches, could be «part-time» Taliban and sympathizers. Two or three men of a native group that pass along a rural way, can be a  Taliban team moving across.
Here it is possible to exploit an atavism that survives in all the collectivities. And that is shackled by the civic and moral education in the so called educated nations. And that is the egoism, as original fruit of the defense need and of the chronic shortage of original resources. That generates in the most primitive societies a distrust towards the non nearby neighbor, who is collectively estimated as a competitor and a probable enemy. The Taliban are foreign in Pakistan, and committed in a foreign war. Apart from their select and absorbent radical interpretation of the sunni Islam. Following the mentioned general guidelines it is easy and simple, though laborious and necessarily progressive, to achieve that the Pakistani Pashtuns close up their lands to the Taliban. Avoiding this way the spread of their doctrine and methods. And the extension of their operative refuges towards the west of the Indus, which always will prevent their possible eradication of Afghanistan.
The military operations in the modern wars (of third generation) demand to detect the most rapid and precisely a mechanized enemy, along all his deployment, up to his reserves. Then attacks him with ground and air heavy fire, including tactical rockets. But here the enemy is evasive, dispersed, worse armed, bad trained, unruly. He is native, is tough and scanty, hides easily, is a born predator, usually does not defend his positions. The operations of the military big units and units let escape the guerrilla teams, through infinity of tactical «interstices» or microvacuums of military «combat capacity». It is necessary to operate with nearness at his microtactical military level. To the diffuse, tenuous, but omnipresent «swarm» of the Taliban is necessary to interpose a civic military «swarm». Formed by voluntary elements, more qualified, professional and trained than the guerrillas.
It is necessary to create small «action units», for combined “social military” actions. That are capable of reaching the Taliban habitat and to expel them from it, progressively and firmly. Interposing between them and the tribes, his real guerrilla habitat. Units that, in its basic or standard model, would be formed by a squad of infantry light local loyal trained forces, a squad of professional foreign infantries and a group of civil technical personnel for tribe promotion and education with suitable material. Its logistics and support will be based on ground units and heliborne forces, centrally controlled from 2 or 3 near operative bases. And complemented by mobile columns in vehicles or of cavalry, forming a support patrols’ network in a region.
Once made firm these small flexible units, can arrive there major forces and brigades of work and education, to go garrison the zone and stimulating its social improvement. It is necessary to possess money to buy the will of collaborators and sympathizers. This can become facilitating work and social distinction to them. And to realize the necessary plans of development.
To eradicate the opium crops can be an independent strategic goal. And it is necessary to value very well its opportunity and possibility for every small zone. It is necessary to offer the natives an alternative of peace, progress and well-being, within their beliefs and ways, in order that they expel the Taliban.

HEZBOLLAH.

In the active vanguard of the new «Supranational Undemocratic Revolutionary Totalitarianism» of the 21st century: the Islamic Radical Intransigent Fundamentalism (the IRIF). Brilliant, characteristic and terrible origins, stimulated and trained by the Jomeini’s Revolutionary Guards.

Hezbollah arises after the Israeli invasion of the Lebanon in June, 1982. Hezbollah takes advantage of the great reigning confusion for it, between the established Lebanese different factions (among them, Amal, the Shiite political religious organization which was receiving then the loyalties of the great majority of the Lebanese Shiites), the neighboring states and the great powers. Hezbollah is going to prosper in the emptiness of power and action created by the frustration of some ones and the weariness and the skepticism of others. Hezbollah’s catalyst is going to be the Islamic republic of Iran. Which is going to infiltrate through the Antilibano mountain chain up to the Bekaa altiplane, her revolutionary, selected, capable and motivated «volunteers», throughout the first months following the invasion. They were not too many. But the sufficient ones to indoctrinate, train armed militias and support and stimulate the creation of local active Shiite groups. This was Hezbollah’s original core.

The Islam is, in its simpler meaning, a simple faith, with external and social well definite, easy to follow and observe rites. In the Islam there exist five great rites, which are symbolized in its iconography by an opened hand: The profession of faith, short declaration that opens anyone the entry to the Islam; the 5 daily invocations (the Salat) to Allah; the fasting in the Ramadan month (the Roza); the charity (the Zakat) with helpless, disabled and poor persons of the Umma (Muslim universal community) and the peregrination to Mecca or Hajj at least once in the life, if resources are possessed, which is realized in community, between the seventh and the tenth day of last month of the lunar calendar, Dhul i Hijja. The administration of the Zakat corresponds to the ulemas or to the ministers, according to the sects. This gives them a power and an independence that no civil lay power of the Muslim countries has even dared to question.

There exists a great ideological and practical difference between the Sunnism and the Shiism. This one feels pursued, in reason of the dynastic and ideological orthodoxy that proclaims and defends. The schism in the Islam start from the fourth caliph, Alí, cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophet. The death of his grandson Hussein in Kerbala’s battle, Iraq, in the year 680, will mark the real beginning of the schism between the Shiites and those whom it will be called later Sunnis. Anchored in the original past, the Shiism does not evolve, as part of its identity signs, and admits fewer revelation sources. This way, it historically assumes a fatalistic, passive attitude, even of physical suffering for it, waiting for the return of the last missing imam (caliph), the seventh one since Hussein. Imam is the name that the great politician religious guides take in the Shiism. That one, which is hidden, not died, will return as Mahdi (the guided by Allah), at any one moment of the History, to make triumph the orthodox Umma (the Shiites). But also in the Shiism cases of insurgent action have existed, even with certain success and popular active implantation, as in Jomeini’s Iran or in the Lebanon with Hezbollah or Allah’s party. The Shiites constitute today about 12 % of all the Muslims.

Unlike what some pseudo trendies deduce, Hezbollah’s hostile vision towards the West derives more from the religious dogmas of the islamist totalitarian organization, that from the foreign policies of the democratic powers. During the short war of 2006, Hezbollah led its operative campaign with a high strategic and tactical knowledge and great profusion of conventional armament. Its ideologists understand and value its «blood struggle» as part of the Islam’s war against the unfaithful persons. A general war without political conventional borders. And which goal is, first, to re-define the map of Middle East according to those interests, and, finally, to manage to establish a world Islamic orthodox order.

The Hezbollah’s thinkers do not consider the Lebanon as a possible reality right now. Only when the western influence is eliminated in the zone and Israel destroyed, the Muslim Lebanon will be able to have a proper entity. For Hezbollah, the Western world is one in its hatred and hostility towards its vision of world Islamic unity. In this delirious puzzle, the United States (the Great Satan) are the command of this conspiracy and its aggressive campaign. In them Israel is only one more weapon against the Muslims. Only that is very active, nearby and, till now, very effective. We are not forgotten other modern democratic countries in this attributed and sealed role, despite of us. France, Germany, Great Britain, etc., and even Russia and, lately, China are associates, co-religionists, collaborators, friends of Satan. This about «Satan and company» gives unit of intention and coherence to Hezbollah. Only the «Union of the Islam» can defeat to this unfaithful persons’ tremendous federation. And from this, for example, Hezbollah’s recognition to the Islamic politically active and provocative Iran, as part of that one. In Hezbollah’s lexicon, the Islamic republic of Iran is «Iran el-Islam», which indicates that Iran is only a province of the great «dar el-Islam», the world future caliphate, the Umma in action, in the Shiite version.

There is in Hezbollah a strong integration phenomenon of fanaticism: the promised Paradise already is here or, at least, within reach of the simple faithful believer. It consists in joining the Umma and fulfilling a few clear and simple rules: the so called «5 rites of the Islam». Then Hezbollah preaches them that the Koran says that if they fight in the «blood struggle» of Allah, God «will reinforce them in their resolution and will give them the victory» (caution, to the Umma). And to those who die in this roses path, the immediate and sure prize is the «Houris garden» during an indefinite time (caution, not necessarily eternal). Where all their sensory and sensual appetites will be satisfied, to their personal mundane and wished range. And those who do not fall, specially belonging of the families or the most ancient clans of the «community», will see their material wealth increased with good part of the booty of war taken to the unfaithful persons. It is all a complete, simple, coherent and satisfactory program, specially for the oppressed, those without option, the overwhelmed, the prosecuted and the resentful from this difficult world in which they live.

The Jihad or Muslim Holy War

How it was interpreted and it is interpreted today? What role could have terrorists in it? Is it possible to come to a pacific living together with most of the Islamic people?  How can we control the imames, the preachers and readers in mosques, almost always without a reliable, sole and canonic formation in the Koran and the Sura?  What can really do the ulemas and muftis (the Islamic Law doctors, not theologians) in order to control the «Terrorism in the name of the Islam» and establish a reliable peace of the Islam with all peoples in the World?

What is and what does mean the Jihad in the context of the Muslim revelation?
The Islam is, in its simpler meaning, a simple faith, with external and social well definite, easy to follow and fulfill rites. The rites are canonize actions by a religion and necessary in order that it imbues in the personal and collective soul of its believers. In the Islam there exist 5 big rites, which are symbolized in its iconography by an opened hand:
The faith profession, short declaration that opens anyone the entry to the Islam. The 5 daily invocations (the Salat) to Allah. The fasting during the Ramadan´s month (the Roza). The charity (the Zakat) with the helpless, disabled and poor (in this order) of the Umma (Moslem universal community). And the peregrination to Mecca or the Hajj at least once in the life, if there are possessed enough resources, which is realized in community, congregating nowadays simultaneously several million persons, between the seventh and the tenth day of last month of the lunar calendar, Dhul i Hijja.
The Jihad, the holy war, the blooding effort in Allah’s path, is directed against those that THREATEN the Umma. These can be whether the hostile external unfaithful persons, as the not Muslims which coexist in dar-el-Islam, the lands where the Umma rules politically, and that have broken their «protection agreement» with it. The Jews and the Christians have theoretical right to it, as peoples mentioned in the Koran and that hold some of the books considered also as prophetic by the Islam. The Jihad is considered to be a practically equal obligation to one of the so called Five Pillars of the Islam, already mentioned.
The Koran has numerous “aleyas” or verses that prescribe and encourage the struggle armed in Allah’s way. Used by an “imam” or preacher, which directs the prayers and Koran readings in the mosque, and which credentials are not so much an exquisite Islamic formation of several years in a credited madrassa (Koran school), but rather to possess an empathy with his community and a certain gift of oratory, these absolute, direct and repeated “indications” can turn out to be incendiary.
The Moroccan terrorist “El Chino”, who next committed suicide in Leganés, presided several times, as was said, the Islam prayer in the M-30 road mosque. Was the imam “El Chino” a reliable follower of the Noble Koran?
Sura (chapter), 4, aleya (verse) 33 (29) «…Oh, believers…do not kill yourselves…».
2, 10 (11) «When it is said to them: Do not commit disorders (voice with which the crimes are defined) in the Earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in it the good order (the Good)».
2, 11 (12) «Alas!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it».
28, 77 «As Allah does the Good, also make you the good and do not foment the corruption (the Evil)» (murder of innocent and of peoples that receive you -the lands of dar-el-Ahd-, drunkenness, drugs, unnecessary damages of the things).

We have respectfully taken TWO translations of the Noble Koran to realize a SELECTION of the aleyas that treat on the Jihad. We don not use the sunna (tradition) of the Prophet, which can be an object of controversy, about its legal legitimacy, with the Chiís and other minor Islamic groups.
Sura 2, aleya 186 (190) «Do the Holy war for Allah’s reason against those who make the war to you».
2, 187 (191) «Kill them anywhere that you find them and expel them wherefrom they have expelled you (Andalusia, Sicily, the Balkans? But, perhaps did they come first there?)».
2, 189 (190) «Attack them (the unfaithful persons) until there is not presently idolatry and all adoration is given to Allah». It repeats almost exactly in 8, 40 (39).
2, 212 (216) «The war has been prescribed to you and you have taken distaste of it».
2, 214 (217) «The temptation of the idolatry is worse than the slaughter. The unfaithful persons will not stop doing the war to you, while they have not made you resign your religion, if they can».
2, 215 (218) «Those who leave their country and fight in Allah’s path (the Jihad) can wait for His mercy».
4, 7 (69) «Those who obey Allah and to His Messenger will enter in the society of the righteous, of the martyrs, of the virtuosos, whom Allah has filled with His benefits».
4, 74 «That fight in Allah’s way those that change the life in this world, for that in the Last one. And that who fights in Allah’s way, as dies or turns out to be victorious, We will give him an enormous remuneration».
4, 79 (77) «…have exclaimed: Lord, why do you order us the war? …Answer them: The possession of the life here below is small thing; the future life is the real good for those who fear Allah. Here they will not cheat you even in a filament».
4, 105 (104) «And do not weaken in chasing these people. If you feel sorry, also they feel sorry, but you expect from Allah what they cannot hope».
9, 39 «If you do not go to the battle, Allah will punish you with a painful punishment: He will replace you by another people».
9, 92 (91) «The weak persons, the patients, those who do not have means, will not be forced to go to the war, provided that are sincere respect of Allah and His Messenger». (This makes fall practically the obligation of the Jihad in the Umma, which must contribute this way a suitable number of muhaydins).
9, 124 (123) «Oh, believers!, attack the unfaithful persons who surround you: that they always find in you a rough reception».
47, 4 «When you find unfaithful persons, kill them up to the point of doing with them a  slaughter and put chains strongly on the captive ones to prevent them from fleeing».
47, 37 (35) «Do not show cowardice and do not call the unfaithful persons to make the peace, when you are the strongest».

The principal branches of the Islam and their ideology.
The Sunnism, which follow 90 % of the Muslims nowadays, also accepts as Allah´s revelation the tradition (the Sunna) of the Prophet. These are his facts and his commentaries or hadices. The major or minor rigor in the selection and acceptance of this tradition characterize three of its theological schools, founded astride between the VIIIth and IXth centuries.
The most opened and flexible school, the Chafií, founded by the Palestinian al-Chafii, died in Cairo on 820 at the age of 53 years, opens an encouraging door for the pacific evolution of the Islam. It accepts also the consensus of the wise persons of the community and the analogical reasoning or qiijas, as correct ways for the adjustment of the Islam to all the times and places, from his “rural, illiterate, poor, medieval and surrounded of hostile peoples, origin”. For it starts from the hadiz: «Allah recognizes the Good in what the Muslims have judged as such «.
There exists a great ideological and practical difference between the Sunnism and the Chiism. The last feels pursued, in reason of the dynastic (the Chiism arises from the fourth caliph, Alí, cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophet) and ideological orthodoxy (it admits fewer revelation sources), that it proclaims and defends. This way, it assumes historically a fatalistic, passive attitude, even of physical suffering for it, waiting for the return of the (caliph) Imam missing. Imam is the name that the political – religious guides take in the Chiism, not only the common mosques´ prayer. That one will return as Mahdi (the guided by Allah), in a given moment of the History, to make triumph the orthodox Umma (themselves).
But also cases of insurgent action have happened in the Chiism, even with certain success and popular implantation, as in Jomeini’s Iran, in the Lebanon with Hezbollah or Allah’s Party and his subsidiary Hamas, in Palestine.
It seems to be clear that the Sunnism is more prepared to treat and accept the pacific living together and the relations of all kinds with other religions and political ideologies, at least in certain moments and countries. And that with the Chiism is necessary to negotiate nowadays from a position with more determination and strength.

The modern violent Muslim radicalism and his possible ways and solutions towards a pacific and respectful living together.
The radical Islamic insurgents devoted themselves between the 60s and 80s in last century, to attack to those that they were qualifying of Moslem corrupt and false, socialistic or liberal pro occidental governments. Their fortune was small for all the effort made: the retreat of the Soviets from Afghanistan, with the logistic western support, and the capture of the power in Sudan, guided by al-Turabi, after they infiltrated and got strong in his Army, which is still a unique case. From 90, their aims is Western developed countries.
Their operative present characteristics are:
Their unnecessary and indiscriminate brutality, which discredits them before their religion. Already we saw a minimal example of 4 moral important aleyas, which they despise and not comply with, without Allah had changed them for they. Sura 2, aleya 100 (106) «We do not abrogate any verse of this Book, nor we will make erase any one of your memory, without replacing it by other one equal or better».
The absolute absence of venerable and pious ulemas and muftíes in their side.
Their great operative decentralization owing to the universality of the Umma, which goes beyond the idea of nation or race. But that prevents them from obtaining strategic aims, though their punctual actions are important, painful and fearsome.
Their failure in joining actively and firmly to a social wide group, which gives coverage and permanent impulse to their movement. The most mentally ill activists are in the habit of being isolating progressively of the society (at least, emotional and ideologically) though they «live» inside it, for the sake of their violent methods, to which they sacrifice everything for the efficiency. They follow a process of segregation, purification (in their improvised and not orthodox rites, they fast, use water from Islam´s sacred places and green banderoles with inscriptions of the aleyas that favor their cause), consecration and radicalization. Up to coming to the death and even to the suicide in their limited actions. And then they become extinct, as weak, sterile and deviant that are, far from the Umma and her real interests.
Their zeal of publicity, to which the West contributes insensitively, stupid (it is not to know what it should know) and glad.
Their present aim is to strike any government, since the radical and aggressive caliphate in dar-el-Islam does not exist nowadays.

In the face of this own terrorism (war actions against general, innocent and indiscriminate personal targets), the Islamic world is paralyzed and do not knows what to say or do. The spokesmen and intellectual affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true, as we saw before. The majority of the Muslims take away from the attacks for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in Western countries. But, when do the ulemas or the muftís intervene in the polemic? Almost never.
Never was carried out inside the Islam a deep reflection on the political and religious opportunity of the violence. Does someone know Islamic active pacifists? It is not the case  that the intellectual laymen Moslem react. These are not operative in the way that we know in the West, since for a good Muslim the politics, the society and the religion form the only, exclusive and inseparable trinity established by Allah. Besides, the social and political failure of the intellectual laymen Arabs remains tied with that of the nationalistic, leftist and Europeanized elite, that stimulated the independence of the different Arabic nations after the World War II.
The Islam has to assume that the Jihad was necessary for the establishment and the defense of the believers’ primitive community, the Prophet establishing the Islamic state from the violent destruction of the jahiliyya (the existing barbarism previous to the Islam Arabic). And even the Jihad could be useful for its RAPID extension through the world, according with the existing condition of culture and development of the medieval civilizations. But  its historical opportunity does not exist nowadays and then it must be replaced for «another type of EFFORT in Allah’s way», which concept already exists in the Sunna and that might be recaptured and proclaimed by the ulemas and the pious muftis, which are the ideologists of the real and everlasting Islam. And, certainly, those enjoy the most ample political, social and economic independence: they are respected and / or fearsome by the governments in their respective countries, and are usually those who administer the Zakat or the canonical alms.
Since the emergence of 4 principal theological Sunnis schools before mentioned, the principle of the personal reflection effort, the ichtihad, got power in the Islam. The ichtihad is going to allow the development of the Arabic culture, so much for the civil aspects (sciences, trade, literature, art), as for the enrichment of its theology. It is the base of Islamic lawyers as al-Chafii. The ichtihad is a source of brilliancy, creativity, enrichment, progress and peace in the way of the personal and collective effort towards God (this is the nucleus and the reason of the Islam), when already the Umma has spread and multiplied enormously through the world.
But, circa the XIth century (V century from the hégira or march to Medina), the theologians close the door to the ichtihad. The methodological Islamic approach alters: from then, it is imitating, repeating and following itself and abusing of the doctrine compendiums.

What can really do the ulemas and muftis (the Islamic Law doctors) in order to control the “Terrorism in the Name of the Islam” and establish a reliable peace of the Islam with all peoples in the World?
Would it be possible that the most illustrious and lucid theologians and lawyers of the Islam were assessing and facing the tremendous internal and external problems of living together, which the Umma faces?
Would it be possible that they were agreeing  to use (already we know that it is not new at all) the reflection from the canonical sources, as instrument of advance, adjustment, external relations and perfection through the time of the Islamic community?
Would it be possible that they were preaching against the free and sterile violence that is exercised in the name of the Islam by some very hallucinated minorities?
Would it be possible that they were controlling the quality of training of the imames in the different countries and the exclusion of their noble functions of the upstarts that, being served of the direction of the prayers, preach fanatical, deviant ideologies, criminals and without real future?
Would it be possible that they will declare that the interests of the Islam and of the Umma have Spain and the rest of Europe as good friends, a part of dar-el-Ahd, the countries where the Umma does not dominate politically, but it is in peace with their inhabitants and can realize its performances and rites?
Some of the craziest Islamic guerrillas were the Algerians in the 90s. Without being not at least studious of the Islam and with very earthly interests, they were excommunicated (of the Umma) in their delirium, some groups to others. The takfir or anathema stems from kfur or ungodliness. This one relates directly to the religious chaos or jahiliyya, previous to the Islam in Arabia. For it is declared impious someone who is or tries to be a Muslim and is exiled, at least morally, of the Umma.
Would it be to ask too much the ulemas to use the institution of the takfir against the most recalcitrant, dangerous and criminal Islamic terrorists, which act turned aside perversely (maliciously or after being reprimand by them without result) in name of the Islam?