News on Modern Conflicts. Novedades en Conflictos Modernos.

Utilizamos esta Sección de Novedades para dar a conocer en avance los próximos artículos que irán apareciendo en las distintas «categorías» de temas de esta página, dedicada a los conflictos y crisis modernos.

Terrorismo, Guerrillas y Violencia

El Terrorismo es una compleja operación Política y Violenta de amplia Variedad de acciones. Sus acciones violentas deben ser deliberadas, Continuas o Sistemáticas y buscando Influenciar a una amplia audiencia (mucho mayor que los afectados Directamente por dichas acciones violentas) y generando miedo, hasta miedo insuperable, en dicha “población blanco u objetivo”. Para que realicen y tomen las actitudes y acciones que los terroristas buscan.

Así, una acción aislada o sin interés político no es terrorismo. Será vandalismo,odio vesánico, brote psicótico… pero no es, ni será técnica o jurídicamente terrorismo.

Terrorism, Guerrillas and Violence

Terrorism is a complex Political and Violent operation with a wide Variety of actions. Their violent actions must be deliberate, Continuous or Systematic and seeking to Influence a wide audience (much larger than those directly affected by the violent actions) and generating fear, even insurmountable fear, in the “target or target population.” So that they carry out and take the attitudes and actions that the terrorists seek.

Thus, an isolated action or one without political interest is not terrorism. It will be vandalism, mad hatred, a psychotic break… but it is not, nor will it be, technically or legally, terrorism.

Inteligencia militar y nacional, fallos y resultados.

Los servicios de inteligencia de los grandes países suelen acertar muchas veces en sus opiniones y pronósticos.

Los trabajos concretos de inteligencia a los que se dedican unos pocos agentes modernos, suelen terminar con un éxito parcial o total.

Los trabajos complejos con ramificaciones y desarrollos, que esconden un futuro estimable, pero, no seguro, fallan estrepitosamente. Por esta particularidad compleja y futurible. Y, porque la capacidad de observar y medir un parámetro del alma humana es algo inaprensible, dudoso e incómodo. Seguidamente veremos varios casos concretos.

Las razones para que se produzca la divergencia de aciertos entre los casos singulares y la proyección al futuro (solución prevista) de los asuntos complejos, trascendentes al tiempo, están en parte en la dificultad de su concepción, el riesgo que se corre en aventurar y en la exposición no contrastada a los mandos. Evidentemente, existe aquí una dialéctica entre el ocultamiento realizado y el proceso cognitivo e intuitivo de su imaginación, desarrollo y proyección (solución estimada).

Military and National Intelligence, failures and results.

The intelligence services of large countries are often correct in their opinions and forecasts.

The specific intelligence tasks to which a few modern agents are dedicated usually end with partial or total success.

Complex works with ramifications and developments, which hide an estimable but not certain future, fail miserably. Because of this complex and future peculiarity. And, because the ability to observe and measure a parameter of the human soul is something elusive, doubtful and uncomfortable. Next we will see several specific cases.

The reasons for the divergence of successes between singular cases and the projection into the future (foreseen solution) of complex issues, transcending time, are partly in the difficulty of their conception, in the risk that is run in venturing and in the non contrasted exposure to the commands. Obviously, there is a dialectic here between the concealment carried out and the cognitive and intuitive process of its imagination, development and projection (estimated solution).

HAMAS ATACA A ISRAEL EN 2023.

Los distintos atacantes llevaron a cabo un “ataque de enjambre” sobre posiciones en el centro y sur de Israel. Varios, de los principios o normas de las fuerzas militares en un ataque convencional fueron desatendidos. Por ejemplo, la unidad del objetivo y la unidad del mando de las fuerzas y el mantenimiento de una estructura, de un despliegue para todas las fuerzas atacantes. Aquí, cada pequeña “unidad de acción” islamista tenía su propio jefe y su particular objetivo. Y, es el conjunto de acciones del “enjambre atacante” el que define la estrategia y el complejo objetivo real de Hamas.

LA GUERRA DE MANIOBRAS. EL CONCEPTO DE LA BATALLA AÉREO TERRESTRE MODERNA. UNA INTERPRETACIÓN DEL MARISCAL ERICH VON MANSTEIN.
 Un ejemplo poco conocido de la trascendencia omnipresente de la logística y de su línea de comunicación (más o menos ramificada) en las operaciones y muy importante por sus resultados finales, es la operación denominada DONBASS (la gran zona operativa) por los soviéticos, desarrollada entre el 29 de enero y mediados de marzo de 1943, al sudoeste del río Donetz. Ella forma parte de lo que los alemanes llamaron la batalla del DONETZ: el último éxito estratégico de Von Manstein, que fue malogrado por Hitler en Kursk.
 
 
THE MANEUVER WARFARE. THE CONCEPT OF THE MODERN AIRLAND BATTLE. AN INTERPRETATION BY FIELDMARSCHAL ERICH VON MANSTEIN.
A little known example illustrates the omnipresent transcendence of logistics and the line of communication (more or less branched out) in operations and their final results. Between January 29 and mid-March 1943, the Soviets developed an operation called Donbass at the southwest of the Donetz. This operation forms part of what the Germans called the battle of the Donetz. And was Marschal von Manstein’s last strategic success. Which wasted by Hitler in Kursk.

 

Valery Gerasimov, comandante militar ruso en Ucrania.

Con todas las derrotas acumuladas padecidas por el Ejército de la Federación rusa en su “operación militar especial” en Ucrania desde el 24 de febrero de 2022 hasta ahora, Vladimiro Putin no descansa, se irrita y no tiene paz.

Su último “as en la manga” es el general de ejército Valery Gerasimov, nacido en la ciudad rusa de Kazan, hace 67 años y jefe del Estado Mayor General desde 2012.

Una edad casi ideal para el trabajo que se le viene encima. Definido por organización, cambios estructurales, disciplina, flujo suficiente de medios y mano dura.

Valery Gerasimov, Russian military commander in Ukraine.

With all the accumulated defeats suffered by the Army of the Russian Federation in its «special military operation» in Ukraine from February 24, 2022 until now, Vladimir Putin does not rest, he is irritated and has no peace.

LA PSICOLOGÍA DE LOS TERRORISTAS ISLAMISTAS

La civilización y sus estructuras vital y social en sus interacciones con los individuos y su psicología.

El fallo de los yihadistas en integrarse en un «grupo con creencias y virtudes (los valores permanentes) compartidos». Que le den identidad, sentido y pertenencia a sus vidas.

¿Por qué se comportan así? ¿Cómo tratar a los recuperables? ¿Cómo combatir a los vitandos o recalcitrantes?

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE ISLAMIST TERRORISTS

The civilization and his vital and social structures , in his interactions with the individuals and their psychology.

The failure of the jihadists in joining a «group with shared beliefs and virtues» (the permanent values). That give to their lives identity, sense and belonging.

Why do they behave this way? How to treat the recoverable ones? How to attack the hatefuls or recalcitrant terroris

THE PERSECUTIONS TO THE MODERN CHRISTIANS.

There is taking place in the last months a real «planetary conjunction». It is about the «temporal coincidence» of a bloody and fierce pursuit of the Christians, whose «green outbreaks» are in the Arabic Islamic countries. That is coincidental with the solvent, quiet and cunning action of the European «trendies», against the virtues of the European societies. Both actions are surely a «cosmic part» of the so called «Mysterium iniquitatis» or agree to the Darkness.

El Liderazgo y la Envidia en los Mandos

Situación general.

La Envidia es uno de los vicios más innobles y mezquinos que tenemos los hombres.

La Lujuria, el Robo y la Gula, un apetito desordenado muy amplio y emparentado con la Avaricia, tienen el placer como acompañante y razón de ser.

La Envidia sólo nos aporta dolor, especialmente mental y moral. Y nos genera odio, que lleva a la violencia contra el Objeto de ese odio. Los Celos son una variedad alotrópica de la Envidia.

Porque el placer en este ámbito está en la Generosidad, y, “si quieres ser perfecto”, en la Entrega por el amor.

La Envidia está relacionada con dos vicios íntimos en los que pueden caer los Mandos, que son la Soberbia y la Vanidad.

La Soberbia es la PLENA satisfacción de sí mismo. Y, resulta que es un pecado capital, propio de ángeles, mucho más lúcidos que nosotros. Pero, que se creyeron algunos que eran “auto suficientes sin Dios”.

La Vanidad, mucho más a ras de suelo, es CREER que somos merecedores de la admiración ajena. El vanidoso es como un estilita, aislado en su alta columna. Y que se satisface pensando en el efecto que cree despertar en los demás. Cualquier signo de aprobación que reciba, le sirve como re afirmación de sus ideas.

El envidiado posee cualidades o virtudes que el envidiador CREE que él no tiene. Y las desea, aunque no se correspondan con su nivel jerárquico. Porque generan Popularidad o afección de las gentes de sus entornos. El envidiador se observa en el envidiado y ve refleja una imagen suya empequeñecida.

La Arrogancia del Mando.

La Arrogancia es una forma externa de la Soberbia. El Mando que la padece busca mostrar a los subordinados, la superioridad clara de su jefatura. Su categoría se basa en la Potestas, que es el mando ejercido en virtud de su nombramiento, de su categoría empresarial o laboral. No de sus características y méritos propios, que aquí, siempre le parecerán insuficientes.

Banastre Tarleton - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Banastre Tarleton, arrogante coronel británico, engañado,derrotado y vapuleado en la batalla de Cowpens, por el coronel Daniel Morgan, al frente de milicias estadounidenses, reforzadas por algunos regulares.

La Arrogancia es típica de la milicia en las formas de lucha antigua. Donde los soldados peleaban en formaciones masivas, tanto al arma blanca (espadas, hachas y lanzas) como de fuego (arcabuces y mosquetes). Y tenían solamente la instrucción para la lucha y se les consideraba muchas veces como prescindibles.

El Triunfo. | Cronología del Imperio
Triunfo en Roma

Los antiguos conocían más o menos estos vicios siempre perniciosos de los Mandos militares. Cuando un general romano, al mando de ss legiones, regresaba victorioso a Roma, el Senado podía concederle el Victor. Éste era un recorrido triunfal por varias avenidas, donde el pueblo le aclamaba, antes de llegar al Capitolio para hacer una ofrenda a Júpiter Capitolino. En el carro de triunfo del general, detrás de él, iba un esclavo, que le iba repitiendo durante el paseo: “Recuerda que sólo eres un hombre”.

La Arrogancia civil es la forma más estúpida de la Soberbia. Porque suele estar vacía de Mérito.

Las Virtudes para eliminar estas lacras del Mando.

La Virtud para vencer estos vicios del Mando es la Humildad. Entendida, para que no decaiga en flaqueza o menosprecio, en ajustarse a la natural y real valía del Mando. La Moderación, la Sabiduría y la Serenidad son los aliados firmes de la Humildad.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (Reichsheer) | Cronología de la Primera Guerra  Mundial - WWI
General Paul von Lettow- Vorbeck

Ellas permiten al Mando no tener Envidias o dudas sobre las cualidades de sus subalternos. Ya que un buen Mando es un director de orquesta y debe contar con excelentes intérpretes de todos los instrumentos músicos. Para que su propio papel se encumbre y consagre.

Un general debe tener buenos coroneles, comandantes y capitanes. Y, estos estarán siempre más cerca de los hombres que el general. Pero, los subalternos siempre conocen rápidamente las Virtudes y los vicios de sus distintos Mandos.

El Mando superior o Presidente de un Partido o Empresa es el Integrador de sus unidades o equipos de tareas; es el principal Motor de sus hombres, que siempre le miran a él. Buscando todos sus Capacidades militares o gestoras, que les asegurarán que sin él, las cosas les irán peor a todos; sus Ejemplos y una cercanía Sincera a ellos.

Esto es Liderazgo en Acción.

Carismas y Liderazgos.

Y, ¿qué hay del Carisma? Del que tanto se habla para denigrar a un Mando superior: diciendo que carece de él.

Fusilero de Washington: General de Brigada Daniel Morgan
Colonel Daniel Morgan.

Bueno, ¿que carisma tuvo y tiene José María Aznar toda su vida? ¿Lo tenía John Mayor, ex Primer Ministro británico, sucesor de Margaret Tatcher? Una persona puede no resultar siempre atrayente o simpática.

Pero, las Virtudes sólidas citadas aquí crean el Liderazgo, la capacidad para mandar y ser obedecido y seguido con ánimo. Y pueden sustituir o generar, incluso, esa cualidad tan difusa y tan voluble como es ese Carisma. Esto es lo que realizó y se creó Angela Merkel.

Caso práctico.

Un Mando que «transmite» envidia de un subalterno, será más pronto que tarde sustituido. Y, si este choque anímico perjudica a la organización, la sustitución del Mando se hace necesaria y urgente.

Porque un Mando debe siempre aglutinar, no dividir, a sus subalternos.

Esto vale para el extraño e insólito caso de jefaturas antagónicas anímicas en el PP. Que la culpa de todo sea de un «asesor tóxico» del Mando, no lo sé.

THE ART OF WAR OF GENGHIS KHAN. 2nd Part.

(Continuation)

The positional Dislocation of the Enemy.

Genghis and his army marched safely, crossing more than 500 km of the seemingly impenetrable Kizil Kum desert. And at the beginning of April 1220, Genghis Khan unexpectedly appeared in the city of Bukhara, some 500 km inside Transoxian territory, near the Amur Daria river.

Without having yet fought a major battle, the numerically inferior Mongol army had positionally dislocated the bulk of the Turkmen army and cut Mohamed II‘s line of connection with his western provinces, where many Turkish forces still remained immobilized for this war.

Idealized description of Lieutenant Subidai Bahadur

A “shock wave” swept through the Kharizmi field army, overwhelming it. Mohamed‘s troops remained in the various fortified positions and cities they occupied, defending them, but with a broken spirit. The operational unity of the forces, which is required for successive tactical battles to have significance, had disappeared. It was in the hands of the Great Khan to go waging the necessary combats to liquidate, as would happen in an «imaginary encirclement«, limited by the Sir Darya to the east, by its imposing and unexpected presence to the west, by the desert to the north and south, to the different enemy tactical groups in Transoxiana, already disjointed and disappointed.

Xenophon had already pointed out: “Whatever happens, pleasant or terrible, the less it has been foreseen, the greater joy or terror it causes. This is nowhere better seen than in war, where any surprise strikes terror into even the bravest.»

Mongolian combat idealization

Let’s see some passages from «My Reflections on the Art of War» by Marshal Mauritiusof Saxony, published posthumously in 1757. In them, a deep insight into tactics and human motivations is evident, greater than in any other work by a European author. since the Romans.

“Men always fear the consequences of danger more than the danger itself. I can give a multitude of examples. Suppose that column storms an entrenchment and its point reaches the edge of the ditch. If a handful of men (from the entrenched side) appear a hundred paces outside the entrenchment, it is certain that the head of the column will stop, or that it will not be followed by the elements of the ranks further back. Why? The reason must be sought in the human heart. In turn, let 10 men climb over the breastworks and everyone behind will flee and entire battalions will abandon their defending position”.

“When one has to defend entrenchments, all the battalions must be placed behind the breastworks, because if the enemy manages to gain a foothold on them, those battalions a little further back will think only of saving their lives. This is a general rule of war, which decides all battles and all actions. She is born in the heart of man and is what has led me to write this work. I do not believe that up to now nobody has tried to investigate the reasons for the lack of success of some armies”.

The Caedes.

Genghis and Subidai left one of the Bukhara gates uncovered. With this they sought to attract a large part of the garrison outside the city, to fight in the open field. Most of the garrison, made up of about 20,000 men, went outside, pretending that they were going to face the Mongols. But they really escaped to the southwest. The next day they were blocked on the Amur Daria and the Mongols overtook and destroyed them.

The rest of the Turkish forces locked themselves in the citadel, while the inhabitants surrendered the city. The Mongols advanced thousands of civilians ahead of them on the citadel and soon took it. During all the fighting, a large part of Bukhara burned and finally Genghis Khan ordered the demolition of its walls.

The aforementioned 3 Mongol armies then quickly converged on Samarkand, while Mohamed fled to the western confines of his empire. Some 50,000 men from the garrison of the capital went out to meet the Mongols and were isolated from it, which was left unprotected. And finally they were surrounded and massacred by the Mongols, who did not accept their requests to desert and join the forces of Genghis Khan, since he said that «whoever betrayed once, could do it again.»

Samarkand was inexorably at the mercy of the Great Khan, who took only 6 days to occupy it. Its remaining 20,000 defenders concentrated on the citadel, leaving all its inhabitants defenseless against Mongol looting. One night a group of about a thousand Turks slipped out and managed to flee. The Mongols soon stormed the citadel and killed the rest of the garrison.

After this, the fall of Transoxiana and the territory of Khorrasan (north of Persia) precipitated, without major combat, into the hands of Genghis Khan and with it hundreds of thousands of km2 of a great Islamic empire. This only survived until the year 1231, after its new defeat at the hands of the Seljuk Turks on its western borders.

A Mongolian special force under the command of Subidai went after Mohamed, who, abandoned by everyone, had become a fugitive and an outlaw. In January 1221 the Shah died of pleurisy on an island in the Caspian Sea, without the Mongols having been able to capture him.

Summary of the campaign and results.

In a rapid campaign of almost a year, the Mongols managed to defeat without great losses a seasoned army, which mobilized against them at least double the number of men, but which remained expectant in a static defense.

Employing a brilliant operational strategy, alternating their tireless capacity for operational movement with their proven and irresistible combat capacity and their terrifying techniques of consummate predator, Genghis Khan and his men maintained the initiative and freedom of action. Thus, they deceived their enemies about their plans, discovered their vulnerabilities and went eagerly for them. And dislocated enemy deployments, before attacking them or rendering them irrelevant and surrendering them.

(The End)

THE NAVAL BATTLE OF LEPANTO (1571) 2nd Part

SPAIN AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Military clash of the two Mediterranean Empires of the Modern Age

The tense firing infantry weapons.

As shooting weapons, the Christians used arquebuses and the Turks, mostly, the compound bow.

This was used since many centuries ago by the Asian, Chinese, Hun, Mongol, and Turkmen peoples. The bow was short and sinuous in shape. When drawn by the archer, it took the shape of the convex arc with which is familiar to us. The increased tension produced by forcing back both ends of the bow, which were previously facing forwards, propelled the arrow with precision, power and a longer range of more than 130 ms.

The arcabusses and this was the same until the post-Napoleonic era with the muskets, had an efective range of less than 80 or 90 ms. So that in shooting the Turks had a qualitative and quantitative advantage. In addition, due to its shooting speed and the possibility of using piercing or poisoned arrows.

The only reason that justified the use of the arquebus, as a modern weapon, was that the archer’s training was constant, almost daily and intense. Asian nomads, tending their herds, had a lot of free time. And that the learning of the charge and the aim of the arquebus was much easier and permanent.

The deployments of the fleets.

The allied fleet occupied a linear front of more than 4 nautical miles. As usual, it had a main, central body, two wings and a reserve.

In the central body was the Royal, flanked to starboard by the pontifical captain, commanded by Marco Antonio Colonna and to port by the Venetian captain of Sebastián Veniero. At their sides sailed the other 61 galleys of the main body. This meant that there was no depth in his formation and that he could not, by himself, reiterate his effort against the enemy, being the main body of battle.

To starboard of the center sailed Juan Andrea Doria in command of 54 galleys and to his port side, the wing of Agustín Barbarigo, with 53 galleys.

The reserve, commanded by the Spaniard Álvaro de Bazán, sailed astern of the center and numbered 30 galleys. She will have a decisive role in the crises of the battle. The Christians, unlike the Turks, maintained a strong reserve in the hands of a capable and determined leader. Which is advisable, since it can resolve compromising situations and is one of the means of command to achieve the decision.

The 6 Venetian galleasses sailed ahead of the galley line, two for each corps.

La Real raised the blue banner of the Holy League, decorated with the crucified Christ, the Virgin of Guadalupe and the coats of arms of Spain, Venice and the Pope.

For the purposes of combat capability deployed at Lepanto, the two fleets were nearly evenly matched.

The Turks had 275 ships, including galleys and auxiliary galliots, compared to 208 Christian galleys. That difference was made up for by the larger Alliance artillery, with 1,215 guns compared to 750 Turkish pieces. And, the human forces were almost the same: 34 thousand Turkish soldiers and 31 thousand of the League; and 13,000 sailors and 45,000 Turkish rowers and 12,000 and 43,000, respectively, from the Alliance.

Of Spain’s 20,000 soldiers, just over 8,000 were native Spaniards and the others were Germans and Italians in the service of Spain.

The Turkish fleet had the same layout as the allied one. At first, she sailed in a crescent formation, bringing her wings forward for a threatening and unlikely overrun from the Christian wings. But, they rectified and adopted the linear deployment.

The Turkish center was directed by the Sultana of Ali Pachá and had another 87 galleys. Its port wing was led by Uluch Ali and had 61 galleys and 32 galliots. The starboard wing, commanded by Mohamed Sirocco, had 55 galleys. And, the reserve, weaker than the Christian one, led by Amarat Dragut, had only 8 galleys and 23 galliots. Her insignificance made her ineffective for solo action, and she would likely be incorporated into the main body.

The fight.

Around 11, the wind changed and began to blow from the west. The Turks had to lower sail and row their ships. The Christians hoisted sails and let their oarsmen rest.

The galleasses were advanced, aided by some galleys, and deployed half a nautical mile ahead of their fleet.

Around noon, the Turkish fleet reached the line of galleasses, which opened fire on it with their various guns. The Turks sailed undaunted towards the Christian galley line, unaffected by the fire directed at them. And, they were right in their tactic.

They were soon out of reach of the galleasses. With their fire they managed to sink two Turkish galleys. And they caused damage to still others, slightly disturbed the deployment of the Turkish line and supposedly caused more damage to Turkish morale. Some beautiful and unverifiable conjectures!

But, more than a fifth of the allied artillery remained stopped and useless for combat, there in the line of galleasses.

Already the fleets were facing each other, both sailing rapidly towards the encounter. The Turks opened fire somewhat early with their cannons, with the Christians out of range. And these waited until the Ottomans were within range and caused them unspecified damage.

Finally, both fleets rammed each other. The rams stuck into the enemy ships, the artillery shelled at point-blank range and the marksmen of both sides fired on their embarked enemies.

The spur of the Sultana penetrated to the fourth row of rowers of the Real. Both ships being hooked and forming a floating combat platform of more than 100 ms long and about 10 ms wide. At first, the Real received partial support from the two allied captains located on her sides. But, the Sultana received it from 6 galleys from her combat group. In this, the tactics of the Turk worked better.

For the rest of the line of fleets, the battle scheme was the same. The shooters caused casualties to their enemies and the infantry tried again and again to board and conquer the ship of their immediate rival.

A crisis.

Mohamed Sirocco managed to outrun Barbarigo‘s wing. Thanks to the greater expertise of its pilots, familiar with those Turkish coasts. So they girded to the maximum, to those, sliding.

A hard and bloody fight ensued. Barbarigo received an arrow in the eye, from which he would die shortly after. And, he relinquished command of the ship to his nephew, who would also pass away.

AGUSTÍN BARBARIGO

Álvaro de Bazán‘s reserve then intervened, cornered the Turks and attacked them convergently. Thus, he the decided partial combat for the Christians. Mohamed Sirocco was found dying in a corner of his galley and, to spare him suffering, he was finished off.

Second crisis.

Álvaro de Bazán, true fixer and achiever of the glorious day, regrouped his force and went to support the main body, where the fight was at its peak.

ÁLVARO DE BÁZAN

And, he attacked the Sultana and his combat group from the starboard side. The Partau Pachá galley and 2 more galleys also intervened at that time.

The soldiers of the embarked Tercios then launched into the third and final assault of the Sultana. And they snatched the green and embroidered banner of Ali Pachá. He himself perished fighting with his bow against the assailants. It was said that as a result of several shots from an arquebus.

The powerful and long cry of «Victoriaaa» (Victory) in the Sultana and the death of the admiral of the fleet, acted by spreading «shock waves» throughout the Turkish main body. With the cohesion, motivation and command of the central flotilla undone, it was time for the captains of their galleys.

Many captains tried to flee to Lepanto, to save what could be saved. Some were cut short by the Christian galleys. The rest gradually surrendered throughout the central body.

It was the exploitation of success.

Third crisis.

In the Christian right sector, Uluch Ali had managed to envelop Juan Andrea Doria‘s flotilla. He had tried to refuse his flank to the Turks. But, he only managed to isolate himself from the main battle.

Several Turkish galleys attacked him from the rear. Ten Venetian galleys, two of the Pope and two of auxiliary minions, were stormed and taken by the Turks. They put all the combatants and sailors to the sword, freeing the Turkish galley slaves.

In that, Álvaro de Bazán appeared to help Doria. Uluch Ali was now, in turn, surrounded by the remaining ships of Doria and by the mass of galleys from the Christian reserve. In addition, in the distance appeared a reinforcement of the central body, which had already defeated the Turks in its sector and which came to the aid.

Uluch Ali chose to cast off the 8 captured galleys, which he had in tow, and flee to Lepanto. Bazán tried direct pursuit, without the overflowing, but gave up. Because his rowers, sailors and his soldiers were exhausted with the interventions made that day.

By 4 in the afternoon it was all over.

Results.

The victorious Christian fleet had captured 130 enemy ships in different states of preservation (117 galleys and 13 galliots). Another 94 Turkish galleys had sunk and 33 ships managed to escape to Lepanto. Here, Uluch Ali set them on fire, to prevent them from being captured by the Christians.

Of Juan de Austria‘s fleet, 12 or 15 galleys had sunk and almost twice as many were so damaged (including the Royal one), that they were scrapped when they reached a safe port.

The resulting casualties were very high, as was normal in combat between galleys. Where, once started, it was almost impossible to get away and retire. And, between Christians and Turks, mercy did not exist.

The Christians had 10,000 dead, of which 2,500 were later as a result of wounds and many by poisoned arrows and 21,000 wounded.

The Turks had 30 thousand dead and 8 thousand prisoners. There is talk of drowning, without more. And 15,000 Christian galley slaves were freed.

It gives an idea of ​​the precision of the data that we use the unit of thousands.

That night, with their most damaged prizes and own ships in tow, the Allied fleet docked at Petala.

Significance of the battle.

The Christians won a major tactical and operational victory at Lepanto. The dissolution of the Holy League in 1573 left strategic victory in Turkish hands. Because they ran out of explicit and determined rivals.

On March 7, 1573, the Venetians made a separate peace with the Turks, without considering their allies. Just a month later, the deal was made public.

Don Juan de Austria

In Naples, where he was then, Don Juan of Austria lowered the blue banner of the League and hoisted the flag of Spain.

Cyprus was not recaptured by the Venetians. A nation formed by a group of merchants, whose interest was material gain.

The Turks did not take long to recover from the blow received. Around 2 years after Lepanto, the fleet had been remade. A previous attempt, in a hurry and with little sense, using green wood, failed miserably.

4 years latter, they invaded and occupied Tunisia. By 10 years latter, they were already at war against Persia, at the other end of the Ottoman Empire. The interest of the Sublime Porte was no longer in the Mediterranean.

But, they continued their insidious work by land, to occupy territories in the southeast of the Germanic Roman Empire. Stopped only for their two failed attacks on Vienna.

It is worth by now, assessing the effort of Spain in the triumph of the Holy League. We saw that Spain contributed 80% of the men. The ability and skill of Álvaro de Bazán and his flotilla of Spanish galleys changed the fighting fortunes of both christians wings in the battle.

And, his intervention in the central body led to the final stake of the Tercios. That they were supported by Bazán’s flank attack on the Sultana’s combat group. And the infantry of the Tercios was the elite force of the League.

For all these reasons, we can give at least 90% to Spain’s contribution to the League’s military effort.

Spanish Intention.

As always, «our thoughts went to the destruction of Ottoman pride and arrogance», according to Cervantes.

El Centro de Gravedad del Esfuerzo de Armas Combinadas. 2ª Parte.

Un Instrumento del Mando

(CONTINUACIÓN)

Cerrando, por ahora, el “bucle histórico y definitorio” llaman guerras de V generación a las guerras híbridas o multifuncionales, que, realmente, siempre han existido. Con la participación mayor o menor de cada uno de los “medios de intervención” disponibles en el grupo social, para conseguir las “funciones de intervención” buscadas sobre el enemigo por el Mando.

No por nominar hoy en día con una palabra exótica y nueva, preferentemente extranjera, se crea así un “medio o una función de intervención” fresco y prometedor. El problema es que el desconocimiento de la historia, aún la reciente, empobrece los nuevos conceptos, ideas y situaciones conflictivas. Sin ganar en aplicación, eficiencia y capacidad cognitiva por ello. Con esto sólo se incide o se repite la historia anterior, para volver a aprenderla. Y que, como en una hélice helicoidal, sólo se cambia el “plano de ejecución” temporal fenoménico. Donde se mantienen incólumes y ahora ocultos en parte, los distintos “parámetros esenciales” de los fenómenos y epifenómenos de los conflictos y luchas.

Casi todos los “medios de intervención” del Estado, empleados para conseguir sus objetivos nacionales, ya estaban presentes en la panoplia de medios a su disposición, mucho antes de ésta nueva denominación de la Guerra Híbrida. Las “funciones de intervención” eran desarrolladas por “medios” adaptados a las posibilidades reales de su época. Y conseguían los objetivos buscados, aunque fueran muy específicos. Ahí tenemos las acciones del SAS (Special Air Service) como “fuerzas especiales de intervención puntual con objetivo limitado” en la retaguardia del enemigo. Luchando contra éste y para apoyar y colaborar con “fuerzas de resistencia al ocupante” locales. En los EE UU tenemos a los SEAL, los Rangers, la fuerza Delta y las Special Forces, entre otras. En Alemania está el grupo GSG 9. En Australia y Nueva Zelandia tienen el mismo nombre que el cuerpo británico.

Las necesidades estratégicas y tácticas de la guerra y las funciones de los “medios de intervención” son poco variables. Y su variabilidad es función de las mejoras en capacitación general, alcance, velocidad, capacidad de choque y fuego sobre el enemigo, comunicaciones entre “medios”, protección de estos, etc. Que brinden las sucesivas tecnologías aplicables a los “medios”.

Uno de los “medios de intervención” de una potencia mundial o regional para obtener sus “objetivos nacionales y estratégicos” son las “Relaciones Exteriores”. Que tiene un concepto cualitativamente más extenso que la Diplomacia. Ésta se refiere a los negocios de Estado o de gobierno que tratan 2 o más naciones (entonces, alianzas). Y la “función” diplomática es negociar por la vía política lo que le comunica su ministerio o secretaría de Estado. Pidiendo y recibiendo sucesivas instrucciones, si fuera necesario, para mantener y proseguir la negociación. Y manteniéndose en su ejecución y relaciones protocolarias o no, dentro de las cualidades de discreción, prudencia y tacto que caracterizan al oficio.

Las Relaciones Exteriores incluyen también otras relaciones y acciones más heterodoxas. Que es necesario buscar, apoyar y mantener en el exterior para conseguir nuestros objetivos nacionales. Así, una función de las relaciones externas es aflorar para ello, nuevas oportunidades y caminos o vías y “medios de intervención” más secundarios. Las Relaciones Exteriores colaboran directamente, como siempre se ha hecho, empleando los medios y la estrategia nacional vigente, con la Inteligencia, la Economía y las Fuerzas Armadas nacionales. Es decir, actuando conjuntamente en un “mix” de funciones y medios de intervención, la guerra siempre ha sido Híbrida desde la Prehistoria. Creando así nuevas oportunidades y vías, para aplicar y emplear toda la capacidad creativa y potencial del Estado, para lograr sus objetivos estratégicos y operativos.

Resultado de imagen de Metternich diplomacia
Príncipe Klemens Wenzel Metternich (1773-1859). Como diplomático camaleónico fue más importante en sus logros, que Napoleón en sus guerras.

Un ejemplo sucinto entre miles de situaciones. El “mando central operativo de guerra combinada” (o MCOGC) puede solicitar a Relaciones Exteriores la búsqueda de disidentes o enemigos internos de un potencial país enemigo. Localizados uno o varios de éstos, se valoran sus capacidades, circunstancias, implantación y posibilidades operativas. Así, RR. EE. presentaría un informe al MCOGC en forma de “resolución fundada” implicándose. O sea, valorando esquemáticamente los casos existentes y decidiéndose por uno o dos, en función de sus cualidades y nuestra conveniencia general o puntual.

Esos disidentes o enemigos podrán ser políticos o también armados. En el primer caso, nuestra nación les podría conceder asilo, becas, apoyo económico y asesoramiento a sus grupos. En el segundo, en una fase de mayor confrontación, se podrá también enviarles pertrechos y armamentos, asesores y formadores y unidades de “operaciones especiales” o de “voluntarios extranjeros”, para apoyarles y/o reforzarles en sus actividades insurgentes.

A comienzos del siglo XVI las ideas “reformistas y heréticas” del sacerdote agustino Martín Lutero se propagaron por el centro y el norte de Europa, con la ayuda de la imprenta. El origen de la palabra propaganda surge durante la llamada Contra Reforma. Es una referencia a la propagación de la fe católica, con los jesuitas en la vanguardia de esa tarea de catequización. Haciendo frente a las desviaciones de la ortodoxia preexistente, enseñadas por los luteranos, hugonotes, calvinistas, erasmistas, etc.

Resultado de imagen de propaganda social
PROPAGANDA CHINA CONTRA TAIWAN.

La propaganda, como “medio de intervención”, maneja siempre informaciones básicas, esenciales, que son sencillas y simples por definición. Esto es debido a que su “objetivo” (el “target” de los snobs) es siempre amplio y numeroso: la población de un determinado país o región, o un colectivo extenso religiosa, económica, racial o socialmente diferente. Ellos son los que hay que informar, convencer y, según los casos, proteger.

Un “medio de intervención” contra los enemigos o para cambiar o influir en voluntades, que era desconocido, por impensable, hasta hace muy poco, es la Guerra Cibernética.

Los ataques cibernéticos pueden dirigirse al software o al hardware de los sistemas informáticos personales, empresariales o institucionales. El software es el “soporte lógico” de un sistema informático, que hace posible la realización de las diferentes tareas. Este “soporte lógico” incluye el sistema operativo y las aplicaciones o programas informáticos que realizan aquéllas. El hardware, por su parte, es la maquinaria o el conjunto de componentes físicos del ordenador. Así, resumiendo, el software genera instrucciones que se ejecutan por el hardware o soporte físico del sistema.

Resultado de imagen de ataques ciberneticos mas famosos

En general, los ataques se realizan al software de un sistema, buscando una “debilidad” de éste. Y mediante los códigos maliciosos, las entradas traseras, etc. Una penetración o asalto al software se previene en general con un antivirus apropiado al virus recibido. Para atacar al hardware hay que actuar sobre el “componente físico” del ordenador. Y su detección, con la miniaturización existente hoy en día, resulta muy improbable y larga en el tiempo, hasta que se detectan los estragos. La mejor forma de acceder al hardware es realizando la intrusión en las fábricas de componentes y de montajes. Pero éstas están protegidas con medidas de control de componentes y equipos externos, basadas en la nacionalidad y el productor de ellos. Salvo que el atacante y el fabricante coincidan indeseablemente contra los compradores de los productos…

Imagen relacionada
Esquema algo confuso de la Ciberguerra.

La Economía es un importante y clásico “medio de intervención” del Estado y de la Nación. Significa e implica en el esfuerzo de guerra a la capacidad de obtención y producción de toda clase de bienes y servicios, intermedios y finales, que las tecnologías y procesos en vigor en cada etapa son capaces de lograr y conseguir.

Resultado de imagen de reagan and gorbachev
Reagan y Gorbachov

También, en casos de necesidad y utilidad, una nación puede decidir asignar más recursos productivos para la producción de un determinado bien. Pero, cuanta más especialización se exija en la producción, los rendimientos, tanto netos como económicos (como coste de ellos) serán menores. En virtud de las leyes del rendimiento decreciente y de los costes crecientes que sufren estos “procesos productivos especializados reconvertidos”. Es muy fácil utilizar el cemento en producir bienes militares de defensa estática (bunkeres, líneas defensivas artilladas) y no levantar edificios con él; resulta relativamente fácil convertir las fábricas de vehículos industriales en productoras de blindados. Y es muy difícil conseguir grandes rendimientos de una lechería convertida en fábrica de armamento.

Todos estos “medios de intervención” exigen necesaria y suficientemente ser armonizados y coordinados por un “centro de gravedad” del Mando en cada teatro de operaciones. Que, en un esfuerzo centrípeto y convergente dirigiría y aplicaría los medios específicos a su disposición.

(FINAL)

THE NAVAL BATTLE OF LEPANTO (1571)

SPAIN AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Military clash of the two Mediterranean Empires of the Modern Age

Introduction.

December 7th marked the 450th anniversary of the triumph of the Holy League (Spain, Venice and the civil Holy See and some minor minions) in the naval battle of Levanto against the Sublime Porte.

The Turks, since before Mehmet II (Mohamed, in Turkish) al-Fatih (the Conqueror) of Constantinople and the remnants of the Byzantine Empire, were advancing overland (the Balkans and Hungary) into the heart of Central and Eastern Europe, like a river of overwhelming lava, burning and unstoppable. The Germanic Roman Empire, up to its border with France, and Poland were threatened.

MEHMET II al-FATIH

By sea, the Turks ruled North Africa, from Egypt to Ifrigia and the lands south of Gibraltar, through franchises and letters of marque to Arab and Barbary pirate colonies. They pillaged and harassed Christian trade and navigation in the north of the Mediterranean and plundered its islands (Balearic Islands, Sardinia and Sicily).

SELIM II

Seriously threatening, at the time of Selim II, to occupy Cyprus (see its insulting proximity to Anatolia on a map).

Prolegomena.

Only Pope St. Pius V had the correct and astute strategic sense to assess the Ottoman danger to Europe and Christianity. And he put all his efforts into achieving a firm alliance of European countries, to confront him decisively now.

Immediately, Pius V entrusted the realization and success of the mundane enterprise, intertwined like a nail to the flesh with the spiritual, to the Mediatrix of All Graces, the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Throughout Catholic Christianity, in all dioceses and monasteries, the recitation of the Rosary began to be promoted with that special and particular intention. Then, the hundreds of thousands of rosaries prayed and committed were reported to Rome. This is a fact that I knew as a child and that I think has been forgotten in public memory.

France did not want to participate in the Holy Alliance because of the envy and resentment she felt for Spain and her Empire.

To England everything seemed very distant. And Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen, that is, was the daughter of Henry VIII, the recent founder of the schismatic Church of England.

Spain was very busy with its immense possessions in America and Western Europe. And the Muslim pirates were not much more to her than an annoying horsefly. Cyprus, the main Venetian colony, was at the other end of the Mediterranean.

FELIPE II of Spain

And the pope had to insist a lot to convince Felipe II of Spain where the main threat for everyone was.

Venice joined the Holy Alliance because of the imminent threat of the Turks on Cyprus, but also negotiated a solution with them. It only cared about their sovereignty and their trade, also threatened by the Portuguese route from the Indian Ocean to Europe, bordering Africa.

In that, then, only Spain, Venice and the Pontifical Civil State participated.

The means of intervention and fight.

The galleys, the Mediterranean ships, were long and narrow like a dragonfly. Those of commerce, which had to defend themselves, were not very different from those of war, also sailed by pirates. The height of the mainsail above the sea was about a meter and a half. It is clear that they were only usable in calm seas. And so they were first designed by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans.

At the bow and stern they had a combat tower, which was communicated by a long central platform. They could embark several pieces of light artillery, placed on the wings and bow. And they carried infantry armed with pikes, swords and harquebuses, which belonged to the Tercios, in the case of the Spanish.

ROYAL GALLEY, FLYING THE STANDARD OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE

With the bow spur they immobilized the opposing ship, causing serious damage in the crash. In general, locked and stopped as the galleys were, the main form of fighting was infantry. This was protected from enemy projectiles (bullets and arrows, sometimes poisoned) under the protection of the bands and the mastheads of the ships. The Spanish also used the «empavesadas» or «defenses made with canvas and thick nets.»

The development of military action.

The Holy League was established in 1571 for a period of three years.

The allied fleet began to concentrate on Messina. The warships were 208 galleys: 90 Spanish, 106 Venetian and 12 Pontifical. And they were supported by 8 Venetian galleasses, heavy and not very seaworthy, almost floating castles, endowed: each one with more than 30 cannons and also reinforced by several hundred (sic) Spanish arquebusiers! When they could not use their single sail, each had to be towed by several galleys, which took turns, so as not to quickly exhaust the galleass’ oarsmen.

Galleass

Spanish naval engineering marked a category and distance with the Venetian galleys, some almost unserviceable, broken. And, although the artillery of the Lordship was very good, their crews were few and had to be completed by Spaniards.

The hard core of the combined Fleet were the Spanish (80% of the men). And the different flotillas or combat groups were made up of ships from the three origins, to avoid indecision and suspicion among the “allies”.

A papal legate arrived in Messina carrying relics of the True Cross. Delivering one to each flotilla or division of the allied Fleet.

The ship of Ali Pasha, the great admiral of the Turks, received a large sanyak or green silk banner made in Mecca, with the Crescent Moon and verses of the Noble Qur’an embroidered on it. Surely there would be the shasada or Muslim profession of faith, the recitation of which is equivalent to baptism, and some bellicose ayah like «Persecute the infidels until all worship on earth is given to Allah.»

For everyone it was a complete, total, military and civilizational confrontation.

On September 16, 1571, the allied fleet left Messina in search of the Turkish fleet. In his course or journey he made successive stops in Corfu, Gomeniza, Cephalonia and Famagusta.

The Turks found out from their spies the enemy concentration in Messina and concentrated their war fleet in the port of Lepanto, in the Gulf of Patras. Ali Pachá claimed for the fleet all the janissaries that the nearby garrisons could provide. It was an elite infantry, similar in capacity to the Tercios of Spain, proud of its status and privileges and fanatical of its religion and the favor of the Sultan.

JANISSARIES FIGHTING

In Ottoman battles, when a stage of indecision about the outcome or the dominance of the enemy appeared, it was time to employ the janissaries. They attacked accompanied by their fifes and loud drums, uttering their war cries and, generally, obtaining the decision.

At this stage of the confrontation, in the march to combat, the entire possible repertoire of espionage and counterintelligence on both sides was deployed. That it was necessarily done by lookouts on land and coastal fishermen, who would soon be only Turks, and, more effectively, by reconnaissance light and sailors ships. Capable of approaching and even, exceptionally, penetrating the enemy deployment.

While the fleet was in Famagusta, the Turkish privateer Kara Kodja infiltrated at night with two black-painted “fustas” or light ships into the bay, among the Christian warships and auxiliaries. And so, he returned to Lepanto with «reliable news» that the number of Christian galleys was considerably less than the real one. And mistaking the galleasses for potbellied support transport ships. Upon withdrawing from the bay, he captured some Christian soldiers who, duly interrogated, corroborated his idea that the number of enemy troops was half the real one.

On board the Royal galley, Don Juan de Austria held a council of war with his flotillas chiefs, to decide the next actions in view of the proximity of the Turk. Luis de Requesens and Juan Andrea Doria were in favor of avoiding combat at that time. Álvaro de Bazán and Alejandro Farnesio were of the opinion that they should go to meet the Turks. Finally, don Juan decided, saying: «Gentlemen, this is not the time for deliberations, but for fighting.»

In turn, the Turkish chiefs held their council of war. The allied fleet cut off their access to the open sea, located at the entrance to the gulf, and, on the other hand, they already knew their enemy actual strength. That distressed some secondary Turkish commanders. For his part, also Uluch Ali, the lieutenant general, and the commander of the embarked troops, Pertau Pacha, preferred to remain in Lepanto, protected by the land fortifications. However, Sultan Selim II demanded that they attack. Thus, Ali Pacha decided to attack.

At dawn on Sunday, October 7, 1571, the Christian fleet departed for combat. The Turkish lookouts on the coast immediately reported the maneuver to their light reconnaissance ships, which sailed to report to Lepanto. There the Turks weighed anchor and headed under full sail, downwind, with their oarsmen fresh for combat, to meet the enemy.

Around 7 in the morning, when the allies entered the Gulf of Patras, their horizon was filled with Turkish sails. However, the enemy was more than 15 nautical miles away and there was time to complete the deployment of the flotillas.

The rival fleets spent the rest of the morning spreading out and closing in on each other.

On each ship, each one attended to their last-minute business.

Christian carpenters strove to saw off the remains of the spurs. Don Juan had ordered them to be sawn only partially, so that his technique would not be detected by the enemy and copied. Thus, the forward drum was left free, at the end of the fore deck, so that its battery could gain more sector of fire.

The priests and friars (Augustinians, Franciscans and Jesuits) who were on board attended and gave absolution to the combatants, sailors and rowers.

How will they fight?

The Turkish commander entrusted everything to the «breakthrough clash» of his «group head» galleys with a Christian secondary captain. Leaving this broken and fixed. Then, the Turkish leading galley and its subordinate ships would attack her with their onboard infantry. Forming a large «floating combat platform«.

The Turkish artillery had a secondary supporting task to infantry combat. It will take a long time for the cannons of an age to be able to sink a warship.

Their decisive force in combat were the bow rams, the embarked infantry and the Janissaries.

He also counted on the maneuvers of his flanks flotillas and the reserve of the Sultan’s fleet, to position himself more favorably against a Christian flotilla and proceed to the final clash.

The operational strategy and tactics of the Christians were similar to those of the Turks. They couldn’t differentiate much when both were based on the direct clash in view of the rivals.

The Christians were ahead of the times than the Turks, since they did not trust so much in the sheer importance of the ram and the interlocking of the opposing galleys. Rather, they were already using artillery fire at short ranges to break the embarked Turks and break the alignment of their deployment.

This in preparation for the entry into combat of the rival embarked infantry, when the galleys touched.

(To be continued)

The Tactical Maneuver in the Defense.

Introduction.

The spirit of mobile defense is ingrained in forward detachments. They fight the enemy using mobility, surprise, harassment, opportunity and local and punctual superiority, depending on the case. And, whose fight is always framed in the probable transfer of space to the enemy. Maneuver always presides over his tactical behavior.

This “active spirit” that animates and inspires the units that fight in front of the defense positions, must animate, or, at least, not be neglected or forgotten by the units that occupy them.

The defense must not only cling to its fortified or improved positions, to carry out the effective rejection of the enemy attack, through its precise, decisive and opportune fire.

Development of the Fight.

At least part of the defense forces, depending on the missions, the possible opportunities, the battlefields, their own capabilities and that of the enemy, must be trained and emotionally prepared to carry out tactical movements, to more effective and timely defense positions.

For example, carrying out from another support point, with part of its garrison, a local counter-shock against a partial penetration, not yet consolidated, achieved by part of the attacker. Enemy break-in that closely threatens another support point, preferably in the same defense sector.

If we make a delay defense, staffs from other delay points will make larger and more definitive tactical maneuvers. In the former, when a delay point is in danger of being surpassed or overwhelmed by an enemy attack, it must release and withdraw. Generally, by successive jumps, to the rear or to another delay point in the mobile defense by forward detachments. Where they should be received, to facilitate their new deployment in the location.

These delay points would be supported by a natural obstacle, a height, a river, etc. Delay points should never be deployed on the forward slope; seeking, for example, to open fire on the enemy at maximum distances. On the other hand, observatories and resistance nests should be placed on the forward slope or on the military ridge. The delay point will be deployed well down the back slope.

Use of tactical reserves.

Own reserves, concentrated at the end of the infantry zone or at the front of the artillery zone, as part of the defense, will also carry out marches and attacks, that is, maneuvers, in their tactical zone. That they will be, perhaps, more complicated in their deployments, unfolding and opportunities. To attack, from starting points in one’s own depth, the enemy forces that have broken through. Or, that are stopped in front of the defense zone.

The critical moment for the reserve counter-attack will be: when the enemy has passed the “culminating point” of his attack; is quite weak and is disorganized (loss of cohesion). The fire of the own artillery and of the nearby support points, those affected by the enemy attack, must also harass, neutralize the attacker.

These attacks by a combined arms reserve from depth, taking advantage of their mechanical mobility, and attacking on the enemy’s flanks and/or rearguard, are very effective for active tactical defense of friendly forces.

Heterodox applications of good working in Defense. And, if you want to be perfect…

Even, many times, with an unexpected Maneuver and, better yet, if it is also unusual, an enemy can be upset, confused and frightened. If he is governed by military more orthodox and serious canons and norms.

A premature withdrawal and, obviously, with cession of space, can mislead and disturb the enemy. Or, boost his self-esteem and greed and lure him into a dangerous chase.

A favorite Tactic of the Mongols, especially effective when their enemy was longing for the encounter or more confident of success, for reasons of sheer initial numerical superiority, was the «mangudai«. It consisted in the fact that an «army» corps of the Mongols, inferior to the enemy, seriously engaged in the fight. Its size was large enough for the Mongol effort to be considered significant.

With this, they were going to mentally attract the enemy and separate him from any other thought.

BATTLE OF LIEGNITZ, SILESIA, POLAND

After a hard battle, the sheer weight of the enemy forced the Mongol corps back. What was a tactical withdrawal, never disorderly, was taken by the enemy for an exploitable defeat, a rout.

His total and permanent ignorance of the Mongols did not make him suspect anything. And his desire for victory, increased by the real effort made in combat, did not let him see beyond.

The promising pursuit ended by scattering the close and solid formations of the enemy horsemen. At one point in the pursuit, always far from the rest of the waiting enemy forces, the bulk of the Mongol heavy cavalry emerged, hidden, fresh, and thrown into the shock. Which ended up breaking up the disjointed cavalry groups, into which the pursuers had scattered. After a real hunt, the enemy forces remaining in the initial positions in the battle either dispersed or were in turn attacked by the whole Mongol force.

We will now quote a special case of how the mental and moral dialectic of the two opposing commands, the given circumstances and the development of defense and attack, led to an incredible result of the faced battle.

Chu Ko Liang ordered Wei Yen and other generals to gather their forces and march east. He, waiting for news, stayed in Yanh Ping with 10 thousand men to defend the city.

His rival Ssu Ma I said to himself: «Chu Ko Liang is in the city, his forces are small, his position is weak, his generals and officers have lost courage.»

For his part, Chu Ko Liang was calm and confident. He ordered to remove the army banners and silence the drums. He forbade the soldiers to leave the city. And then, opening its four gates, he spread out his men in small groups through the streets of Yanh Ping.

20 "Chino Kongming Chu ko Tres Reinos Zhuge Liang Zhu ge Sabiduría  Estatua|statue| - AliExpress
Chu Ko Liang idealized

Informed Ssu Ma I of the existing situation, he feared a prepared ambush. The «appearances» had done damage to his courage, discernment and reason. And hastily he retreated with his larger army to the northern mountains.

Chu Ko Liang explained to his commanding general, «Ssu Ma I believed that I was laying a trap for him and fled to the foot of the mountain range.»

When Ssu Ma I learned later all that had happened, he was overwhelmed with disappointment and disgust.

An opera has even been written about this Chinese war episode.

Well, but what you are telling us seems to be something very special and very difficult to repeat. And, as if from other times of fear and superstition.

Now see you an almost similar case. Only more modern. And, where all the maneuvers and combats are in sight. But, its result is just as spectacular, unexpected and incredible. Than the previous one, taken as «unusual and difficult to repeat».

Battle of Cowpens
(Washington’s cavalry attacked on the other flank.)

On January 17, 1781, the 45 year old American General Daniel Morgan engaged in a small battle in Cowpens the English regular forces of 27 year old Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton. Both had similar contingents but 2/3 of Morgan’s around 1,000 men belonged to American territorial militias.

These troops were at risk of shock in face of the force of the regular troops, whose use of bayonets in close combat would terrify them. The militia men were better than normal shooters, being hunters, and had great personal initiative, but they lacked training in close fighting.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

The Relations of Finland and Sweden with Russia. 2nd Part.

(FINAL)

Collateral consequences of Russia’s terrible military operations.

The poor performance of the Red Army in this winter war or Talvisota, transmitted to the whole World a very bad image of the «Red Army of Workers and Peasants».

And this decisively influenced the ideas of Hitler and the OberKommando der Wehrmatch and other German marshals and generals. As for the chances of invading and liquidating the USSR in a relatively quick summer campaign of a few months, in less than a year.

Franz Halder, to the left of the Fuehrer Adolf

Fifteen months later, the Germans would find out how adventurous and wrong their initial assumptions about the Red Army were.

At the beginning of the German invasion of Russia on June 22, 1941, Colonel General Frank Halder, head of the OberKommando der Heer (the German Army), grimly confessed in his diary on August 11: “We had estimated that they had about 200 divisions. and we have already identified 360.” «We destroy a dozen and, right away,» they put another dozen in their place.»

Behind the Red Army, in its very marrow, were the capabilities, the stoicism and the endurance of the Soviet people. That he was threatened with annihilation by the anti-Slavic extermination practices of the SS and the Gehime Statz Policei (Gestapo).

The Postwar.

In World War II, Finland was not “liberated”, nor was it occupied by the Soviet Army (it had already changed its name).

But, it was denazified and neutralized. Do the terms sound familiar to you? I mean, it was Finnish. And, he had to adjust to a harsh asymmetrical neutrality, favorable to the Soviets. Even their post-conflict assault rifles (M-1960 and M-1962) are authorized copies of the Soviet AK-47, but without wood in their structure.

What would the social political experiment be like that, when Finland has seen Ukraine’s beards shaved, has put its own to soak.

The Neutrality of Sweden.

At the beginning of World War II, Sweden became a supplier of iron ore for the Third Reich. Except for the coldest months of the year, the raw ore was shipped to Germany at the port of Lulea in southern Sweden. Where Royal Navy ships dared not approach and transport was quite safe.

Thanks to this provision for its trade with Germany, Sweden was not invaded by the Wehrmatch. By contrast, Norway was very ambivalent. On the one hand, she put a part of her fleet at the disposal of Great Britain. And, on the other, she assured the German Government that he could dispose of the ice-free port of Narvik in winter, and of Norwegian territorial waters for the transport of Swedish iron ore to German soil.

All this about the Swedish iron route motivated Great Britain to consider occupying the ports of Lulea and Narvik, to cut it off.

Narvik’s Naval Battle of the Kriegsmarine

The Germans then launched a withering offensive against Norway and on July 10, 1940 they occupied Narvik and soon controlled the entire Norwegian coast.

Sweden, on the other hand, was able to continue to be independent and neutral. In this sense, the Soviet Government already stated on April 13, 1940 that the USSR wanted to maintain Sweden’s neutral status.

With the occupation of Denmark and Norway, Germany had control of the North Atlantic in its hands. Necessary to have other locations for air and naval bases in his war with Great Britain. The Norwegian fjords were excellent havens for the German submarine fleet operating in that part of the Atlantic.

After the end of the World War, Sweden simply maintained its international status. Taking, of course, good note that, as Churchill announced, «in Eastern Europe an immense Iron Curtain had been lowered.»

Sweden, unlike the more recently neutral Finland, has a long tradition of rights, neutrality and liberality. Since the Congress of Vienna in 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden has not participated in any of the frequent wars in the Territory of Europe. And in her idiosyncrasy those mentioned qualities are already engraved.

Sweden has twice the population of Finland, at a ratio of 10 to 5 million. But, this one has 1300 km of border with Russia and Sweden, neither.

Since the World War, Swedish society has developed towards a very open, guaranteeing and permissive social democracy. Many modern social trends had their European focus in Sweden.

But, at the end of this historical journey, the Ruscist Bear (contraction of Russia and fascist) began to show signs in Georgia, South Ossetia, Ukraine and in the expressions of its political, social and international thought, of wanting to correct the already historical tendency of «democracy and freedom for Eastern Europe«. «The greatest misfortune of the 20th century was the disappearance of the Soviet Union» is the brilliant-cut diamond of those expressions.

And, Sweden remembered its distant past of wars with Russia.

And, she sought refuge and protection for her sovereignty and freedom by other terrestrial meridians further to the West. In the heart of free and democratic Europe and in the USA, the other vibrant pole of the so-called Western Civilization.

Specifying everything in the accession of Sweden to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

The End.

Terrorismo, Guerrillas y Violencia

Terroristas y guerrillas.

El Terrorismo es una compleja operación Política y Violenta de amplia Variedad de acciones. Sus acciones violentas deben ser deliberadas, Continuas o Sistemáticas y buscando Influenciar a una amplia audiencia (mucho mayor que los afectados Directamente por dichas acciones violentas) y generando miedo, hasta miedo insuperable, en dicha “población blanco u objetivo”. Para que realicen y tomen las actitudes y acciones que los terroristas buscan.

Así, una acción aislada o sin interés político no es terrorismo. Será vandalismo,odio vesánico, brote psicótico… pero no es, ni será técnica o jurídicamente terrorismo.

Otra cosa es lo que decidan las autoridades. Que al enemigo irregular armado lo consideran poco menos que al Demonio Suelto. Y le suelen privar de casi todos los derechos, incluso personales. Y legislan leyes progresivamente más duras contra ellos. Los guerrilleros o terroristas en lucha contra un país constituido son más fáciles de ilegalizar.

Las distintas convenciones internacionales sólo consideran como “beligerantes de derecho” a los irregulares que sean desplegados o apoyados por otro Estado nacional. Y tienen que estar asentados en un territorio propio, aunque sea mínimo, tener un mando claro y visible, llevar uniforme y alguna insignia identificativa (un “parche” o distintivo), con las armas a la vista y actuar de acuerdo con las leyes aceptadas de la guerra.

Estas condiciones sólo las cumplían los partisanos soviéticos en la pasada Guerra Mundial.

Y, por supuesto, no las cumplen los yihadistas apandillados en Europa, los tiradores y acuchilladores aventados y desnortados de América, de Francia o de Noruega, los denominados con poco acierto, lobos solitarios, ya que este animal es esencialmente gregario y, más para cazar sus presas.

Estos todos serían “desalmados armados”. Y el alma es el Espíritu del hombre.

Perseguirlos es una actividad Policial más, no de guerra.

PARTISANOS DE TITO

Los partisanos de Tito, bastante efectivos e implantados intermitentemente, no las cumplían. Y las “resistencias” nacionales de Francia, Italia, Polonia eran casi risibles. Un enorme riesgo e inmenso dolor para conseguir daños Aislados a sus enemigos del Eje.

Una función que se obvia, como tantas, es que una de las funciones más importantes de los rebeldes irregulares es fijar en su “territorio de influencia” a numerosas fuerzas enemigas (por ejemplo, alemanas, italianas, Aliadas). Que de otro modo serían utilizadas por el enemigo militar en otras acciones estratégicas más decisivas e importantes de la lucha armada.

Aquí también se desconoce casi todo. Uno de los casos más extensos, prolongados y duros de la lucha terrorista fue la lucha antipartisana de los nazis en la URSS ocupada por Alemania.

Contraguerrillas.

Los alemanes contaban con una amplia red de fortines, que formaban una “base de apoyo en red”, donde los nodos eran los fortines y las cuerdas «marcaban» las direcciones de actuación para los pequeños combates locales contra los partisanos.

Existían también “patrullas móviles”, fuertes en, al menos, veintitantos hombres, que perseguían continuamente a las bandas partisanas localizadas. Si era necesario, a veces se reunían varias de éstas en una región, para realizar un ataque más grande.

Las fuerzas destacadas en los fortines eran alrededor de un pelotón (entre 8 y 12 hombres). En las noches sin actividad en su zona, se Esperaba que una parte de la exigua guarnición saliera a realizar un reconocimiento de partisanos o a integrarse con otras unidades para realizar algún ataque o persecución proporcional a sus medios.

Las unidades más fuertes, empleadas en los frentes de guerra, no eran usadas normalmente en las luchas contra las bandas partisanas. Salvo en los casos de atacar o cercar a alguna unidad partisana grande y con cierta probabilidad de éxito.

Muchas veces, las operaciones de cerco y aniquilamiento de guerrilleros resultaban un fiasco. Debido a la falta de hermetismo y a la abundancia de ocultamientos temporales del cerco que se establecía. Y los partisanos se dispersaban, se escondían o se escurrían reptando por parejas.

Resultados.

¿Fueron útiles, necesarios o dudosos los resultados para el entonces llamado Ejército Rojo de Obreros y Campesinos, la actividad de los partisanos de la URSS?

La realidad es que la actividad principal y vital de la “línea de comunicaciones logísticas” desde el Reich con su retaguardia en la URSS fue capaz de mantener durante toda la guerra, la actividad militar, logística y social (las idas y vueltas de los soldados, a veces por enfermedad o licencias, y las unidades) de los alemanes en su esfuerzo de guerra. Por ella pasaron los suministros, armas y tropas para el avance y la ocupación de la URSS al oeste de una línea imaginaria que recorría desde Leningrado hasta Stalingrado, pasando por el oeste de Moscú.

Si los alemanes retrocedieron sin descanso hacia el oeste, después de perder la batalla de Kursk en el verano de 1943, fue por el empuje costosísimo de los «Frentes» o Grupos de Ejércitos soviéticos, dirigidos por la STAVKA o Estado Mayor General. Y “asesorados/mandados” por Georgi Zhukov o Alexander Vassilevski, como “Delegados del Stavka en los Frentes” para las distintas grandes Operaciones militares soviéticas.

Filosofía y base mental.

Cualquiera que haya llegado hasta aquí, puede pensar en el «Horror» en la lucha entre partisanos y fuerzas de seguridad alemanas en el Frente del Este. Por aquello del ascenso a los máximos, que decía Clausewitz en su primer libro, en la dureza de las acciones militares. Y que la diferencia de etnias, religión o su ausencia e intereses divergentes espoleaban también a los beligerantes.

Pues, depende del temperamento y del carácter que cada uno tenía. Y, en este caso, el sentido común y un carácter complementario llevaron a los alemanes a empezar a suavizar las “condiciones del enfrentamiento” a nivel de las personas. Se trataba de no salir perjudicados ambos. O sea, todos.

Los alemanes aprendieron por amargas experiencias que la resistencia firme y obstinada de los partisanos, se debía a sus miedos a sufrir en el cautiverio. Y que esto podía ser debilitado fácilmente por un tratamiento más humano a los partisanos prisioneros.

Así, el Manual (alemán) para la Guerra contra las Bandas de 1944 recogía todos estos principios e ideas a aplicar por las fuerzas de seguridad alemanas.

Y, los partisanos comenzaron también a comportarse como combatientes más civilizados y menos desalmados. Este procedimiento o técnica de respetar bastante la integridad y los derechos de los prisioneros, se convirtió en un principio apreciado en las campañas guerrilleras siguientes por el mundo.

(CONTINUARÁ)

EL COMBATE URBANO DE ISRAEL EN GAZA

El Tsahal israelí.

Las Fuerzas de Defensa de Israel (FDI), el Tsahal, es un ejército nacional bastante capacitado, que cuenta con una doctrina militar moderna y bien equipado y entrenado periódicamente. Posee unos 190 mil efectivos profesionales (permanentes). Que pueden ser incrementados en dos o tres días hasta las 750 mil tropas.

Movilizando para ello hasta unos 550 mil hombres y mujeres, que militan en la reserva activa. Éstos tienen una variada formación de combate, según su edad, profesión, entrenamiento y misiones realizadas. Los primeros 300 mil son los más destacados para incorporarse decisivamente a la lucha. El otro cuarto de millón son llamados según las necesidades para actualizar y terminar de formarlos efectivamente.

ISRAEL NO DUDA EN EMPLEAR BOMBARDEOS MASIVOS PUNTUALES

Las ugdot o brigadas israelíes (ugda es su nombre en singular) de infantería mecanizada o motorizada son las unidades principales israelíes para llevar a cabo una lucha en terreno urbano enemigo. Combaten contra un enemigo mucho menos capacitado. Pero, con una resolución y una motivación iguales, porque se consideran muhaydines o guerreros de Allah.

Unas aleyas o versículos del Corán, para irse dando cuenta del enemigo palestino catequizado y motivado:

“Oh, Creyentes, perseguid a los infieles (todos los demás) hasta que toda la Adoración en la Tierra sea dada a Allah”.

“Se os ha prescrito la guerra y vosotros la rehuís. Pues bien, Allah se buscará otro pueblo más obediente y os repudiará”.

La ugda de infantería consta de 3 batallones de infantería, otro de tanques, un grupo de artillería de campaña, 1 compañía de lucha antitanque, otra de ingenieros motorizados y 2 compañías de reconocimiento de combate y táctico. La ugda blindada consta de 3 batallones de tanques, uno de fuerzas especiales, uno de ingenieros motorizados, uno de reconocimiento blindado y un grupo de artillería mixta.

FUERZAS DE LA BRIGADA GIVATI REALIZAN UN ALTO EN EL CAMINO

Las ugdot de infantería son más conocidas. Siendo, sin embargo, los tanques el arma más efectiva conque cuenta en general Israel en sus guerras. Y, dentro del ocultamiento deliberado y la falta de precisión de los datos que llegan al público, que se practica sobre estos temas en Israel. Entre las cinco ugdot de infantería dispuestas destacan las “Givati”, “Golani” y “Kfir”.

Características del terreno de lucha.

La lucha en el “terreno urbano o fabril” implica que las vistas de los combatientes son cortas en la mayoría de las direcciones. Y, por otro lado, que el enemigo tiene multitud de “alturas ocultantes relativas” que le esconden e incluso, a veces, le cubren del fuego contrario. Esto es una fuente de tensión en razón a la incertidumbre que crea.

ARTILLERÍA REACTIVA MÓVIL DE HAMAS CON SU DOTACIÓN Y SEGURIDAD DE INFANTERÍA

También actúan aquí la soledad física y de ánimo. El combatiente está apartado de sus oficiales al mando. Y, forma parte del team o escuadra o dotación de las armas de apoyo orgánicas. Cuyos miembros están tan afectados como él.

Los fuegos automáticos y más precisos permiten y obligan a la dispersión extrema y al camuflaje de las fuerzas combatientes en presencia. Y, el terreno de lucha está aquí particularmente vacío y oculto.

Las maniobras aquí consisten en movimientos relativamente muy cortos. Esto afecta también a la soledad y la incertidumbre de los combatientes. La capacidad de movimiento operativo de las unidades en vehículos de motor es casi innecesaria, si descontamos el apoyo del fuego pesado directo de sus armas a los combatientes. Otras marchas son simplemente “marchas al combate”.

UN PELOTÓN DE IRREGULARES DE HAMAS MANIOBRA HACIA EL COMBATE

Los miembros de Hamás y otros han construido una inmensa “fortaleza” defensora. Es una estructura de túneles a dos niveles de profundidad (circa 9 ms y 50 ms) estudiada y creada a lo largo de años. Esta estructura se parece cualitativamente a las empleadas por los talibanes en Afganistán y los vietnamitas del Vietcong en la zona del Mekong, al sur de Vietnam. Pero, es más elaborada, grande y capaz. El nivel A es la defensa de rechazo de los milicianos: aquí combaten, obtienen refugio y escondrijo temporal, les permite moverse paralela y ocultamente al suelo de la Franja, utilizar posiciones alternativas de retardo contra los soldados avanzando o reorganizándose, lanzar cohetes de corta y media distancia. El nivel B actúa de gran refugio y almacén general de las fuerzas de Hamas. Intermitentemente, existen vías directas entre ambos niveles de la estructura.

IRREGULARES DE HAMAS POSANDO PARA SU PUEBLO

Esta cubierta protectora principal amortigua el fuego pesado de los atacantes israelíes. Y obliga a los soldados a la lucha a distancias cercanas y próximas con los irregulares de Hamas. Así, las “capacidades combativas” de ambos enemigos se igualan bastante y la suma de bajas militares ascenderá inexorablemente a cifras no esperadas por la población de Israel. Los intentos de los israelíes de inundar con agua del mar o con una especie de goma espuma ligera propulsada, algunos túneles no cumplieron las expectativas.

Situación general.

Más o menos, hasta ahora, se habla de unos 6 mil milicianos y de unos 200 soldados israelíes como bajas totales en el ataque de Israel a Gaza. También, hay algo más de 23 mil civiles gazetíes muertos y 250 habitantes de las cooperativas, lugares de fiesta y pequeños cuarteles de Israel capturados como rehenes, en una matanza innecesaria y sobrada por su crueldad y ferocidad.

El sábado 7 de octubre, las fuerzas irregulares de Hamas lanzaron un “ataque de enjambre” sobre el sur y centro sur de Israel. Apoyado por el lanzamiento previo y/o simultáneo de miles de cohetes balísticos de corto y medio alcance. Y, las pequeñas “unidades de acción” de Hamas, fuertes en unos 3 mil milicianos empleados en total, consiguieron sus objetivos tácticos: la derrota y/o destrucción de las posiciones israelíes (cooperativas, aldeas y pequeños puestos militares), causando unas 1300 bajas totales a la población y al Tsahal y capturando los preciosos rehenes dichos. Y, produciendo una conmoción fuerte y general en Israel y en el Tsahal, muy superior a la suma del efecto individual de cada pequeño ataque recibido.

YAHYA SINWAR, JEFE MILITAR DE HAMAS EN GAZA, PROTEGIDO POR UNA NUBE DE «PALESTINOS». ISRAEL NO PUEDE DESTRUIRLO, PORQUE VIVE RODEADO DE REHENES.

No vamos a repetir ahora las operaciones a realizar por el Tsahal en la Franja de Gaza, ya que en nuestro reciente artículo “La Defensa Urbana de Hamas en Gaza” ya están descritas.

Vamos a tratar algunas posiciones ideológicas y estratégicas de ambos enemigos.

Israel ha estimado en más de 12 mil los objetivos militares de Hamas destruidos. Que incluyen desde centros de mando, túneles medianos y cortos y sus accesos, centros de comunicaciones, localizaciones de unidades y pequeñas unidades de milicianos. También, ha matado (según la Sanidad de Hamas) a 23 mil civiles y ocasionado decenas de miles de heridos; no precisamente de rozaduras, pinchazos y grandes arañazos o fracturas. Israel está llevando a cabo no sólo una liquidación militar de enemigos, sino un planchado de la Franja de Gaza a sangre y fuego.

Esto no tiene visos de prosperar hacia una solución estable y segura.

La aniquilación total de los enemigos es una endiablada misión u objetivo total. Que exigiría un empeño largo y altísimo de recursos humanos y medios materiales. Una comparación cercana la tendríamos entre el fuego de artillería para neutralizar o para destruir.

UNA VISTA DEL MAYOR TÚNEL DE LA RED DE TÚNELES MILITARES DE HAMAS EN GAZA

Los nazis no pudieron eliminar a los judíos de Centro Europa y del Oeste de la URSS en cuatro años de presencia en los territorios de la Gehime Statz Policei y las SS de Himmler. Tampoco pudieron erradicar el bolchevismo de la URSS, habitada, según ellos, por “untermensch”, subhumanos, raza inferior o severamente degradada por sus vicios. Lo que se suponía sería, por ello, asequible y fácil.

El alma humana, esencial y rehuida.

Cuando pones a un pueblo, raza, colectividad grande, ante la amenaza de destrucción, surgen en ella nuevas “energías anímicas”, generadas en lo profundo del alma humana. Ellas impulsan su “moral nacional”y le llevan a combatir férreamente. Recuperando esa certeza de supervivencia que le arrebataron.

Los bombardeos de Israel han dañado gravemente o destruido más de un centenar de edificaciones, incluyendo iglesias y mezquitas, algunas de hasta 4 mil años de antigüedad. Pertenecientes al acerbo cultural árabe gazatí. Los ataques apuntaban a la esencia sociocultural de los gazatíes, a su identidad. Y los israelíes debieron respetarlas, para no dar argumentos al enemigo.

THE URBAN COMBAT OF ISRAEL IN GAZA

The Israeli Tsahal.

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the Tsahal, is a fairly capable national army, with modern military doctrine and well equipped and regularly trained. It has about 190 thousand professional personnel (permanent). Which can be increased in two or three days to near 750 thousand troops.

Mobilizing for this up to around 550 thousand men and women, who are in the active reserve. These have a varied combat training, depending on their age, profession, training and missions carried out. The first 300 thousand are the most outstanding to decisively join the fight. The other quarter of a million are called according to needs to update and finish training them effectively.

ISRAEL DOES NOT HESITATE TO USE PUNCTUAL MASSIVE BOMBING

The ugdot or Israeli brigades (ugda is its singular name) of mechanized or motorized infantry are the main Israeli units to carry out a fight in enemy urban terrain. They fight against a much less capable enemy. But, with equal resolve and motivation, because they consider themselves muyahidin or warriors of Allah.

Let us see some aleyas or verses from the Quran, to realize the catechized and motivated Palestinian enemy:

“Oh, Believers, persecute the infidels (all others) until all Worship on Earth is given to Allah.”

“War has been prescribed for you and you shun it. Well, Allah will find another more obedient people and will disown you.”

The infantry ugda consists of 3 infantry battalions, another tank battalion, a field artillery group, 1 anti-tank fighting company, one motorized engineer company and 2 combat and tactical reconnaissance companies. The armored ugda consists of 3 tank battalions, one special forces battalion, one motorized engineer battalion, one armored reconnaissance battalion and a mixed artillery group.

FORCES OF THE GIVATI BRIGADE MAKE A STOP ON THE ROAD

The infantry ugdot are better known. Tanks are, however, the most effective weapon that Israel generally has in its wars. And, within the deliberate concealment and lack of precision of the data that reaches the public, which is practiced on these issues in Israel. Among the five infantry ugdot available, the “Givati”, “Golani” and “Kfir” stand out.

Characteristics of the fighting terrain.

Fighting in “urban or factory terrain” means that the combatants’ views are short in most directions. And, on the other hand, the enemy has a multitude of “relative hiding heights” that hide him and even, sometimes, cover him from opposing fire. This is a source of tension due to the uncertainty it creates.

HAMAS MOBILE REACTIVE ARTILLERY WITH ITS TEAM AND INFANTRY SECURITY

Physical and mental loneliness also act here. The combatant is separated from the officers commanding him. And, he is part of the squad or crew of the organic support weapons. Whose members are as affected as he is.

Automatic and more precise fires allow and force extreme dispersion and camouflage of combat forces in presence. And, the terrain of struggle here is particularly empty and hidden.

The maneuvers here consist of relatively very short movements. This also affects the loneliness and uncertainty of the combatants. The operational movement capacity of the units in motor vehicles is almost unnecessary, if we discount the direct heavy fire support from their weapons to the combatants. Other marches are simply “marches to combat.

A SECTION OF HAMAS IRREGULARS MANEUVER INTO COMBAT

Hamas members and others have built an immense defensive “fortress”. It is a structure of tunnels at two levels of depth (circa 9 ms and 50 ms) studied and created over years. This structure qualitatively resembles those used by the Taliban in Afghanistan and the Vietnamese Vietcong in the Mekong area of southern Vietnam. But, it is more elaborate, larger and capable. Level A is used in the militants’ rejection fighting: here they fight, obtain shelter and temporary hiding place, allows them to move parallel and covertly to the ground of the Strip, use alternative delay positions against advancing or reorganizing soldiers, launch short and middle distance range rockets. Level B acts as a large refuge and general warehouse for Hamas forces and his men and relatives. Intermittently, there are direct paths between both levels of the structure.

HAMAS IRREGULARS POSING FOR THEIR PEOPLE

This “main protective cover” cushions the heavy fire of Israeli attackers. And it forces soldiers to fight at close range with Hamas irregulars. Thus, the “combat capabilities” of both enemies are quite equal and the sum of military casualties will inexorably rise to figures not expected by the population of Israel. The Israelis’ attempts to flood some tunnels with sea water or a kind of propelled lightweight foam rubber inside them, did not meet expectations.

General situation.

More or less, so far, there is talk of about 6,000 militiamen and about 200 Israeli soldiers as total casualties in Israel’s attack on Gaza. Also, there are just over 23,000 Gazeti civilians dead and 250 inhabitants of Israel’s cooperatives, party places and small barracks captured as hostages, in an unnecessary massacre that is overdone by its cruelty and ferocity.

On Saturday, October 7, irregular Hamas forces launched a “swarm attack” on southern and south-central Israel. Supported by the prior and/or simultaneous launch of thousands of short and medium range ballistic rockets. And, the small “action units” of Hamas, strong in about 3 thousand militiamen employed in total, achieved their tactical objectives: the defeat and/or destruction of Israeli positions (cooperatives, villages and small military posts), causing about 1,300 total casualties to the population and the Tsahal and capturing the said precious hostages. And, producing a strong and general commotion in Israel and in the Tsahal, much greater than the sum of the individual effect of each small attack received.

YAHYA SINWAR, MILITARY CHIEF OF HAMAS IN GAZA, PROTECTED BY A CLOUD OF «PALESTINIANS». ISRAEL CANNOT DESTROY IT, BECAUSE IT LIVES SURROUNDED BY HOSTAGES.

We are not going to repeat now the operations to be carried out by the Tsahal in the Gaza Strip, since in our recent article “The Urban Defense of Hamas in Gaza” they are already described.

We are going to discuss some ideological and strategic positions of both enemies.

Israel has estimated more than 12,000 Hamas military targets destroyed. Which include command centers, medium and short tunnels and their accesses, communications centers, storerooms, military materials, unit locations and small militia units. Also, it has killed (according to Hamas’ Health Department) 23 thousand civilians and injured tens of thousands of people; not exactly from chafing, punctures and large scratches or fractures. Israel is carrying out not only a military liquidation of armed enemies, but an “ironing” of the Gaza Strip with blood and fire.

This has no signs of progressing towards a stable and secure solution.

The total annihilation of enemies is a devilish mission or total objective. That would require a long and very high commitment of human resources and material means. A close comparison would be between artillery fire to neutralize or destroy.

A VIEW OF THE LARGEST TUNNEL IN THE HAMAS NETWORK OF TUNNELS IN GAZA

The Nazis were unable to eliminate the Jews of Central Europe and the West of the USSR in four years of presence in the territories of the Gehime Statz Policei and Himmler’s SS.

Nor could they eradicate Bolshevism from the USSR, inhabited, according to them, by “untermensch”, subhumans, an inferior race or severely degraded race by their vices. Which was supposed to be, therefore, affordable and easy.

The human soul, essential and shunned.

When you put a people, race, or large community under the threat of destruction, new “soul energies” emerge from it, generated in the depths of the human soul. They boost his “national morale” and lead him to fight fiercely. Recovering that certainty of survival that was taken from him.

Israel’s bombing has seriously damaged or destroyed more than a hundred buildings, including churches and mosques, some up to 4,000 years old. Belonging to the Gazan Arab cultural heritage. The attacks targeted the social cultural essence of Gazans, their identity. And the Israelis had to respect them, so as not to give serious arguments to the enemy.

Hamas’ Urban Defense in Gaza:

Irregulars mixed with Civilians against Regulars

Introduction:

The structure of Hamas‘s military deployment is based on the «short brigade«, which is a tactical operational unit widely used by irregular or partisan or guerrilla forces, when they reach a certain development in their military capabilities and deployments. These Hamas´short brigades” have between 1,000 and 1,500 men in their combat order, depending on their basic weapons. The most numerous are infantry and elite. They also have some independent companies specialized in adequate short staffing.

The brigades lack defense against aircraft or armored units as such or organic field artillery. This necessarily turns them into light irregular forces, capable of fighting in a mobile manner and using irregular fighting tactics. Looking more for their mobility and areas not adequately defended in the enemy deployment. The rejection in urban areas gives them extra effectiveness, protection and security against the regular military enemy. Since populations form or are molded into a multitude of hiding places, passageways, tunnels and relative hiding heights (floors, parks, gutters, windows, balconies, roofs and gaps in different classes of walls).

Intersections of major urban streets, high-rise buildings and steel-frame buildings (especially factories) can mainly form the core of defense delay points. The nests of resistance depend on these strong positions. Of them there are a large number, also as alternative positions. These nests, when active, are manned by two or three men and may be staffed by riflemen or a light machine gun, also forming an anti-tank or sniper position. In the interior patios of the houses, even on rooftops, they deploy their 80 or 60 mm mortars, whose position is changed as soon as they launch a few bombs. All of this gives cohesion to a defense position that operates in a sector of the Gaza Strip.

Normally, except in the final moments of an assault, civilians remain intertwined with irregular Hamas positions. The loss of Palestinian civilians is one of the collateral objectives “desired” by Hamas. To present to the world and discredit Israel for its “Asymmetrical against Unarmed Civilians” fight. Until now, the Palestinian civilian death toll is about 300 a day on average. A disturbingly tolerable number of “martyrs of Islam and its Minor Jihad.” The Mayor or Real Jihad is the Muslim Effort in the Path of Allah.

Development.

Among the few tens of thousands of Hamas militiamen, no more than 30% are currently trained to use time-limited defense as a form of fighting. These “urban irregular Islamists” protect themselves by extending their defensive positions beyond what is necessary in a conventional defense, thus covering a greater controlled surface. These “fortress” are diffuse, hidden and even imperceptible to outsiders. In just a few hours, the previous works are completed and reinforced. Their communication ways require more work time, but are also less obvious. You have to enter houses to detect perforated walls and find passageways or real tunnels under a piece of furniture or a rug. In their defensive struggle they try to cause the military enemy the highest possible losses and force him again and again to reorganize and redirect his deployment. But they always do it without exposing themselves excessively to a fight at short distances, to being overwhelmed or to losing their freedom of action. This is inexorably linked to the cession of urban space to the military. To do this, they withdraw at the moment they deem appropriate from the direct attack of their enemy, not from their extensive, imprecise bombardment or cannonade. And so it is announced, again and again, that this or that city has been liberated from “bitter enemies.”

Occupying towns is technically the same as raiding a block, an apartment block or a house. How is this? Because the structure of the objectives is similar: walls, spaces between walls and gaps in the walls. There are three stages of attacking a town: isolating it, entering and settling in it, and fighting inside against the defenders.

Isolation implies occupying or covering with effective and seamless medium and heavy fire all possible obvious and hidden escape routes for the rebels, from a certain distance to the population. Likewise, all water, energy and communications services must be cut off externally. As there is a possibility that a nearby enemy band will come to harass or distract the surrounded group to help them escape, it is necessary to establish an external fence at a certain distance from the inner fence, equally ferreous and without views or fire gaps, which covers all possible approach routes. We will call ring the sufficient space created between both discontinuous fences to provide protection, supplies and shelter to the assault forces. Throughout the ring, double sentries will be placed at sensitive points, reinforced by small mobile patrols, intended to thwart rebel infiltration in both directions. The ring will contain 2 mobile reserves of variable size, placed in opposite directions (e.g. north-south), to repel serious breach attempts. Command of the defense of the ring will be carried out by a single commander, different from the attacker command.

A good approach route must allow the attacker to take advantage of a space not covered by the defense and reach his objective without initial loss of his combat capacity. Sewer networks may contain booby traps. And here there are no adjoining forests to provide concealment and cover for the heavy fire. Given that the rebel defender is surely going to retreat from the urban edges, defended only by combat outposts, it will be best to reach the first selected positions inside the urban perimeter in a first push. Entries can be searched from multiple directions. And even to avoid civilian casualties, do some prior preparation on the exterior prominent buildings, starting with bursts of heavy machine guns and then using artillery or helicopter gunships.

As an example, a platoon would advance following the layout of an Arab street. One section would go inside the buildings on one side and the other through those in front, covering him with their light automatic fire. The third section would follow behind, alternately on either side. The forward observers attached to the Ugda (or Israeli brigade), whose plural is Ugdot, could go with it, while the direct heavy fire means would follow behind down the street. Tasks would be exchanged between sections. The reinforced company would advance along one or two semi-parallel streets and relieve the sections after a time. You would have a section in reserve to eliminate flanking attacks or hidden snipers.

The reinforced battalion would attack in a sector of the city, maintain the cohesion of the effort with the higher command plans, give the initiative in combat to the companies and guarantee a continuous and sufficient flow of equipment and material from its rearguard. It would also facilitate heavy fire support and have sections for clearing enemy, hidden or flanking positions.

Why is it not used?

And why is this not done systematically? I still vaguely remember the news about the high award-winning Captain Palacios and his comrades, after years of harsh captivity as prisoners of war in the USSR, arriving on the “Semiramis” at the Barcelona port.

I am also very fresh with the views and statements of all kinds of the 15 British sailors and marines, in March 2007: after their capture in supposed Iranian waters, their illegal display (against the Geneva Convention) before the cameras, their emotional farewell to President Mahmud (it could be pronounced Mammoth) and to Iran and his return home, immediately selling profitable news exclusives, in exchange for sensitive data not being leaked to the public.

They are examples of what we can expect in general from the ultra-technical Western soldiers of the 21st century. Radicalized fanatical Islamists will be rubbing their hands and renewing their resolve, inside and outside our borders. Well, that’s why…

La Defensa Urbana de Hamas en Gaza:

Irregulares entreverados con Civiles y contra Regulares

Introducción.

La estructura del despliegue militar de Hamas se basa en la “brigada corta”, que es una unidad operativa táctica muy usada por las fuerzas irregulares o partisanas o guerrilleras, cuando alcanzan cierto desarrollo en sus capacidades y despliegues. Esas “brigadas cortas” de Hamas cuentan con unos mil a mil 500 hombres en su orden de combate, según su armamento fundamental. Las más numerosas son las de infantería y las de élite. Cuentan también con algunas compañías independientes especializadas de dotación adecuada corta.

Las brigadas carecen de defensa contra aeronaves o unidades blindadas como tales o de artillería de campaña orgánicas. Esto las convierte necesariamente en fuerzas ligeras irregulares, capaces de combatir de manera móvil y empleando tácticas de lucha irregular. Buscando más su movilidad y las zonas no defendidas adecuadamente del despliegue enemigo. El rechazo en zonas urbanas les da un plus de efectividad, protección y seguridad frente al enemigo militar regular. Ya que las poblaciones forman o se moldean en multitud de escondrijos, pasadizos, túneles y alturas ocultantes relativas (pisos, parques, cunetas, ventanas, balcones, azoteas y boquetes en paredes y muros).

Las intersecciones de las vías urbanas mayores, los edificios altos y los de estructura de acero (fábricas especialmente) pueden formar principalmente los núcleos de los puntos de retardo de la defensa. De estas posiciones fuertes dependen los nidos de resistencia, de los que hay en gran número, también como posiciones alternativas. Estos nidos, cuando están activos, están ocupados por dos o tres hombres y pueden contar con fusileros o una ametralladora ligera, formar una posición antitanque o de francotiradores. En los patios interiores de las casas, incluso en azoteas, despliegan sus morteros de 80 o 60 mms, cuya posición es cambiada en cuanto lanzan unas cuantas bombas. Todo ello da su cohesión a una posición de defensa que actúa en un sector de la franja de Gaza.

Normalmente, salvo en los últimos momentos de un asalto, los civiles permanecen entreverados con las posiciones irregulares de Hamas. Las pérdidas de civiles palestinos es uno de los objetivos colaterales “deseados” por Hamas. Para presentar ante el mundo y desprestigiar a Israel por su lucha “Asimétrica contra Civiles Inermes”. Hasta ahora, el número de muertos civiles palestinos es de unos 300 al día de media. Una cifra inquietamente tolerable de “mártires del Islam y su Yihad Menor”.

Desarrollo.

Entre las pocas decenas de miles de milicianos de Hamas, no más del 30 % están capacitados en estos momentos para utilizar una defensa limitada en el tiempo como forma de lucha. Estos “islamistas irregulares urbanos” se protegen extendiendo sus posiciones defensivas más allá de lo necesario en una defensa convencional, cubriendo así una mayor superficie controlada. Estas “fortalezas” son difusas, ocultas y aún imperceptibles para los extraños. En muy pocas horas se ocupan y se refuerzan las obras previas. Sus vías de comunicación necesitan más tiempo de trabajo, pero también son menos evidentes. Hay que entrar en las casas para detectar paredes perforadas y encontrar pasadizos o verdaderos túneles bajo un mueble o una alfombra. En su lucha defensiva procuran causarle al enemigo militar las pérdidas más elevadas posibles y obligarle una y otra vez a reorganizar y a dirigir su despliegue. Pero lo hacen siempre sin exponerse excesivamente a una lucha a las distancias cortas, a ser desbordados o a perder su libertad de acción. Esto va ligado inexorablemente a la cesión de espacio urbano a los militares. Para ello se sustraen en el momento que estiman oportuno al ataque directo de su enemigo, no a su bombardeo o cañoneo extensivo, impreciso. Y así se anuncia, una y otra vez, que tal o cual ciudad ha sido liberada de “enemigos acérrimos”.

Ocupar poblaciones es lo mismo técnicamente que asaltar una manzana, un bloque de pisos o una casa. ¿Cómo es esto? Porque la estructura de los objetivos es similar: paredes, espacios entre paredes y huecos en las paredes. Son tres las etapas del ataque a una localidad: aislarla, entrar y asentarse en ella y luchar en su interior contra los defensores.

El aislamiento implica ocupar o cubrir con fuego medio y pesado eficaz y sin fisuras, todas las posibles vías evidentes y ocultas de escape de los rebeldes, desde una cierta distancia a la población. Asimismo, deben cortarse exteriormente todos los servicios de agua, energías y comunicaciones. Como existe la posibilidad de que alguna banda enemiga cercana acuda a hostigar o a distraer para ayudar al escape del grupo cercado, es necesario establecer a cierta distancia del cerco interior uno exterior, igualmente férreo y sin claros de vistas y fuego, que cubra todas las posibles vías de aproximación. Llamaremos anillo al espacio suficiente creado entre ambos cercos discontinuos para dar protección, abastecimientos y cobijo a las fuerzas de asalto. Por el anillo se colocarán centinelas dobles en puntos sensibles, reforzados por pequeñas patrullas móviles, destinados a desbaratar las infiltraciones rebeldes en ambas direcciones. El anillo contendrá 2 reservas móviles de tamaño variable, colocadas en los sentidos opuestos de una dirección (por ejemplo, norte-sur), para rechazar los intentos serios de ruptura. El mando de la defensa del anillo estará a cargo de un jefe único, distinto del atacante.

Una buena vía de aproximación debe permitir al atacante aprovechar un espacio no cubierto por la defensa y alcanzar su objetivo sin merma inicial de su capacidad de combate. Las redes de alcantarillado pueden contener trampas explosivas. Y aquí no hay bosques colindantes que brinden ocultación y cubiertas al fuego pesado. Dado que el defensor rebelde va a retirarse seguramente de los bordes urbanos, defendidos sólo por avanzadas de combate, lo mejor será alcanzar en un primer empuje las primeras posiciones seleccionadas en el interior del perímetro urbano. Se pueden buscar entradas desde varias direcciones. E incluso y para evitar las bajas civiles, hacer alguna preparación previa sobre los edificios destacados exteriores, empezando con ráfagas de ametralladoras pesadas y empleando luego artillería o helicópteros artillados.

Como ejemplo, una sección avanzaría siguiendo el trazado de una calle árabe. Una sección iría por el interior de los edificios de un lado y la otra por los de enfrente, cubriéndole con su fuego ligero automático. La tercera sección seguiría detrás, alternativamente a uno u otro lado. Los observadores avanzados agregados a la Ugda (o brigada israelí), cuyo plural es Ugdot, podrían ir con éste, mientras que los medios de fuego pesado directo seguirían atrás por la calle. Las tareas se irían intercambiando entre las secciones. La compañía reforzada iría avanzando siguiendo una o dos calles semi paralelas y relevando a las secciones tras un tiempo. Dispondría de algún pelotón en reserva destinado a eliminar los ataques flanqueantes o francotiradores ocultos.

El batallón reforzado cubriría el ataque en un sector de la ciudad, mantendría la cohesión del esfuerzo con los planes superiores, daría la iniciativa en el combate a las compañías y garantizaría un flujo continuo y suficiente de equipos y material. También facilitaría el apoyo de fuego pesado y dispondría de secciones destinadas a la limpieza de posiciones enemigas, ocultas o flanqueantes.

Y, ¿por qué esto no se realiza sistemáticamente? Aún recuerdo vagamente las noticias sobre el laureado capitán Palacios y sus camaradas, después de años de durísimo cautiverio como prisioneros de guerra en la URSS, arribando en el “Semiramis” al puerto barcelonés.

También tengo muy frescas las vistas y declaraciones de todo tipo de los 15 marineros e infantes de marina británicos, en marzo de 2007: tras su captura en supuestas aguas iraníes, su exhibición ilegal (contra la Convención de Ginebra) ante las cámaras, su emotiva despedida al presi Mahmud (se puede pronunciar Mamut) y a Irán y su vuelta a casa, vendiendo inmediatamente provechosas exclusivas informativas, a cambio de que no se filtraran datos sensibles al público. Son ejemplos de lo que podemos esperar en general de los soldados ultra tecnificados occidentales del siglo XXI. Los islamistas fanáticos radicalizados estarán frotándose las manos y recreciéndose en su determinación, dentro y fuera de nuestras fronteras. Pues, por eso…

(Continuará)

Inteligencia militar y nacional, fallos y resultados.

Introducción y Desarrollo.

Los servicios de inteligencia de los grandes países suelen acertar muchas veces en sus opiniones y pronósticos.

Los trabajos concretos de inteligencia a los que se dedican unos pocos agentes modernos, suelen terminar con un éxito parcial o total.

Los trabajos complejos con ramificaciones y desarrollos, que esconden un futuro estimable, pero, no seguro, fallan estrepitosamente. Por esta particularidad compleja y futurible. Y, porque la capacidad de observar y medir un parámetro del alma humana es algo inaprensible, dudoso e incómodo. Seguidamente veremos varios casos concretos.

Las razones para que se produzca la divergencia de aciertos entre los casos singulares y la proyección al futuro (solución prevista) de los asuntos complejos, trascendentes al tiempo, están en parte en la dificultad de su concepción, el riesgo que se corre en aventurar y en la exposición no contrastada a los mandos. Evidentemente, existe aquí una dialéctica entre el ocultamiento realizado y el proceso cognitivo e intuitivo de su imaginación, desarrollo y proyección (solución estimada).

Sólo analistas liberados de la Escolástica y de los manuales de campo son capaces de situarse en el estado o la posición mental libre, imparcial y lúcida. Para captar situaciones enemigas anómalas, complejas y difíciles. Como se les paga por resultados y rapidez, que son variables contradictorias, el lujo de poner en “posición quietud” a un agente analista por un tiempo imprevisible, indefinido, no suele ser aceptable.

No hay que despreciar las nuevas técnicas de detección, observación y seguimiento de objetivos. Basadas en ordenadores, sensores electrónicos, Inteligencia Artificial. Pero, la presencia de agentes de campo no debe ser suprimida, sino apoyada y recrecida. Un seguimiento cibernético puede concretar para nuestro espía el área precisa de investigación y estudio.

EXPOSICIÓN DE UN AGENTE DE CAMPO

El agente de campo es un infiltrado en un medio neutro u hostil. Capaz de acercarse y penetrar en los medios gubernamentales o empresariales o sociales del rival. Y captar información relevante, importante, de manera consistente y mantenida. El agente de campo da marchamo, sello, de verosimilitud o, incluso, de realidad a la información captada del enemigo.

No es fácil captar, formar e insertar a un agente de campo propio. De ahí que, en una época de prisas, superficialidad y complejidad intelectual se haya favorecido a los medios tecnológicos frente a los agentes de campo para las labores de espionaje.

Afganistán 2021.

Todos recordamos los momentos de cambio de gobierno en Afganistán en agosto de 2021.

Los EEUU habían gastado durante casi 20 años de permanencia allí ingentes sumas de dinero en dicha permanencia, apoyos surtidos al Estado afgano y a escoger, entrenar y equipar al Ejército Nacional Afgano. Incluso, los estadounidenses presumían en sus comunicaciones públicas, especialmente del Defense Department, que aquél hacía progresos en la lucha antiterrorista contra los talibanes.

LOS MARINES CUSTODIAN EL AEROPUERTO DE KABUL

Esto resultó ser como las “aldeas Potemkin”. Que el ministro ruso de ese nombre preparó en el camino que seguiría la Zarina Catalina la Grande en un viaje. Para que sus habitantes de pacotilla se mostraran felices y lustrosos al paso de su Majestad Imperial.

En cuanto se tocó retirada para las últimas tropas estadounidenses, los soldados afganos, que resultaron también de pacotilla, comenzaron a rendir armas y a escapar de la temida ira del Talibán. Las fuerzas estadounidenses sólo fueron capaces de asegurar un perímetro defensivo del aeropuerto de Kabul. Pero, hasta allí tenían que llegar los “afganos amigos” y sus familias para embarcarse en un vuelo. Huyendo del maremoto de la barbarie de los talibanes (estudiosos del Corán).

Como se había negociado con el Talibán que aceptase el control del aeropuerto por los soldados occidentales unos pocos días, ello no fue suficiente para muchos “colaboradores” de los occidentales (traductores, chóferes, guías, limpiadores, etc) y sus familias. Muchos tuvieron que hacer un penoso viaje hasta Pakistán para ganar su libertad y su vida.

Guerra de Vietnam. Etapa estadounidense.

Los EEUU, durante la guerra del Vietnam establecieron el programa “Igloo White” dotado con 1700 millones de dólares de los de entonces, entre 1966 y 1971, para las tareas de recolección de información de la ruta de abastecimiento norvietnamita y del Vietcong en Vietnam del Sur. La ruta partía de Vietnam del Norte, internándose en Laos, cerca de la frontera común, y era la línea de toda clase de abastecimientos para las fuerzas citadas, operando en Vietnam del Sur. La ruta fue sembrada de artefactos que simulaban una planta y que eran transmisores de información para la inteligencia estadounidense. Medían 1,2 ms. y su batería les duraba 50 días. Muchas veces era empleado un objeto volador no tripulado, un dron, que recogía la información emitida del suelo y la retransmitía por televisión a un avión nodriza lejano.

UN TRECHO DE LA RUTA HO CHI MINH

Historia Desterrada: La ruta Ho Chi Minh: Eje logístico clave en la Guerra  de Vietnam

Con los datos recogidos del tránsito (tráfico es mercadeo) en las vías, los norteamericanos decidían las acciones de bombardeo de interdicción, a cargo de sus distintos ingenios aéreos, incluyendo los invisibles, inaudibles y precisos bombarderos estratégicos B-52. A primeros de 1971, los datos de las fotos aéreas tras los bombardeos, tomadas desde aviones que volaban después de las formaciones de ataque, permitían suponer a los analistas que la “guerra de camiones” estaba causando un muy severo esfuerzo a la capacidad industrial de los suministradores de Vietnam del Norte (China y la URSS).

Pero, si era cierto que se destruían tantos camiones y equipos, ¿cómo era posible que los comunistas mantuvieron la iniciativa en Vietnam el Sur? Por otro lado, ¿dónde estaban las decenas de miles de restos de camiones y demás materiales que literalmente debían plagar muchas de las vías y parques logísticos de la Ruta Ho Chi Minh?, ¿quiénes se molestaban en quitarlos?

UN TRECHO MÁS MALTRECHO DE LA RUTA HO CHI MINH

Otro asunto sonrojante fue que el total de vehículos contados por la aviación estadounidense como destruidos, superaba varias veces el total de vehículos de transporte de carga conque contaba Vietnam del Norte.

La respuesta a esta incógnita esencial la dieron pronto los jóvenes oficiales estadounidenses: los camiones los comía un monstruo llamado el “Great Laotian Truck Eater”; un horrendo carroñero que se levantaba hacia el amanecer y devoraba los vehículos destruidos por la aviación durante la noche, después de las fotografías de rigor para el “wreck count”, el recuento de desechos logrados. Porque los estadounidenses son muy escrupulosos con las estadísticas y consideran a la mentira un pecado social casi imperdonable para los funcionarios.

(continuará)

Military and National Intelligence, failures and results.

Introduction and Development.

The intelligence services of large countries are often correct in their opinions and forecasts.

The specific intelligence tasks to which a few modern agents are dedicated usually end with partial or total success.

Complex works with ramifications and developments, which hide an estimable but not certain future, fail miserably. Because of this complex and future peculiarity. And, because the ability to observe and measure a parameter of the human soul is something elusive, doubtful and uncomfortable. Next we will see several specific cases.

The reasons for the divergence of successes between singular cases and the projection into the future (foreseen solution) of complex issues, transcending time, are partly in the difficulty of their conception, in the risk that is run in venturing and in the non contrasted exposure to the commands. Obviously, there is a dialectic here between the concealment carried out and the cognitive and intuitive process of its imagination, development and projection (estimated solution).

Only analysts freed from Scholasticism and field manuals are capable of placing themselves in the free, impartial and lucid mental state or position. To capture anomalous, complex and difficult enemy situations. Since they are paid for results and speed, which are contradictory variables, the luxury of putting an analyst agent in a “quiet position” for an unpredictable, indefinite period of time is not usually acceptable.

The new techniques for detecting, observing and tracking targets should not be underestimated. Based on computers, electronic sensors, Artificial Intelligence. But, the presence of field agents should not be suppressed, but rather supported and increased. Cyber monitoring can specify for our spy the precise area of investigation and study.

BRIEFING OF A FIELD AGENT

The field agent is an infiltrator in a neutral or hostile environment. Able to approach and penetrate the government, business or social media of the rival. And capture relevant, important information in a consistent and sustained manner. The field agent gives a seal of verisimilitude or even reality to the information captured from the enemy.

It is not easy to recruit, train and insert your own field agent. Hence, in an era of haste, superficiality and intellectual complexity, technological means have been favored over field agents for espionage work.

Afghanistan 2021.

We all remember the moments of the change of government in Afghanistan in August 2021.

During almost 20 years of staying there, the United States had spent enormous sums of money on said stay, providing various support to the Afghan State and to choosing, training and equipping the Afghan National Army. The Americans even boasted in their public communications, especially from the Defense Department, that they were making progress in the anti-terrorist fight against the Taliban.

MARINES GUARDING KABUL AIRPORT

This turned out to be like the “Potemkin villages.” That the Russian minister of that name prepared in the path that Tsarina Catherine the Great would follow on a trip. So that her trashy inhabitants would appear happy and shiny as her Imperial Majesty passed by.

As soon as the last American troops had to withdraw, the Afghan soldiers, who also turned out to be shoddy, began to surrender their weapons and escape the feared wrath of the Taliban. US forces were only able to secure a defensive perimeter of the Kabul airport. But, the “friendly Afghans” and their families had to get there to board a flight. Fleeing the tidal wave of the barbarity of the Taliban (scholars of the Koran).

As it had been negotiated with the Taliban to accept control of the airport by Western soldiers for a few days, this was not enough for many «collaborators» of the Westerners (translators, drivers, cleaners, etc.) and their families. Many had to make a painful journey to Pakistan to gain their freedom and their lives.

Vietnam War. American stage,

In the United States, during the Vietnam War, the “Igloo White” program was established, endowed with 1.7 billion US dollars, between 1966 and 1971, for the tasks of collecting information on the North Vietnamese and Vietcong supply routes in South Vietnam. The route started from North Vietnam, entering Laos, near the common border, and was the line of all kinds of supplies for the aforementioned forces, operating in South Vietnam. The route was strewn with devices that simulated a plant and were transmitters of information for US intelligence. They measured 1.2 ms. and their battery lasted 50 days. Many times an unmanned flying object, a drone, was used, which collected information from the ground and transmitted it via television to a distant plane.

A SECTION OF THE HO CHI MINH ROUTE

With the data collected from traffic on the roads, the Americans decided on interdiction bombing actions, carried out by their different aerial devices, including the invisible, inaudible and precise B-52 strategic bombers. In early 1971, data from aerial photos after the bombings, taken from planes flying after the attack formations, allowed analysts to assume that the “truck war” was causing a very severe strain on the industrial capacity of North Vietnamese suppliers (China and the USSR).

Historia Desterrada: La ruta Ho Chi Minh: Eje logístico clave en la Guerra  de Vietnam

But, if it was true that so many trucks and equipment were destroyed, how was it possible that the communists maintained the initiative in South Vietnam? On the other hand, where were the tens of thousands of remains of trucks and other materials that literally plagued many of the roads and logistics parks on the Ho Chi Minh Route? Who bothered to remove them?

A more primitive stretch of the Ho Chi Minh Route

Another embarrassing issue was that the total number of vehicles counted by the US aviation as destroyed, exceeded several times the total number of cargo transport vehicles that North Vietnam had, according to Intelligency.

The answer to this essential mystery was soon given by the young American officers (juniors): they were eaten by a monster called the “Great Laotian Truck Eater”; a horrendous scavenger that rose towards dawn and devoured the vehicles destroyed by aviation during the night, after the required photographs for the “wreck count”, the count of debris achieved. Because Americans are very scrupulous with statistics and consider lying a «social sin» that is almost unforgivable for officials.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

Hamas attacks Israel in 2023.

General introduction.

Hamas commandos knew they would fight deep in Israeli territory. Very far from their supports, supplies and other Hamas units. Their targets were there: Israeli civilians and military personnel killed or taken hostage. And they knew that once 2 or 3 days had passed, the Israeli forces, superior in human and material resources, would attack, pursue, and ambush them. Their end, in general, was death. Since the Israelis would in this case still have a surplus of captured enemies. To interrogate and learn the parameters that Hamas used, to surpass them for a time: surprise them and establish combat superiority over their troops in many parts of Israel.

The various attackers carried out a “swarm attack” on positions in central and southern Israel. Several of the principles or norms of military forces in a conventional attack were disregarded. For example, the unity of the objective and the unity of command of the forces and the maintenance of a structure, of a deployment for all attacking forces. Here, each small Islamist “unit of action” had its own leader and its own objective. And, it is the set of actions of the “attacking swarm” that defines the strategy and complex real objective of Hamas.

YAHYA SINVAR, PALESTINIAN MILITARY CHIEF OF THE GAZA STRIP.

Here, Hamas forces attacked divided into a multitude of independent groups, small and sufficient, in charge of striking and/or destroying. Or occupy the Israeli military post, kibbutz or cooperative, and take Israeli or Western foreign hostages to send them to Gaza.

All of this reveals and shows us that the military effect sought by Hamas‘s multi-objective attack is an Internal Moral Shock, increased by the surprise factor of the action, already installed in the military establishment and in the populations of Israel. The aura of invincibility of the Israeli Armed Forces and the effectiveness attributed to Mossad and other affected security agencies, not so conspicuous, have been broken.

It is the set of «action units» of the militias, composed of variable weapons or branches of the FA: infantry, airborne, anti-tank, light armor, health, military police, which carries out, through these multiple and quasi-simultaneous actions on the Israeli Nation: The effect of shock, shattering, heartbreaking material and moral.

SEMI IRREGULAR HAMAS TROOPS PARADING

This multiple and general effect is inexorably transmitted to Israelis in arms through social mechanisms. The effects of damage to people and property not protected by the army, the invasion of cruel and vengeful Palestinian forces, which occupy and destroy different points in Israel, commotion and produce shock and disorientation of the troops.

Israel says it has mobilized almost 300,000 reservists to attack the Gaza Strip. They are not the best troops to maintain combat readiness and combat alert.

The geographical and military social scenario of the Islamist radicals.

The so-called Gaza Strip is a narrow, flat and small coastal corridor next to the Mediterranean Sea, located south of Israel. More than one and a half million people live crowded together in its approximately 363 km2 of surface. 99% of the inhabitants are Muslims and Christians number between 15 and 20 thousand souls. The strip reaches a demographic concentration of around 4,150 people per km2, which is one of the highest in the world. Its shape is that of an elongated rectangle, about 45 km long, measuring 12 km at its widest part. At the south is its border with Egypt of about 11 km, around the strategic city of Rafah.

To the east and north the Gaza border with Israel extends for about 51 km. The most important population of the strip is the one that gives it its name, Gaza, located in its northern third. The other prominent towns in the strip actually constitute “districts”, “peripheral neighborhoods” or “satellite towns” of the “ecumene” of Gaza. Among those not yet mentioned we will highlight Beit Hanoun (in the extreme north), Beit Layla, Sheikh Zaid, Dayral Balah (in the center), Jabalia and Kan Yunis (in the south, but not on the border with Egypt).

The unemployment rate of the population is between 35-40%. This makes it very dependent on external aid. And, furthermore, it excites their identity and social demands and defines as “solely” responsible for their evils the most visible, socially and culturally different, and close enemy, Israel. The search for a quick and utopian solution for this population necessarily requires a sufficient defeat of Israel, the oppressive and imperialist power. This makes its population very inclined to embrace “radical Islamist militants” doctrines and parties (the RIM). They allow them to glimpse and evaluate a solution, even in an indefinite and imprecise future. And at least they give them the hope they all need. Islamic Jihad and Hamas are the two main Islamist organizations with implant in Gaza.

Ideology of radical Islamist Palestinians.

Hamas, as a totalitarian socio-political-religious organization, exercises extensive power in all areas of civil coexistence of the inhabitants of Gaza. This power is also conditioned by the nature of the struggle in conditions of isolation, encirclement and hardship. This allows Hamas to invoke in its “general defense” the oppression to which the entire Palestinian population of Gaza is subjected, whether real, felt and/or magnified. Without, in practice, the tremendous suffering of the Palestinians being clearly distinguished from the victimhood wielded by Hamas or the Islamic Jihad. Between 100 and 200 thousand are the actual active militants of both radical organizations. In addition, there are their sympathizers and collaborators, with different degrees of involvement in the services and time dedicated to supporting Hamas and Islamic Jihad.

ISRAELI SOLDIERS DISCOVER FIRST HAMAS TUNNEL SINCE 2014 WAR

Hamas mesmerizes, tenses and grows due to the prospects of a more or less close confrontation with Israel. A people cannot be kept permanently in arms, much less in “combat readiness.” But, the reason for being of Hamas is to recover and imitate doctrinally, socially and militarily the epic and glorious times of the first century of Islam, which approximately coincides with our 7th century and the first part of the 8th. It was the era, after the death of Muhammad, extended in time beyond the first 4 caliphs, from Abu Baker to Ali, called by the Sunnis the Rashidun, the “rightly guided (by God)”.

Because its radical totalitarian ideologists have decided that, when Islam practiced armed Jihad and was rigorous in its faith and customs, Islam convinced, overwhelmed, spread prodigiously across three continents and was almost invincible… And they believe that by reproducing the “basic conditions” of that social context, of that booming civilization, today’s Muslims will once again be great, feared, respected and accepted. There is nothing more and nothing less.

We verify that every few years a “casus belli” occurs or is caused, worthy of its name and with its pernicious effects for the corresponding populations. Thus, there are not many possibilities of being able to truly dialogue with this, to reach common ground and reach peace agreements that are consistent and acceptable to all.

Operational considerations of the Defense of Gaza against Israel.

The land defense of Gaza is very difficult to sustain over time. The strip lacks geographical space to establish a flexible, mobile and echelon in depth defense. This is necessary to give power, solidity, continuity and support to the rejection struggle.

Furthermore, the external supply of weapons, ammunition and military equipment to Hamas would be strangled by Israel. To ensure the sealing of Gaza, the Tsahal could establish “locks”, located transversely in the strip and occupied with reinforced mechanized infantry. They would prevent the transit of military equipment from Egypt. Iran‘s weapons and equipment have their hub or logistics center in Yemen. From here they are transported across the Red Sea to northern Sudan, from where they depart in caravans of trucks. They cross into Egypt halfway along its southern border and head to Rafah.

The Israelis sporadically carry out bombing raids on this “evil route”, concentrating on the intermediate depots along the route and on cargo vehicles. In October 2012, an unexpected explosion destroyed a weapons factory near Khartoum, the capital, and other times, truck convoys are destroyed. The naval persecution of this smuggling flow, through detection and exploration drone flights over the Red Sea, is carried out by the USA. And it is the scarce and reluctant collaboration of the three countries involved, Yemen, Sudan and Egypt, which does not allow the transit (traffic is merchandising) of heavy reactive artillery weapons to be made excessively burdensome for intermediaries and with little return for the end user.

(to be continued)

HAMAS ATACA A ISRAEL EN 2023.

Introducción General.

Los comandos de Hamas sabían que lucharían en la profundidad del territorio israelí. Muy lejos de sus apoyos, avituallamientos y de otras unidades de Hamas. Sus objetivos estaban allí: Civiles y Militares israelíes muertos o tomados como rehenes. Y conocían que una vez pasados 2 o 3 días, las fuerzas israelíes superiores en medios humanos y materiales, los atacarían, perseguirían, emboscarían. Su final, en general, era la muerte. Ya que los israelíes tendrían en este caso, aún un sobrante de enemigos capturados. Para interrogar y conocer los parámetros que manejaba Hamas, para superarles durante un tiempo: sorprenderlos y establecer en bastantes puntos de Israel la superioridad combativa sobre sus tropas.

Los distintos atacantes llevaron a cabo un “ataque de enjambre” sobre posiciones en el centro y sur de Israel. Varios, de los principios o normas de las fuerzas militares en un ataque convencional fueron desatendidos. Por ejemplo, la unidad del objetivo y la unidad del mando de las fuerzas y el mantenimiento de una estructura, de un despliegue para todas las fuerzas atacantes. Aquí, cada pequeña “unidad de acción” islamista tenía su propio jefe y su particular objetivo. Y, es el conjunto de acciones del “enjambre atacante” el que define la estrategia y el complejo objetivo real de Hamas.

YAHYA SINVAR, JEFE MILITAR PALESTINO DE LA FRANJA DE GAZA.

Aquí, las fuerzas de Hamas atacaron divididas en multitud de grupos independientes, pequeños y suficientes, encargados de golpear y/o destruir. U ocupar el puesto militar, el kibutz o la cooperativa israelí, y tomar rehenes israelíes o extranjeros occidentales para enviarlos a Gaza.

Todo ello nos va descubriendo y exhibiendo que el efecto militar que busca el ataque multiobjetivos de Hamas es un Choque Interno Moral, acrecentado por el factor sorpresa de la acción, instalada ya en el estamento militar y en las poblaciones de Israel. Se ha roto el aura de invencibilidad de las Fuerzas Armadas israelíes y la eficacia atribuida al Mosad y demás agencias de seguridad afectadas, no tan conspicuas.

Es el Conjunto de las “unidades de acción” de las milicias, compuestas por armas o ramas variables de las FA: infantería, aerotransportadas, antitanques, blindados ligeros, sanidad, policía militar, el que Realiza, mediante estas acciones múltiples y cuasi simultáneas sobre la Nación Israelí: El Efecto de choque, rompedor, desgarrador material y moral.

TROPAS SEMI IRREGULARES DE HAMAS DESFILANDO

Dicho Efecto múltiple y general se transmite inexorablemente a los israelíes en armas a través de los mecanismos sociales. Los efectos de daños a las personas y bienes no protegidos por el ejército, la invasión de fuerzas palestinas crueles y vengativas, que ocupan y destruyen distintos puntos en Israel, conmocionan y producen el choque y la desorientación de las tropas.

Israel dice que ha movilizados a casi 300 mil reservistas para atacar la franja de Gaza. No son las mejores tropas para mantener la disponibilidad combativa y la alerta de combate.

El Escenario geográfico y socio militar de los radicales islamistas.

La llamada franja de Gaza es un estrecho, llano y pequeño corredor costero junto al mar Mediterráneo, situado al sur de Israel. En sus aproximadamente 363 Km2 de superficie viven hacinadas más de un millón y medio de personas. El 99% de los habitantes son musulmanes y los cristianos suman entre 15 y 20 mil almas. La franja alcanza una concentración demográfica del orden de las 4150 personas por Km2, que es de las más elevadas del mundo. Su forma es la de un rectángulo alargado, de unos 45 Km de longitud, que mide 12 Km en su parte más ancha. Al sur está su frontera con Egipto de unos 11 Km., en torno a la estratégica ciudad de Rafah. Al este y al norte se extiende por unos 51 Km. la frontera de Gaza con Israel. La población más importante de la franja es la que le da el nombre, Gaza, situada en su tercio norte. Las otras villas destacadas de la franja constituyen realmente “repartos”, “barrios periféricos” o “poblados satélites” del “ecumene” de Gaza. Entre las no citadas aún destacaremos a Beit Hanoun (en el extremo norte), Beit Layla, Jeque Zaid, Dayral Balah (al centro), Yabalia y Kan Yunis (al sur, pero no en la frontera con Egipto).

SOLDADOS ISRAELÍES DESCUBREN EL PRIMER TÚNEL DE HAMAS DESDE LA GUERRA DE 2014

La tasa de paro de la población está entre el 35-40%. Esto la hace muy dependiente de las ayudas externas. Y, además, excita sus reivindicaciones identitarias y sociales y define como “únicoresponsable de sus males al enemigo más visible, diferente social y culturalmente, y cercano, Israel. La búsqueda de una solución rápida y utópica para esta población pasa, entonces, necesariamente por una derrota suficiente de Israel, la potencia opresora e imperialista. Esto hace que su población sea muy proclive a abrazar doctrinas y partidos “militantes islamistas radicales” (los MIR). Ellos les permiten vislumbrar y valorar una solución, siquiera en un futuro indefinido e impreciso. Y, al menos, les dan la esperanza que todos necesitan. La Yihad Islámica y Hamas son las dos principales organizaciones islamistas con implantación en Gaza.

Ideología de los Palestinos islamistas radicales.

Hamas, como organización socio político religiosa totalitaria, ejerce un poder extenso en todas las áreas de convivencia civil de los habitantes de Gaza. Este poder está condicionado también por el carácter de la lucha en unas condiciones de aislamiento, cerco y penuria. Esto le permite a Hamas invocar en su “defensa general”, la opresión de que es objeto, bien real, sentida y/o magnificada, toda la población palestina de Gaza. Sin que en la práctica se distinga bien el sufrimiento tremendo de los palestinos, del victimismo esgrimido por Hamas o la Yihad Islámica. Entre 100 y 200 mil son los militantes activos reales de ambas organizaciones radicales. Además,están los simpatizantes y colaboradores de ellas, con distintos grados de implicación en los servicios y de tiempo dedicado al apoyo de Hamas y de la Yihad Islámica.

Hamas se mesmeriza, se tensa y se crece ante las perspectivas de un enfrentamiento más o menos próximo con Israel. A un pueblo no se le puede tener permanentemente en armas, ni, mucho menos, en “alistamiento de combate”. Pero, la razón de ser de Hamas es recuperar e imitar doctrinal, social y militarmente los tiempos épicos y gloriosos del primer siglo del Islam, que coincide aproximadamente con nuestro siglo VII y con la primera parte del VIII. Fue la época, tras la muerte de Mahoma, prolongada en el tiempo más allá de los 4 primeros califas, desde Abu Baker a Alí, llamados por los sunníes los Rashidun, los “rectamente guiados (por Dios)”.

Porque sus ideólogos radicales totalitarios han decidido que, cuando el Islam practicaba la Yihad armada y era riguroso en la fe y sus costumbres, el Islam convencía, arrollaba, se extendía prodigiosamente por tres continentes y era casi invencible… Y creen que reproduciendo las “condiciones básicas” de aquel contexto social, de aquella civilización en auge, los musulmanes actuales volverán a ser grandes, temidos, respetados y aceptados. No hay nada más ni nada menos.

Comprobamos que cada pocos años ocurre o provocan un “casus belli”, digno de su nombre y con sus perniciosos efectos para las poblaciones correspondientes. Así, no hay muchas posibilidades de poder dialogar verdaderamente con esto, de alcanzar puntos de encuentro y de llegar a acuerdos de paz consistentes y aceptables para todos.

Consideraciones operativas de la Defensa de Gaza frente a Israel.

La defensa terrestre de Gaza es muy difícil de sostener en el tiempo. La franja carece de espacio geográfico para poder establecer una defensa flexible, móvil y escalonada en profundidad. Esto es necesario para darle potencia, solidez, continuidad y apoyo a la lucha de rechazo.

Además, el abastecimiento externo de armas, municiones y equipo militar a Hamas estaría estrangulado por Israel. Para garantizar el sellado de Gaza, el Tsahal podría establecer “cerrojos”, situados transversalmente en la franja y ocupados con infantería mecanizada reforzada. Ellos impedirían el tránsito de equipamiento militar desde Egipto. Las armas y equipos de Irán tienen su hub o centro logístico de partida en el Yemen. Desde aquí se transportan por el mar Rojo hasta el norte de Sudán, desde donde parten en caravanas de camiones. Cruzan a Egipto hacia la mitad de su frontera sur y se dirigen a Rafah.

Los israelíes realizan esporádicamente bombardeos sobre esta “ruta del mal”, concentrándose en los depósitos intermedios de la ruta y en los vehículos de carga. En octubre de 2012 una explosión imprevista destruyó una fábrica de armas junto a Jartum, la capital y, otras veces, se destruyen las caravanas de camiones. La persecución naval de este flujo contrabandista, a través de vuelos de aviones no tripulados de detección y exploración sobre el mar Rojo, corre a cargo de los EE.UU. Y es la escasa y reticente colaboración de los tres países implicados, Yemen, Sudán y Egipto, la que no permite hacer excesivamente oneroso para los intermediarios y con poco rendimiento para el usuario final, ese tránsito de armas pesadas de artillería reactiva.

(CONTINUARÁ)