The principal branches of the Islam and their ideology.
The Sunnism, which follow nowadays 90 % of the Muslims, also accepts as Allah´s revelation the tradition (the Sunna) of the Prophet. These are his facts and his commentaries or hadices. The major or minor rigor in the selection and acceptance of this tradition characterize three of its theological schools, founded astride between the VIIIth and IXth centuries.
The most opened and flexible school, the Chafií, founded by the Palestinian al-Chafii, died in Cairo on 820 at the age of 53 years, opens an encouraging door for the pacific evolution of the Islam. She accepts also the consensus of the wise persons of the community and the analogical reasoning or qiijas, as correct ways for the adjustment of the Islam to all the times and places, from his “rural, illiterate, poor, medieval and surrounded of hostile peoples, origin”. For she starts from the hadiz: «Allah recognizes the Good in what the Muslims have judged as such «.
There exists a great ideological and practical difference between the Sunnism and the Chiism. The last feels pursued, in reason of the dynastic (the Chiism arises from the fourth caliph, Alí, cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophet) and the ideological orthodoxy (it admits fewer revelation sources), that it proclaims and defends. This way, it assumes historically a fatalistic, passive attitude, even of physical suffering for it, waiting for the return of the (caliph) Imam missing. Imam is the name that the political – religious guides take in the Chiism, not only the common mosques´ prayer. That one will return as Mahdi (the guided by Allah), in a given moment of the History, to make triumph the orthodox Umma (themselves).
But also cases of insurgent action have happened in the Chiism, even with certain success and popular implantation, as in Jomeini’s Iran, in The Lebanon with Hezbolah or Allah’s Party and his subsidiary Hamas, in Palestine.
The Suicide. Characteristics of the Suicides. Their Employment by the religious Fanatics.
It is not easy to make commit suicide to a normal, serene and prepared person. To commit an outrage against the similar one is the most violent act, less than 5 % of the population is «prepared» for that in a natural or innate way. And this does not want to say that they should be going to realize it. Only that are more qualified naturally to act as armed effective persons. If to this joins the survival instinct, powerful and innate in all the men, the induced suicide is something that turns out to be in general strange and difficult.
In general, in 90 % of the suicides there is present some mental distorted, affected component. If the difficulties, privations and opprobriums were affecting so much the men, to push them to the suicide, the Humanity had not survived all the punishment and displeasures that have constantly accompanied her in the develop of her history. Nobody had survived the gulags, fields of extermination and fields of reeducation raised against the Humanity by the off balance and wicked. When a person commits suicide for a loving disillusion, for example, behind it has a mental picture of melancholy, weakness, immaturity and anxiety, in a changeable and fatal cocktail, which disarms him and induces to it.
And it is not worth saying, in the actual relativism, that it is a «chosen option». Because the people die of infections, circulatory damages, cancers and accidents, and this death is not chosen. The modern societies have in the suicide one of the first not natural reasons of death. In Spain they already overcome the victims of the vehicles accidents. Nevertheless, except in some isolated country, the societies look for another side, avoiding the painful vision and without giving the due medical and psychological assistance to the affected and to their families.
To overcome the men natural repugnances to commit an outrage against others or against themselves, it is necessary to appease and neutralize temporarily the mentioned human instincts. Let’s see some motivations used for it.
A «negative» motivation is the chronic loss of the basic natural needs: sustenance, family, safety, refuge and cover, expectations and reasonable progress. It is an effective spur to induce the employment of the liberating violence to a part of the society, specially the idealistic young men. The «positive» motivation would be the economic prizes that different radical Islamic organizations give to the families of the martyrs. And these are so much the fallen in combat as the suicides.
Following the way towards the human psychology and soul, the religious motivation is another powerful mean of conviction and rooting. The suicides of the Jihad are methodically and intensely catechized. The Koranic verses related with the Jihad, are known by heart by them. The other suicides «example» surrounds them in their daily life. In the way of photos, manuscripts, testimonial videos and destiny companions. Their preachers, we refuse to call them imames, clarify their doubts and encourage them to prematurely reach the Paradise. That is destined specially to the martyrs of the Jihad.
The suicide must go unnoticed in the place chosen for the attack, by its age, genre, aspect and attitude. He has also to conceal perfectly his appliance and his equipment. To be able to approach his target and make exploit that one. His passport for the Garden of the Houris is to take with him the major number of dead and mutilated enemies. This way, the physical damages that are caused around the point of explosion are «not looked for, collateral damages».
The Islam, his religious Groups and the Suicide.
What his counselors and co religionists do not say to the suicide in formation, is that his stay in the mentioned Paradise is not eternal, but indefinite. Allah has not had reveal its duration or end. On the other hand, only there is a verse of the Koran that prohibits expressly the suicide, without spreading too much: Sura (chapter), 4, aleya 33 (29) «…Oh, believers…do not kill yourselves…». Probably it was for the natural repugnance that all the simple and primitive tribes have in committing it. On the hygiene recommendations, which in her origin all the written religions give their faithfuls, it was not necessary to insist very much for its prevention.
A «ideologist» of al-Qaida, Abu Yahya al-Libi, developed a theory of «religious» base on the «not looked for hurts», related to persons. According to her, it is allowed to their militants to kill Muslims when this is inevitable. And sometimes, more than when be inevitable, when it is also useful. This way, in a message where they assumed the authorship of an assault of August, 2009 in Baghdad, al-Qaida wished a rapid recovery the wounded sunníes and expressed her hope that the dead men should be accept by Allah also as “martyrs”. Due to the fact that al-Qaida has limited capacities to attack her western enemies, the organization supports her influence and reputation attacking from time to time in countries with Muslim majorities.
In these years, the followers of the Sunna are which are using the suicide in the Islamic Yihad. Al-Qaida, the Afghanistan and Pakistan Taliban and the members of Hamas uses it. The Lebanese Hezbollah and Iranians chiíes do not habitually use it. Though in the assault against the western forces barracks in Beirut in October, 1983, which was the presentation in society of Hezbollah, the drivers of the trucks full of explosives thrown against those, were suicidal.
Also the Iranians used their basijs militias in frontal massive assaults against the reinforced fixed positions, defended by mines fields, of the Iraqis during the war from 1981 to 1989. The basijs were «popular militias» of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Without organization, method, discipline or enough military instruction. But they were full of religious and patriotic anxieties. The last to come to the radical Khomeiní revolution, had to demonstrate their fervor and militancy. In the cities they had also turned into a problem for the clerical chiíes authorities, which canalized their redeeming impulse towards the enemy front.
During the Great Patriotic War of the USSR against Germany, an American general detached in the Front (a group of Armies) commanded by Georgi Zhukov, asked him how was that his infantry was thrown cross-country, running through the enemy minefields, to reach the forward limit of the of German defense position. It is of indicating that in the infantry were enlisted the worse formed and trained men of the Red Army: the peasants and the slightly qualified workers. The artillery, the engineers, the cavalry, the tanks and the scanty motorized units were taking to themselves the best scanty men who existed. Zhukov made clear to him that the losses that were suffering, were just about the same of an assault to a prepared German position … and was admitted than that was the case.
The men were in both cases authentic «cannon fodders». Two examples of how the chiefs of the countries domineer their peoples and how the big ones, oppress them. Without differences in the ideologies and the times.
So sensitive against the suicide it is the Islam, that the second major Islamic «organization» of Indonesia, called Myhammadiyah, has prohibited to smoke to her 30 million members. The reason is that the tobacco kills and that the Islam prohibe the suicide. Indonesia, with more than 220 million inhabitants, is the fourth country most populated in the world. It is the country with major Muslim population, approximately 200 millions, and also the third world consumer of cigarettes.
The possible actions against the Islamic violent Jihadists from the own Islam.
In the face of this own terrorism (war actions against general, innocent and indiscriminate targets), the Islamic world is paralyzed and do not knows what to say or do. The spokesmen and intellectuals affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true, as we saw before. The majority of the Muslims take away from the attacks for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in Western countries. But, when do the ulemas or the muftís intervene in the polemic? Almost never.
Never was carried out inside the Islam a deep reflection on the political and religious opportunity of the violence. Does someone know Islamic active pacifists? It is not the case that the intellectual laymen Moslem react. These are not operative in the way that we know in the West, since for a good Muslim the politics, the society and the religion form the only, exclusive and inseparable trinity established by Allah. Besides, the social and political failure of the intellectual laymen Arabs remains tied with that of the nationalistic, leftist and Europeanized elite, that stimulated the independence of the different Arabic nations after the World War II.
The Islam has to assume that the Jihad was necessary for the establishment and the defense of the believers’ primitive community, the Prophet establishing the Islamic state from the violent destruction of the jahiliyya (the existing barbarism previous to the Islam Arabic). And even the Jihad could be useful for its RAPID extension through the world, according with the existing condition of culture and development of the medieval civilizations. But its historical opportunity does not exist nowadays and then it must be replaced for «another type of EFFORT in Allah’s path». A concept that already exists in the Sunna and that might be recaptured and proclaimed by the ulemas and the pious muftis, which are the ideologists of the real and everlasting Islam. And, certainly, those enjoy the most ample political, social and economic independence: they are respected and / or fearsome by the governments in their respective countries, and are usually those who administer the Zakat or the canonical alms.
Since the emergence of 4 principal theological Sunnis schools before mentioned, the principle of the personal reflection effort, the ichtihad, got power in the Islam. The ichtihad is going to allow the development of the Arabic culture, so much for the civil aspects (sciences, trade, literature, art), as for the enrichment of its ideology. It is the base of Islamic lawyers as al-Chafii. The ichtihad is a source of brilliancy, creativity, enrichment, progress and peace in the way of the personal and collective effort towards God (this is the nucleus and the reason of the Islam), when already the Umma has spread and multiplied enormously through the world.
But, circa the XIth century (V century from the hégira or march to Medina), the theologians close the door to the ichtihad. The methodological Islamic approach alters: from then, it is imitating, repeating and following itself and abusing of the compendiums.