Being an eminently practical phenomenon, the praxis of propaganda is defined by «norms or principles of action«.

Propaganda must be «simple, easy.» Both in its structure and in its concept and transfer to its «objective.» Therefore, the basic concepts of our doctrine and interests must be sought and exploited with it. And state and present them in a clear, easy and appropiate manner. Both in the words (texts and slogans) and in the images we use for their diffusion and impregnation in the social group. And taking into account the means employed and the immediacy and depth that our ideas have to acquire in the group to which are directed.

Resultado de imagen de propaganda social CHINESE PROPAGANDA AGAINST TAIWAN.

Propaganda must be empathetic. That is, it must create and maintain adherence, loyalty and likings towards our ideas and interests in the social selected group. This way , several are the specific instruments to achieve this fundamental empathy of the group with us.

It can be praised the exterior or interior dangers that threaten us. And to highlight our role of «victim«, with the losses and the sufferings that it carries. This way, the Manicheism, which raises an incisive good-bad dilemma, which is gray and vague in the reality, can be used in our favor.

Resultado de imagen de dios lo quiere

It is important that the unanimity exists in our social group towards our reason and identity. And it must be so, at least, in the practical sense. Discordant active little “groups” cannot exist , in this social group.

All this must be repeated and canalized to keep the «propitious spirit» in the group, according to his idiosyncrasy. And to harmonize and orchestrate the actions and aspirations and the facts, to give them the maximum efficiency and extension in the «animated set» with a purpose.

It is necessary that the habitual religion in the group supports us or, at least, is benevolent with us. This reinforces extraordinarily our reason. Since the religion forms a part of the sense of personal and collective identity of the social group.

«God is with us«, was appearing in the clasps of the German soldiers during the World War I.

«In God we trust«, it says the American currency.

«We are the people of God«, say the Jews, the Hussite and the Umma or universal community of the Muslims.

«The Crusade in Europe«, so the Allies titled his campaigns against Germany and Italy. And it is the title of the memories book of his military chief in Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower.

«God wants it«, were saying the Europeans crusades in his campaigns of recovery of Jerusalem and the Holy Land for the Christianity.

The Means used by the Propaganda.

— The word, in any form of used expression, is the creator and the vehicle of the concepts and the ideas. We think with the words, to elaborate our ideas and definitions. This explains also the need and the result of possessing an extensive and rich vocabulary for the cerebral and cognitive development. And, for his maintenance and conservation.

This way, the written documents of all classes favor the galvanization of the group and the integration in a common, monolithic and real identity.

Resultado de imagen de simbolos soviéticos THE SHIELD OF THE USSR.

The applied, general and sufficient education allows to create and transmit successively to the generations, an intellectual and moral commitment with the identity and interests and motivations of the group.

— The images, in the shape of cartels and assemblies, allow to expose to the uncultured ones the thoughts and common symbols.

— The symbols are essential in the exhibition of our personal and collective identity. In them are condensed and reflected many of our internal drives, of our lacks and of our aspirations, of our sense of group. The set of the symbols is called incompletely a «paraphernalia». The more a social group develops, the appearance and the importance of his symbols will go increasing for him.

The symbols of a group, which exhibit the reason, essence and belonging in it of the individual and of the group, are very varied:

Flags and banners; national and of a party and of group shields; badges, ranks and medals of belonging, category and of merits within the group; anthems and minor songs; prominent figures of diverse levels, in which the different sectors of a group or the community feel led and represented; statues of his great men, heroes and outstanding figures and sculptural compositions, which reflect essential or important moments of the social group.

Active participation in mass meetings increases the group’s sense of belonging and its unity.

Music is another highly used mean. Choral singing and instruments such as drum and trumpet are especially useful.

Architecture and sculpture also characterize a complex social idea and a civilization. They are a permanent expression of their essential or temporal beliefs. Over time, both adapt to them.

Cinema and radio are means of transferring thoughts, culture and belonging to the group. And, more modern, television is. That, at first, it did not have the effectiveness and the generality of employment of those.

Resultado de imagen de propaganda social

Internet is considered, as a means of propaganda, but for many, is a strange, unpredictable and negative mean. This is probably the case, because of its global, anonymous, free and controversial nature. On one hand, it is a channel of unverified information, almost by essence and definition. It is also, many times, a spokesperson for outbursts, even ruinous and vile, propagated by elusive elements and almost without responsibilities for it.

And the algorithms used in modern times make it possible to calculate and make various predictions, which are not verifiable. And already from the beginning of the phenomenon studied.

Nota bene. — This work is a complement to our study on the «Psychological War». We also recommend its reading in this «blog» to all those interested in the topic.




The dispersion and inefficiency that the authorities show in the complex labor of uniting the popular wills and in implementing clear policies of reinforcement of the national unity and of control of the hackneyed and unsuccessful ideas of dissolution and substitution of that one, have different original reasons.

A nation does not congregate and galvanize, re-joins and advances with procedure, laws and regulations. Called to juridically confine the public thing. A nation is not governed in times of dangers and incipient decadences only by the economic and accounting ideas and policies. That only serve to create and preserve the material wealth. But that at least nowadays can not avoid the hardness and the cruelty of the phases of crisis and decadence of the economic successive cycles. That literally can crush the collaboration between the social strata and deepen their differences. And these policies are bored, affected and pissquiets. Because the action of the money, which is his essence, has these natural qualities.

Resultado de imagen de montoro  SECRETARY MR. MONTORO.

This makes and defines a rachitic, defensive politics and without worthy horizons of the best efforts. And, also, serious and reliable of the duty. As serious and reliable were Cervera’s, when they sank his fleet in Santiago de Cuba and Montojo’s, when the same thing happened to him in Manila to his Spanish fleet of the Pacífico, presences.

The lack of virtues in the exercise and the example of the power and the leaders, have drained and withered the right of the country, as political national instrument.

The attempts of social politician secession.

In the secessionist case that we have opposite to the face and at this point of his process of break with the Spanish nation, there present several incognitos on what we would have to make or be doing. Would an effective preventive action be useful or counter-productive? The parsimony and uselessness, rested on the fulfillment of the procedure, which the national authorities exhibit, will allow us to take, at least, in exchange future profitable decisions?

The president has said to his party, that already there is no economic crisis to arrange. And the surveys are discounting them voters, who do not seem to want to reward indefinitely the past results. The memory that feeds the collective gratefulness is fragile, interested and changeable.

Then, the Spanish have to be convinced by the ideas and actudes in the PP, that they must vote also for the party when the things are OK. But it will be if they perceive a PP radically different from the one that has governed till now. Capable of credibly exciting and stimulating them, in unit and cooperation, towards the social immediate future in peace and prosperity.

Resultado de imagen de politica nacional española

That it is not said only that in these moments, using as protection, resting and covering in the law and his possibilities, the government is taking already legal measurements against the secessionists. Because those who are applying the law are the courts and district attorneys, since it corresponds to the Judicial Power. And the government, as Executive Power, executes very little, in trying his fulfillment and dispersing the hostile actions against the law. Also on November 1, 2014 the Catalan secessionists realized actions against the unit of Spain and the sovereignty of the Spanish, which were of equal separatist and illegal quality that these of now. And the attitude and the action of the Administration against the popular Catalan consultation of that day, was deplorable, scanty and ineffective. The lenience, the tolerance and the delay in opposite the rebels by the national executives, makes these also partial responsible and necessary, but not sufficient, cooperators, in the crimes of «nation, motherland and sovereignty» attacked and damaged by those villains.

The prudence, the aplomb and the position characterizing the public thing.

The saying «pissquiety, shits small«, indicates that you should not ask the troubled long, big or important doings. To those who look with fruition at the meters and the details of the court, do not lead them to walk many kilometres of trip.

The pissquietism has the prudence and the patience as protective shield and supposed banner of valor. But rarely a pissquiet will hurl himself or take the initiative, because he will want to cover all the bets or possibilities. The necessary and present risk in almost all the actions and enterprises is his essential distaste. And his intimate disability is the absence of charisma and leadership, fundamental for the drivers or leaders in the times of crisis that we live. But this, for shame, he will never accept it, nor will speak about it. The pissquiety is comfortable with the bridle of a society well controlled by laws and regulations. That facilitates him to walk for sure rails towards definite goals.

The professional public vocation of the pissquieties is not that of politician, though often they are. His temperamental aspirations are that of civil servants without major responsibilities, good executors of the written thing and of the ordered by their superiors. To defend his position and to use his arguments, the pissquiety is usually a good talker or announcer. He knows that all the positions are, at least, moderately defensible. And, using the word, as his instrument in the dialectics of wills with his competitors, he can impose them. In the vicissitudes of such a ruled and definite society, which does not admit improper remarks, blows in the table, suden accelerations or brusqueness.

The social and political Nation.

A nation is a society of individuals provided with one social political selfconscience. Collaborate to creating and to arrange it the history, the tradition and the customs, and the own language and moral sense. And secondly contribute to it the etnia and the own territory, that not always exist, specially the first one. This way, the territory of a country is not a nation. Nor it is not even the inarticulate population of a territory under an only government. When the nation is loved by his components and there exists in them the desire to serve it and to defend her in community, the concept of the mother land appears. Both ideas are interrelated essentially. And, the absence of the patriotism or the shame practise it by members of a «social politicalcommunity», leads to the defenselessness and to the dismemberment of their nation, in major or minor degree, forming then «groups of associate individuals». So, it is not of surprising that are the Defense Forces of a nation, as institutions and in his members, which hoist, teach and practise the patriotism as one of his essential virtues. The Forces of Defense of a nation are the specialized set of the «citizens or patriots» for the belligerent and complete Defense of his «motherland nation«.

Resultado de imagen de bandera española

Our ideologics and socials fortitudes.

The attacks of ideological external agents, far from crowding us together concerning the threatened motherland, face us and, even, divide more us. Because our Politics is mediocre, envious and shortseeing in aims. And our invertebrate society is a sum of beings and isolated groups, without a common north and many of them sorrowful of the foreign good.

Our majority civilization coexists with others in the same soil. But it does not want to say that we could not have several social common virtues. And, together with the beliefs that are practised, they are the definers parameters of a society. This way, his unanimous observance and respect promote largely the creation and the integration of the social group.

Of the social crises it is only possible to go out fortifying in the values and virtues. These are the «actions and qualities» of human reference, regarded and valued permanently by the human societies. The virtues are very stable in the time. The values are the human «qualities and actions», estimated only temporary and/or locally by some societies. And, principally, by virtue of his idiosyncrasy, living conditions and pressures received from the exterior. The cultural and social values are usually being evolving with the contingencies, the displacements and the fortunes of the human societies.

The virtues are provided principally by the elaborated religions, and by Cicero’s Speeches and Plato’s Dialogs, within our extensive western ideology. We mention the principal ones, which are absorbed and assumed in the human soul:

Appreciation of the family, the social group and the motherland and the friendship and the nice and curious strangers who come to our environment. It is the “vital environment” that sustains us, our «social humus» fertile and indispensable.

Need of punishment of the conducts that are separated sufficiently of the social rules. To avoid the free, excessive or untied revenge, to dissuade the possible infringer, to satisfy in justice the damages and the hurts and to reform the mistaken conducts. Cuando esta “virtud” es complaciente o deficiente, se abre inevitablemente el camino a la injuria personal o colectiva y a la necesidad imperiosa y vital de tomar venganza. Venganza que, por tender a los máximos (como diría Karl von Clausewitz) y estar alimentada por la injusticia y la cólera, se apoyará y seguirá la Ley del Talión.

Need of the education, as mark and seal of the good doing and of the social citizenship. And the formation as set of the knowledge and professional skills, necessary for the service to the family and the society, with the exercise of a way of life decent and sufficient.

Appreciation of the respect and the worship to the divinity, as recognition and veneration of the Necessary Being who creates and supports us, and, in some cases, helps us frankly and directly. And it makes concrete according to the ideology and the social environment lived.

Valuation of the different duties to fulfill as necessary, vital and social counterpart, of the several rights to receive. Valuation of the sobriety, the effort, the saving, the commitment, the study and formation and the work, as necessary factors and means for the progressive and just attainment of the personal and collective aims.

And are our values and virtues recognized, taken again and reaffirmed those who can give us the force and the illusion to overcome the decadence times.

And let’s not forget the essential function of «command, management, impulse and example» of the social leaders of all kinds, present in the homes, the schools, the churches, the political parties, the barracks, the trade unions, the working centers, the associations in general, etc. These are the cores of the collective activity of the society. Where the indispensable “illusion and enthusiasm» will settle themselves and bloom later.

In the hard times, those leaders must accentuate their example. Because, the values and the virtues cannot be seen and felt as something artificial and/or remote, without real connection with a practical and lived code. And they are not acceptable as impositions of “cold rules and regulations», dictated from a «supposed moral and intellectual apex» of the society.

Our commands manage, but the impulse that we receive from them is weak and ineffective. They give the orders weakly, deciding for it everything that collectivly can. And his example is not estimated, not taken as deserving of the emulation and the follow-up. Without biology there is no family, far from it society will exist. Are fertile and solid the families of the social chiefs?

Exemplary leaders separated themselves from their public positions.

We will speak about leaders of the right, withdrawn from the public life for ideological disagreements with his companions. Or for estimating that did not exist then the sociopolítics conditions that were allowing them to carry out his beliefs and ideals. In the Spanish left, we think that to his commans only the chronic or serious disease and the unavoidable age have separated them from the duties of his post.

We only remember Gerardo Iglesias‘s case, which was elected general secretary of the Spanish Communist Party in November, 1982, defending then the reinnovating ideas of the comrades newly purged. For it, he faced the so called Eurocommunists of Santiago Carrillo, looking for the integration of the different communist existing groups. He took part in the creation of Left Joined in 1986, being chosen his general coordinator. In 1988, he resigned all his charges in the XII congress of the SCP, being progressively replaced in them by Julio Anguita. Iglesias, which was in extended leave for absence, joined later to his former miner’s work.

This selection, extracted of what we can detect and glimpse, is an example and summary. It represents what would be a rocky outcrop, the part not plunged of the iceberg, of all the innumerable persons who in politics strain for keep and show a coherent position with an exemplary and complete ideology.

Resultado de imagen de mayor oreja politico  MR. MAYOR OREJA.

Jaime Mayor Oreja is probably the paradigm of all the leaders that in the right have withdrawn from the public palaestra. His category are given by his characteristics: knowledge, exemplary and moral baggage, positions occupied in the public life, relations and age. Major Oreja has a solid political formation from Christian roots. Always he indicated and condemned ETA’S solvent, secessionist and communist strategy. That was acting, according to him, getting accommodated tactically to the changes of power in Madrid and using diverse attitudes and images.

Without never facing the power of the PP, he has supported a clear and serious political path. Condemning, this way, for example, the abortion, since «something proper of the Bolsheviks», and the euthanasia, which «is an old recipe of the totalitarisms that destroyed Europe in the first half of the 20th century». He never condemned the Franco’s regime in its entirety and on the occasion of the law of the Historical Memory, in the crisis of 2008, he alerted of the risks that already were threatening the concord and the unity of Spain. His ideology inspired the ideology of Maria San Gil, his companion of the Basque PP.

Alejo Vidal Quadras was president of the PP of Catalonia from 1991. In the autonomous elections of 1995 his formation obtained 17 deputies and the major number of popular suffrages up to today. By the agreement of the Majestic, in Barcelona between Convergence and Union and the PP, which allowed Aznar’s investiture as Prime minister of Spain (in the VI legislature of the current democracy, 1996 to 2000), he was immolated by the PP of his positions in Catalonia. Vidal Quadras was relocated as Eurodeputy of the PP. And he was a vice-president of the European Parliament. Nowadays is a militant of the small regeneracionist party VOX.

Maria San Gil initiates his political activity in 1991 in the of Guipuzcoan PP. When she was eating with Gregorio Ordóñez, the first lieutenant of mayor in San Sebastían, on January 23, 1995, she witnessed his murder by an ETA’S command in a restaurant of this capital. At the end of 2004, she was the chairwoman of the PP in the Basque provinces. In May, 2008, after the internal crisis of the PP on having lost the general elections, she presents her resignation as chairwoman and deputy of the PP in the Basque provinces. The motives were the strong discrepancies with the ideas and forms of Mariano Rajoy’s PP.

Jose Antonio Ortega Lara was a civil servant of prisons in the penitentiary center of Logroño. At the beginning of 1996, he was kidnapped in his house of Burgos by ETA. And he remained like that, in deplorable conditions, for more than 500 days. Until he was liberated in the last minute by the Spanish Civil Guard. He retired early at the end of 1997, initiating a political career in the PP. Always, he kept a line of defense of the democratic values of the family, the unity of Spain and of his strength and of fight against the terrorists of ETA. In the crisis of the PP in spring of 2008, he announced his march from the party for his ideological differences with him. In 2014, he joined the VOX party.

The Writing in the Study of the Military Themes

There is something important in the writing, as instrument of fixation and reflection of the learned theme. Not simply to make a summary or a few notes of the well-read thing.

This is what has motivated me to preparing and presenting a brief summary of the function, which exercises the writing for the student of the Military Topics. As seal and final flourish of the preparation or the domain of a taken advantage text by his intelligent reader.

The Writing in the Production of the Concepts and Ideas in general.

The language is the great maker of the thoughts and the abstract ideas. It is the «cognitive material» support with which these are prefigured, work, elaborate and hand over themselves definitive. The language is also a “putting in chains” of the ideas. That are circumscribed to him, both in his expressive capacities and in his ideological limits. We think with the language that we use.

This determines the simultaneous number, not the successive one, of the ideas with which we can work together. The immediate memory does not ensue as a complete and infallible help for the presentation, the comparison and the successive consultations of ideas, related between them. Or to fuse, modify, consolidate them and/or overcome them in an ideological superior unit. Let’s not say, if what we treat is preserving complete this creation and her process. Seeking to remember and transmit her to the others.

It becomes necessary then to write the language of the ideas in action, to expand it, to spread it in order, on “the paper”. But, for being this support more manageable, extendable and more attainable in all occasions than the PC’s «screen shots». In order that the most extensive ideas, the most wide concepts go arising, connect, improve and acquire an ideological major range.

Of the convenience of the manual writing in the study of our Military specific Themes.

In this labor, from the simplest to the most complex and deep, the pen (or the pencil or the ballpen) and the paper are founded together with the hands, forming the mechanical or industrial part, with the ideological language and the human brain, which provide the cognitive and conceptual part. Until all reach a «human and humanizer unit» of work, with the concepts and the creative thought. Where all the elements are important and none can be absent.

He is the ancient «elaborating man» with his hands, an “homo faber”. Acting fully as an intellectual «homo sapiens».

For this labor, any other writer artifice does not join so fully with the biological capacities of the man. The pen is, so, for the nobility of his strokes, the immediate agility and the docility at the service of the thought, the instrument that more completely allows us to extend in an object (the paper) our ideas. To interweave with them, so much simultaneous as successively, a mental creative process.

We dare to say that the lack of this “exercise” can take us to an atrophy of the natural capacity of agreeing and criticizing, thinking and creating. That is independent from the volume of “acquired knowledge”, but that allows us to use them better. Without it which we would largely deprive ourselves of the real possibility of «aprehendere» (to take, to grasp), of assuming the culture.

Simply we can start developing this function and creating his habit, getting used to realizing small summaries of the studied things. But, without having either burdens or hurries. To them we can adding, at will, our comments, critiques or suggestions. And all this will create us a special habit of deepening in our studies. And will expand our capacities of reflection and utilization of our readings about the Military Themes.

On the appropriation and employ of the modern communication systems in the transmission of more wide or important studies and of interest for others persons.

Once culminated the “creation process”, if the theme and the circumstances deserve it, like in this case, other better procedures exist to communicate the developed ideas to many persons. Between them are the press, the typewriter and the personal computer, with all his variants, programs and improvements. They possess so special qualities of composition, reproduction, transmission and generalization, that have supposed a qualitative advance in the diffusion of the human thought through the World.


What are they? How many there are? How do they serve?

A historical analytical tour from the Fighting Kingdoms of the ancient China up to their modern expression for the irregular or asymmetric war

The so called «principles» of the war or advises for good acting in it, which also are permanent, so as are reinterpreted with good sense and flexibility, are the compendium of «what to do on war. Nevertheless, not always were agree the authors or the doctrines to define or to enumerate them, the results being characterized by its extreme diversity before the same phenomenon.

Following their best theoretical experts and skilled users.

Following General André Beaufré, Clausewitz proposed three fundamental principles: the concentration of efforts, the action of the strong on the weak and the decision by the battle in the principal operational theater.

Nevertheless, the reading of his book «On the War» allows to extract at least other eight conclusions, milestones or advices in his great work. And they have the character of principles of the war. These would be: Simplicity in the plans and executions. Concentration on the enemy and relative economy of forces in other sectors, to help to get it. This way, the establishment of a principal effort and enough reserves to guarantee it through time. The surprise, as multiplier of the own military capacities. Superiority of the defense, which must be active, as a fighting form. Need of the offensive, to obtain positive and/or decisive results at the operational and strategic military levels.

Liddell Hart proposes six positive principles: Following a flexible and adaptable plan, to prosecute a constant goal, fitted to the available means, looked for by means of the line of action that offers the less resistance of the enemy and, therefore, the most unexpected for his deployment and following an operational direction that offers us alternatives and, therefore, that disconcerts and disperse the enemy forces. And two negatives: to not throw the forces in an unique blow or attempt, while the enemy is on guard or in conditions to elude or resist that blow and not to repeat in the same form or direction an assault, if it has previously failed. We can synthesize all this saying that: it is necessary to apply our concentration against the enemy weakness, once his forces are dispersed, and if before they were not, by our calculated enticing deployment dispersion .

Though Napoleon commented frequently and wrote very much on the principles of the war, he did not enumerate them anywhere. In presence of the marshal Saint Cyr he once commented: «If some day I have time, I will write a book describing so precise form the principles of the war, they will be understood by all the soldiers, being able to study the war as easily as any another science». The general John Frederick Charles Fuller, from the study of Napoleon’s campaigns, deduces undoubtedly that him used the following ones: Employment of the rapidity, faith in the resolution of the offensive, the surprise, the concentration in the decisive point (not necessarily the weakest in all his battles) and a carefully projected defensive system.

There have been really done diverse collections of the Napoleon’s maxims and military rules. Considered the best and first of all, the published in Paris in 1.827 and which was almost immediately translated to the rest of the principal European languages, certainly the Spanish. It is said that Stonewall Jackson was taking a copy of this opuscule in his rucksack. The colonel G. F. R. Henderson, biographer of Napoleon, considers that this summary «contains a complete enough account, in the Napoleon’s own words, of the great universal principles of the war». In this famous edition there appear 78 maxims, which were extended in other 37 rules in the later editions. But, theMilitary Maxims» of Napoleon constitute rather atactical breviaryof approximately 35 pages, adapted to the technology of his time, similar to the expressly wrote and with bigger extension, already in the epoch of the mechanization of the war, by the Swiss colonel Frick.

For his part, Fuller analyzing Clausewitz and departing from his phrase, «the war only is a duel on a large scale», he is deducing up to seven general principles for the conduction of war, explained through a of box fight paraphrase. Those are: The conservation of the goal. The security. The mobility in the action. The utilization of the offensive. The surprise. The concentration of the forces. The economy of the forces. These Fuller’s principles were accepted and assumed by the North American military doctrine from 1.921, with the due updates in its exhibition and possibilities of application, and adding those of simplicity and unit of control.

The French traditional strategic school represented by the generalissimo Foch, victor of I World War, summarized the strategy in two principles: the economy of forces and the freedom of action. For its generality and abstraction they can be applied to all the tactics and strategies. General Beaufré summarizes them in to reach the decisive point thanks to the freedom of action, obtained by means of a good economy of forces.

The school of the North American great strategy or total strategy represented by the general Maxwell Taylor used, during its confrontation with the U. S. S. R. in the long cold war, two basic principles of performance: the adjustable dissuasion and the flexible response.

Stalin, the great victor of the II World War, whom was asking ironically, «how many divisions has the Pope? « (now we will see the reason), defined the five Soviet principles of the war, which he called «operational permanent factors»: The stability of the national civl rear, the fighting and political moral of the Army, the quantity and quality of the divisions, the armament of the Army and the organizing skill of the cadres, officials and commanders.

These are in contrast with the so calledtransitory factors, of which only one has been specified, the surprise. Surely because it was the only one that Stalin mentioned as such, in the period following its lucky use at the strategic level by the Germans, on having invaded the U. S. S. R. The Soviet exhibition of the mentioned principles, necessarily does not mean that there do not exist other principles, that are so valuable as them in the military Soviet doctrine. But only that are not mentioned as such by her.

In «The Art of the War» of Sun Tzu there are also definite the roots of the principles of the war. They are not stated explicitly as in the West, but they appear expressed with that global sense of the Chinese philosophy. Which seeks to bear in mind everything at the same time, the particular thing and the general. More as an intimate perception and an experience, than as a «check list», a prescription handbook or a vademecum.

On the principle of the offensive SunTzu says:

«The invincibility resides in the defense, the opportunities of victory, in the attack». «When you have enough means, the suitable thing is the defense; when you have more than sufficient means, the assault.» «Those who are expert in the art of defending, hide themselves under the land of the nine folds; those who are expert in the art of attacking, advance as launching from the ninth sky. Thus, they are capable of be protected and insuring themselves the total victory at a time».

(to be continued)

The Islamic Jihad and the Suicide.

The suicide is a favorite weapon of the Islamic Jihad. The suicide is for the Islamic Jihad a cheap, sufficiently abundant, effective and very asymmetric, technical and economically, weapon. The sophisticated enemy sensors are of little use against her. The protective jackets also are of little use. The armored vehicles and the buildings are of little use to protect from her. If the explosive load, her characteristics and the vector are the suitable ones. The starting carrying agent can be man or woman and adult or child. A donkey, a bicycle or a motor vehicle can cooperate in his suicidal assault. It is not necessary to militarily train too much (basic, technical and tactical trainings) a suicide.

The modern violent Muslim Radicalism.

The radical Islamic insurgents devoted themselves between the 60s and 80s in last century, to attack those that they were qualifying of corrupt and false Muslim, socialistic or liberal pro occidental, governments. Their fortune was small for all the effort done: the retreat of the Soviets from Afghanistan, with the logistic western support, and the capture of the power in Sudan, guided by al-Turabi, after they infiltrated and got strong in his Army, which is still a unique case. From 90, their terrorist aims are Western developed countries.

Their present operative characteristics are:

1) Their unnecessary and indiscriminate brutality, which discredits them before their religion.

Sura 2, aleya 10 «When it is said to them: Do not commit disorders (voice with which the crimes are defined) in the Earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in it the good order (the Good)».

2, 11 (12) «Alas!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it».

28, 77 «Like Allah does the Good, also make you the good and do not foment the corruption (the Evil)» (murder of innocent and of peoples that receive you- the lands of dar-el-Ahd-, drunkenness, drugs, unnecessary damages of the things).

This way they despise and not comply with important moral aleyas, without Allah had changed these for them. Sura 2, aleya 100 «We do not abrogate any verse of this Book, nor we will make erase any one of your memory, without replacing it by other one equal or better».

2) The absolute absence of venerable and pious ulemas and muftíes in their side.

3) Their great operative decentralization owing to the universality of the Umma, which goes beyond the idea of nation or race. But that prevents them from obtaining strategic aims, though their punctual actions are important, painful and fearsome.

4) Their failure in joining actively and firmly to a social wide group, which gives coverage and permanent impulse to their movement. The most mentally ill activists are in the habit of being isolating progressively of the society (at least, emotional and ideologically) though they «live» inside it, for the sake of their violent methods, to which they sacrifice everything for the efficiency. They follow a process of segregation, purification (in their improvised and not orthodox rites, they fast, use water from Islam´s sacred places and green banners with inscriptions of the aleyas that favor their cause), consecration and radicalization. Up to coming to the death and even to the suicide in their limited actions. And then they become extinct, as weak, sterile and deviant that are, far from the Umma and her real interests.

5) The Islamic terrorists are in many places deeply ideologically and strategically divided. Though the rivals bands could occasionally offer between themselves, support, refuge, information or supplies. The Gaza strip is dominated for years by Hamas, radical fundamentalist Palestinian group of sunní orientation, in direct and violent rivalry with the Palestinian government of al-Fatah in the Jordan West Bank. In Gaza, two branches organizations of al-Qaida, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam, a few derisory groups, face also violently Hamas for the influence on her habitants. The Pakistani Taliban, principally the Tehrik e-Taliban group, and the independence cachemirs, periodically realize attempts against the chií minority of the country. In Iraq, al-Qaida dedicates to attack the chiís that come in peregrination from the country and Iran, to the annual acts of this religion in their sacred places of Samarra, Nayaf and Kherbala. Also did that the sunníes radical Iraqi (former public officials of the Baas and ex-members of the armed forces, generally purged without neither processes nor judgments, and regional tribal groups). That were in rebelliousness against the majority chií governments, before the so called «the sunní wake up», promoted by the general David Petraeus, who transformed them into self-defense national militias.

6) Their zeal of publicity, to which the West contributes insensitively, stupid (is not to know what should be known) and glad.

7) Their present aim is to strike any government, since the radical and aggressive caliphate in dar-el-Islam does not exist nowadays.

What is and what does mean the Jihad in the context of the Muslim revelation?

The Islam is the submission of the men to God. In its simpler meaning, is a simple faith, with external and social well definite, easy to follow and fulfill rites. The rites are canonize actions by a religion and necessary in order that it imbues in the personal and collective soul of its believers. In the Islam there exist 5 great rites, which are symbolized in its iconography by an opened hand:

The faith profession, short declaration that opens anyone the entry to the Islam. The 5 daily invocations (the Salat) to Allah. The fasting during the Ramadan´s month (the Roza). The charity (the Zakat) with the helpless, disabled and poor (in this order) of the Umma (Muslim universal community). And the peregrination to Mecca or the Hajj at least once in the life, if there are possessed enough resources, which is realized in community, congregating nowadays simultaneously several million persons, between the seventh and the tenth day of last month of the lunar calendar, Dhul i Hijja.

The Jihad, as holy war, the blooding effort in Allah’s path, is directed against those that threaten the Umma. These can be whether the hostile external unfaithful persons, as the not Muslims which coexist in dar-el-Islam, the lands where the Umma rules politically, and that have broken their «protection agreement» with it. The Jews and the Christians have theoretical right to it, as peoples mentioned in the Koran and that hold some of the books considered also as prophetic by the Islam. The Jihad is considered to be a practically equal obligation to one of the so called Five Pillars of the Islam, already mentioned.

The religious Hierarchies in the Islam. Their principal activities and roles.

In the Islam does not exist an institutionalized, universal and rigorous clergy, formed in a same way and equal in the whole Umma. To be responsible of the orthodoxy and homogeneity of the ideas, procedure and dogmas. So much it is, the official belonging to the Islam is achieved by the pronunciation of the faith profession: «there is no any more God (in Arab, Allah) that God and Mahoma is his Prophet».

As for the prominent figures, we have the ulemas or studious experts in the law of the Islam and the muftíes or lawyers entrusted to interpret the sharia or Islamic civil and penal law. Though both are totally imbricated, since the Prophet, with his hadices and other traditions or Sunna, took charge for divine inspiration giving procedure for almost all the occasions in the daily Arabic life of the 7th century.

The ulemas council, that is something like an episcopal conference, would be in every country or region the maximum Muslim authority. The most prestigious, by their formation, would come from the University of Al Azhar, in Cairo.

Next, the imames or chaplains would be entrusted in presiding the prayers in the mosques. They place for it opposite to the indicative niche, placed in the west (Mecca) wall and looking at their public. Finally there would be the muezzin or sacristans, who call five times a day, from before the dawn up to well entered the night, in order that the Muslims do their prayers of adoration and of acceptance of God’s will. The formation of the imames is totally different inside a country and not necessarily deep. Their principal skills are a good empathy with their public and a certain speech faculty. Let’s remember that the terrorist of March 11, 2004 so called The Chinese presided, as was said then, several times the prayer in the mosque of Madrid in the 30 (before M-30) street …

The fatawa (plural of fatwa) are properly the juridical decisions expressed by the mufties, in interpretation of the different situations or cases came up in the Umma. And not necessarily presented to them, as they can be dictated them on their own initiative. They would acquire this way a sense of jurisprudence body of the sharia, if really they depart from religious authorities recognized by their doctrine and knowledge sound.

This way, directly, Jomeini’s fatwa against Salman Rushdie lacked legal value, since England or France were not lands where it was possible to apply the sharia, on not having been a part of dar el islam. This improper extension supposed a dangerous and shameless interference in the political and civil matters of countries that were receiving in peace the Muslims, a part of dar el ‘ahd. Another thing is that some Muslims were ready to argue in this way and to defending it. Especially between peoples who do not know nothing about their schemes, parameters and interests.

A very serious accusation exists likewise in the Islamic doctrine, the takfir, which stems from kfur or ungodliness. With this term is designated unbeliever someone who is or tries to be a Muslim and is to be exiled of the Umma. This term is related to other one, the jahiliyya, which designates the existing barbarism previous to the Islam. On the violent destruction of the Arabic jahiliyya, the Prophet built the incipient Islamic state.

The ulemas, the law doctors, would be the ones to employ the institution of the takfir. To defining those who incur this disgrace and anathema. But the great dispersion of schools and the absence of a common universal orthodoxy (for a religion, the not negotiable only thing is the dogma), have advised that its use should be restricted. Since it might lead, in specially virulent epochs, to an extreme situation of mutual and extensive anathema, which would damage seriously the Umma.

Nevertheless, the Islamic violent fundamentalists, when it has been convenient for them, have not doubted of use the takfir. It happened in the decade of the nineties, in Algeria, between the different fundamentalist groups of the FIS, the GIA and other minor sub trends, that sometimes lasted only while their crazy guide was living. A curious thing was that the origin of many of impassioned were generally the urban poor classes, heiresses of the rural emigration. For whom the religion could have very earthly goals, and not the pious Muslims classic classes and the merchants.

The Koran and the Jihad.

We give a selection of the aleyas of the Noble Koran that treat on the Jihad. We don not use the sunna (tradition) of the Prophet, which can be an object of controversy, about its legal legitimacy, with the Chiís and other minor Islamic groups.

Sura 2, aleya 186 «Do the Holy war for Allah’s reason against those who make the war to you».

2, 187 «Kill them anywhere that you find them and expel them wherefrom they have expelled you (Andalusia, Sicily, the Balkans? But, perhaps did they come first there?)».

2, 189 «Attack them (the unfaithful persons) until there is not presently idolatry and all adoration is given to Allah». It repeats almost exactly in 8, 40 (39).

2, 212 «The war has been prescribed to you and you have taken distaste of it».

2, 214 «The temptation of the idolatry is worse than the slaughter. The unfaithful persons will not stop doing the war to you, while they have not made you resign your religion, if they can».

2, 215 «Those who leave their country and fight in Allah’s path (the Jihad) can wait for His mercy».

4, 7 «Those who obey Allah and to His Messenger will enter in the society of the righteous, of the martyrs, of the virtuosos, whom Allah has filled with His benefits».

4, 74 «That fight in Allah’s way those that change the life in this world, for that in the Last one. And that who fights in Allah’s path, as dies or turns out to be victorious, We will give him an enormous remuneration».

4, 79 «…have exclaimed: Lord, why do you order us the war? …Answer them: The possession of the life here below is small thing; the future life is the real good for those who fear Allah. Here they will not cheat you even in a filament».

4, 105 «And do not weaken in chasing these people. If you feel sorry, also they feel sorry, but you expect from Allah what they cannot hope».

9, 39 «If you do not go to the battle, Allah will punish you with a painful punishment: He will replace you by another people».

9, 92 «The weak persons, the patients, those who do not have means, will not be forced to go to the war, provided that are sincere respect of Allah and His Messenger». (This makes fall practically the obligation of the Jihad in the Umma, which must contribute this way a suitable number of muhaydins).

9, 124 «Oh, believers!, attack the unfaithful persons who surround you: that they always find in you a rough reception».

47, 4 «When you find unfaithful persons, kill them up to the point of doing with them a slaughter and put chains strongly on the captive ones to prevent them from fleeing».

47, 37 «Do not show cowardice and do not call the unfaithful persons to make the peace, when you are the strongest».

All those verses that prescribe and encourage the armed struggle in Allah’s path can be used as absolute, direct and repeated religious “indications” or orders. That employed by an “imam” or preacher, which directs the prayers and Koran readings in the mosque, and which credentials are not so much an exquisite Islamic formation of several years in a credited madrassa (Koran school), but rather to possess an empathy with his community and a certain oratory gift, can turn out to be subversive and incendiary.



General introduction.

The self defense is a bivalent topic. At the light of the juridical classification it seems to be definite. But, when we go on to the casuistry and the practical cases, the application of the legitimate self defense is vague, tough and, probably, disconcerting.

And, in the moments in which the personal integrity or the patrimony are threatened by a violent theft, the defensive reaction must be directed by the mental clarity, the moral courage, the forcefulness and the rapidity. The psychologists speak about the blockade of the conscious, rational mind, in these cases, giving pass to the instinctive mind. But this can be modulated by a generic training, since the practical possibilities are innumerable.

It is said that the reaction to the attacker must be proportional to the hurt or prejudice for that one looks. And to the weapons or means that he uses in his clash with us. But, as everything what wants to be specified in excess, for agents out of the practical context and that elude the integration of the complex human psychology in their expositions, the application conceals and stops for explaining numerous probabilities.

What to do if the attacker takes a hidden weapon? To turn out to be the first and unarmed, throwing him of house? Does the external appearance of the attacker, exhibit clearly his intentions, trainings and capacities? Because, already it is necessary to have surpluses audacity and aggressiveness (is it a psychopathology?) to penetrate in a foreign house to stealing, mutilating, kidnapping, damaging always.

Already it is known that, if clearly he flees, it is not necessary to to attack him, but, if he is armed with a cane, can he leave with everything what he wants?

Which one exhibits major attacking power and efficiency, a young man used in the robbery with a stick of 1,2 m., an elder with a shotgun, or a sedentary gentleman with a kitchen knife? It is clear that the major ones need more menacing and forceful means for the defense. But, where is this specified? The attackers are more acquainted with their methods and weapons, but the common people are not in the habit of training for the defense. And everybody acts as he trains, in the menacing and unexpected moments of great tension. How do jurists value this?

Already I would like that some lucid jurists were explaining to us with practical cases, how it is necessary to react, just following their real example.

Also similar it is the topic of the legitimate self defense of a society, at the light of the morality that traditionally we have in Europe and America.

We have the case of the Somalians pirates still alive. The being theoretically poor, does it gives them right to pillage the others? Are not them the last persons in charge of whom Somalia is a state without organization, neither order? It has been said that we do not have nowadays a legislation that allows to prosecute the pirates in international or national waters (of them). So, why do not the attorneys of the State and the legislators make and approve the laws that allow us to defend us effectively? Those who want to extend the topic can read our article «Los Piratas Somalíes».

Social and Religious Precedents of the Legitimate Self Defense from the Judaic Origins in the Former Testament.

Without going to the extension of the Old Testament, we can talk something about the doctrine of the just war and the self defense and the pardon, from the Scriptures and a logical hermeneutic.

In the Old Testament we can see that, after give to Moses the Tables of the Law in the Sinai mount, the Lord inspires in the Levitic, Numbers and Deuteronomy books, what we might call the «regulation» of the God’s Law, the “Ten Commandments”.

In Deuteronomy, chapter 20, verses 1 to 20, we can see what can be consider the «theocratic law for the Jewish war».

«When you go out to do the war against your enemies and see the horses and war chariots of a people more numerous that you, do not be afraid, as your God, which extracted you from Egypt, is with you. When you are going to begin combat, the priest will go forward and will speak this way to the army: «… Today you go to fighting against your enemies; do not be afraid, do not tremble …, because your God goes in front of you to fight against your enemies and to give you the victory».

Then the chiefs will say to the people: «…that than have commitment of marriage and is not yet married, should turns to his house, do not be that he dies in the combat and other one takes his wife; the one that is afraid and there gets frightened, that turns to his house, in order that he does not infect the cowardice to his brothers». On having stopped speaking to the people, the chiefs will place to their front.

When you approach a city to attack her, you will offer first to her the peace. If he accepts it and opens her doors to you, all her population will become tributary and will serve you. If she rejects the peace, you will besiege it. Your God will give it to you and you will go on to knife to all her males. You will take it with you the women, the children, the cattle and what exists in the city. And will enjoy the booty of your enemies that your God has given you.

You will do this with the cities that are very distant (in Syria, in the Transjordania) and that do not belong to these nations (of Palestine, name of the land of the Philistines, the men of the sea). As for the cities of these nations that your God gives you as homestead, you will not leave in them alive anything of all that breathes; you will give to the anathema these peoples, the jeteos, amorreos, cananeos, fereceos, jeveos and jebuseos. As your God has ordered you, in order that you do not learn to imitate the abominations, to which these peoples submit for their gods and do not sin against your God».

The Lord rather prohibited the death of the innocent, like the murder, the unjust death. Someone altered the sense of «you will not kill the innocent» …

John the Baptizer was preaching in the Jordan a baptism with water, of penance, preparing the way of the souls towards the Lord, who was coming to redeem them. «There a group of soldiers were asking him, “and we what have to do”? He answered them: «neither exact anybody, do not denounce falsely and be satisfy with your pays» Saint Luc. 3, 14. The Baptizer (who so much publicly lashed Herodes, only for being in concubinage with Herodias, the woman of his brother, end who led him to being beheaded) did not ask the troops to leave the weapons and to be dispersed or to dedicate to humanitarian actions type «Mary Complaisant». An Army is not a Non Government Organization… He said to them that should behave with honesty in their jobs of dislocating legally the combat capacity of the enemies of their Motherland, in order to defend it.

And all this in a land hungry of peace, which was boiling of indignation against the Romans, for their ungodliness and paganism. Where the zealots, guerrillas or armed rebels (Barabbas was probably one of them) were people´s heroes.

The Lord rather prohibited the death of the innocent, or the murder, the unjust death. This is the really sense of «thou shall not kill”. Someone altered it…

«The Jew Easter was close and Jesus came up to Jerusalem. He found the porch of the Temple full with dealers of oxen, sheep and doves and coins changers sat all around. He made a scourge of ropes and then he began to expel all out of the Temple, with their sheep and the oxen and overturned the coins tables of the cambists. He said to the of doves sellers: «Remove this of here; do not do of the House of my Father a cave of thieves». His disciples them remembered the Scripture: «The zeal of your House devours me». Saint John 2, 13 to 17.

The Lord, as a truly man, also has the passion of the wrath, but he controls it and arranges it to the Good. The sin is the disorder, the injustice and the going beyond…

The Jew authorities were interrogating Jesus before Anas and the witnesses were incurring in contradiction, so the accusations being dissolved. “Anas then asked him about his disciples and his doctrine. Jesus answered him: «I have always spoken publicly in the synagogues, in the Temple, where the Jews re-join. Why do you ask me? Ask those that have heard me, what is what I have said». On having said this, one of the guards gave a slap to Jesus saying: “This way do you answer to the Supreme Priest?” Jesus answered him: «If I have spoken evil, demonstrate it; and if I have spoken well, why do you beat me?» Saint John 18, 19 to 23.

The opportune word is stronger than the fists: the guard remained quiet and Anas, the old chief of the Sanhedrin, had to send Jesus before Caiaphas, his son-in-law, who was the Supreme Priest that one year. In order that he begins again the legal pantomime.

It is very curious that the Lord, whose body ended totally swollen and disfigured, deprived even of the last quantum of vital energy and whose heart split up the last drop of blood, which torments he assumed patiently, was answering so forceful to a simple blow in the cheek…

Against the stupidity, the silliness, the unjust complacency or tolerance with the evil and the own weakness, Jesus warns us: «Do not give your pearls to the pigs, because they can trampled them and then turn against you and destroy you» Math. 7, 6.

The Catholic Church does not pardon, does not give the Sacrament of the Reconciliation, which its Matter are the sins of the penitent, if this one does not have intention of the repair of the caused damage. Any mental reserve of the intention would make invalid the Sacrament and to the sins of the penitent, a sacrilege would be added. The repair of the caused damage is to return the stolen money and its interests or to compensate sufficiently the family or the interested party for a murder, a mutilation, a rape, a kidnapping, a false testimony before the judge, a spread calumny. God does not pardon without repairing justice. The Injustice lead to untidy revenge…

Can we see an example of what are you talking from History?

When the Church has held the political power and has felt threatened by an equal or superior enemy power, of course that she has used the weapons. And with good reason, I thought.

Two shining brush-strokes and a final note:

In 1209 the Crusader armies promoted by the Pope Innocence III, came on the verge of Beziers’s city. This one was in the hands of the Cathars (of the Greek katharos, that means «pure») or Albigensiann (Albi’s toponym, one of their many cities). It was a naturist heresy very persistent in the epoch. The Cathars were despising the matter and the human body (so, their supposed spiritual «purity») and, therefore, to their Creator. One of the more famous preachers against the heresy was Saint Domingo de Guzmán.

The army was so powerful that the capture of the city was sure. The chiefs of the troops got to Simón de Monfort, pontifical legacy and supreme chief of the expedition and ashed him:»In the city there are many faithful Christians. When we take it, how we will differ them from the heretics?» Monfort was very clear: «Kill all of them. The Lord God will be able to distinguish them». More than 20 thousand men, women and children were passed by knife after the occupation.

«Si no e vero, e ben trovato». If it is not true, it is very well appropriate. Let’s do the critique. Some authors attribute to Arnaud Amaury, the military chief, a good Cistercian priest, these words. The population of Beziers was around 15 thousand souls. And the refugees with content in her, which were fleeing from the Crusaders’ «spiritual cleanliness» (today we probably would call it the “military roller”), could not be much more than 5 thousand. To kill all the people in the city would be very difficult. But the capture brought an impressive bath of blood, narrated by some witnesses. What seems to be clear is that none of the military or civilian chiefs of the Crusader Forces made for anticipating or prevent it. To say that veteran troops, blessed as Crusaders, do whatever they want and kill without orders (it is not a plunder, in it the hands go away a little). And, therefore, without responsibility of their commands, is absurd and offensive for the human reason.

Let’s see Lepanto’s case. The expansionism and the power of the Sublime Door were evident: By the sea, she was an inconvenient and rapacious neighbor of the western Christian Mediterranean, with enclaves in Tunis and Algeria. By land, she was occupying the Balkans and part of the former Western Roman Germanic Empire was threatening to be devoured.

The only man who saw clear the situation created by the Turkish danger from the first moment was the Pope Saint Pio V. Inclusive Philip II of Spain was very much late in becoming convinced of the need to confront abreast the danger and to aim the Turks an important blow. The capitulations to constitute the Holy League would be delayed until May 25, 1571, due to the disparity of interests and projects. Finally, it was only constituted by the Pontifical States, Spain and Venice. France was away, very earthly, for her hatred and envy towards Spain.

On August 29, 1571, bishop Odescalco, the pontificial legacy, came to Messina, and gave the Apostolic benediction and granted indulgences of Crusade and extraordinary Jubilee to all the men of the Allied Navy, in the name of Pope Saint Pio V. On September 15, Don Juan of Austria arranged the exit of the Allied fleet from port. And by the 26th, the fleet dropped anchor in Corfu. A flotilla went out to reconnaissance the zone.

The case is that Lepanto was staying at the entry of the Corinth gulf, in full territory of old Ottoman authority. Mahommed II, the Conqueror ( Mehmet, in Turk, that of the aquiline nose), holds Morea (the Peloponeso) and conquers Albania, Serbia and Bosnia, in both shores of the gulf, between 1460 and 1476. There we went to get them all. The Pope had promoted a preemptive attack, with the moral conviction of the continuity of the Turkish intentions against Europe. And without existing immediately before a Turkish provocation or a “casus belli”. Pope Pio XII also wrote on the right morality of these preemptive attacks in the first fifties of XX century. I have not found this text in the corresponding library in the Vatican City complex.

On Sunday, the 7th of October in the evening, the Pope was conversing with a group of cardinals in his office. Suddenly, softly captivated, he went out to the balcony. There he received the “intellectual vision” of the Great Christian Victory in this day. The Pope had previously ordered that the Rosary should be prayed fervently in all the Christian lands. Asking for the intercession of the Virgin Mary, for the Christian victory. In gratefulness, the Pope instituted October 7 as a Church’s Holiday dedicated to the Virgin of the Rosary.

Finally, before Nasser’s continuous boasts and all the warlike preparations of the Arabic countries that were surrounding her in a belt of iron, what had been of Israel, if in June, 1967 she had not attacked preventively the Arabic military aviation in ground, being air supremacy guaranteed this way to her in the so called war of Six Days?


The Battle of Austerlitz or the Battle of the Three Emperors.

The French Crowning of her War of 1805 against the Third Coalition.

Introduction. Reasons of the war. England Promotes the Third Coalition against France. The First Movements of the Belligerents.

The first series of the wars that arise immediately after the French Revolution ended with Loeben’s (in 1801) and Amiens’ (in 1802) Peaces. But between France and England the intervals of peace were at the time only respites, to be able to continue their inevitable fight for the supremacy and the survival in Europe. In May, 1805 the war exploded between France and the so called Third Coalition, created the previous month by Russia, Austria and England, her promoter. An excited William Pitt sent generously the English gold to her continental allies.

The main part of the French army was at the time lodged along the coast of the English Channel, preparing himself to invade England. But the threat for the army in campaign, which was the real strategic goal of the Napoleonic wars (let’s remember that the occupations of Madrid, Vienna, Moscow, were not decisive), was arising in the East, by the armies of the Russian and Austrian Empires.

In September, 1805 Napoleon moved his «Army of England» to the Rhine, deploying his 208.000 men between Mainz and Strasbourg and renamed he the «Great Army». The French “Grande Armée” was formed by 145.000 infantrymen and 38.000 troopers, joined 7 Army Corps, each one at the orders of a French marshal, a great cavalry reserve commanded by the marshal Prínce Murat and the Imperial Guard, directly under Napoleon; to them 25.000 allied Bavarians were added.

Taking as usual in him the initiative, Napoleon decides to give the first strategic blow against the army of 72.000 Austrians that, at the orders of the general Mack and the archduke Fernando, son of the emperor Francisco II, was advancing towards Ulm, without waiting the arrival of help from their allied Russian.

Napoleon is going to use against the Austrians what we can call an operative effort of gravity center. The characteristics of the process of establishment and functioning of that one are the originality, the flexibility of the deployment, the consistency, its not predictability by the enemy and the efficiency. The operational gravity center supposes the centripetal action of all the means and their lines of action, of the «branched out» activity of all the units and services. Not necessarily coincidental, but convergent and resultant in their synergy, in their efficiency and in the result. By means of the different and coordinated lines of advance or of action, we induce uncertainty and insecurity in the enemy, disperse his capacity of rejection and disturb his Defense Plan and its systematic conduction by the commands.

In an ample advance of his independent Army Corps, the Grande Armée (about 210,000 men) quickly crossed the center of Germany, from the Rhine to the Danube, between September, 25 and October, 6. With this, it operationally interposed between the Austrians (about 40,000 men) and their allied Russian forces that went to help them. The Austrians did not understand the need of the rapidity of the movements, thinking only about the battle, as the only instrument of the decision. The French initiated the crossing of the Danube on October 7, 1805 and, during the following week, Napoleon converge most of his Army Corps in an enormous restricting spiral on Ulm, while a Corp with enough forces watched for the arrival from the east of Russian General Kutuzov.

General Mack made, in vain, several attempts at rupturing Napoleon’s forces, applying his greatest efforts in Haslach and Elchingen. Both Austrian commanders quarreled among themselves and Archduke Fernando, with his 6,000 troopers, separated from the main force and tried to escape to the northeast. But Archduke Fernando’s forces were surrounded and beaten by the cavalry Corps of Murat, near Trochtelfingen. Another 12,000 Austrians surrendered in Neustadt.

On the other hand, General Mack and the rest of his men (about 27,000, after the mentioned battles), with Napoleon’s overwhelming forces at the doors of Ulm since October, 14, came out the city and laid down their weapons at the feet of mounts Michelsberg. The capitulation was signed by General Mack on the 20th. The campaign, without properly battles, cost Austria more than 50,000 men (around 70%) of her initial forces of about 70,000 troops.

The Second Phase of the War: the Battle of Austerlitz.

The shining campaign of 1805, after the easy operational victory over General Mack in Ulm, reached its peak in Austerlitz.

Under command of General Kutusov, the Russians who went to aid Mack did not let themselves be caught by the Fench. They returned the way they came, heading first toward the east and soon toward the north of the Danube, thus moving Napoleon further and further away from his bases. The capture of Vienna on November 12th was useless for him, because Kutusov continued to refuse to fight, avoiding even two French traps tended by Murat. The general was looking forward to meeting with the forces of General Buxhowden and the Czar, near Olmutz, before opposing the French. On November 20th, about 85,000 Russian and Austrian soldiers concentrated; also present were the Emperor Francis and the Czar Nicholas.

Napoleon, who had initiated the campaign against Mack from his positions along the Rhine with about 210,000 men, was now about 720 kilometers from them. The losses due to the incessant marches, battles and the necessity to guard his line of communications had reduced Napoleon’s operational army to 55,000 men, who were under his direct control.

The Creation of Napoleon’s Battle Plans.

But Napoleon, often neglected and trusted, demonstrated his better moments in crises times. At age 36, only one year after his coronation, Napoleon reached the zenith of his military career. During the first days, Napoleon mainly prepared his enemy. Pretending weakness, his cavalry vanguards backed down from contact with Cossack patrols near Olmutz. Next, he evacuated the town of Austerlitz and, still more demonstratively for a defensive approach, evacuated the heights of Pratzen. He was even especially courteous to the Russian pedantic envoy Count Dolgorouki, escorting him personally to the French advance parties. The allies tentatively offered an armistice to him, waiting to win time for Archdukes Charles and John to approach from the south with around 122,000 Austrians.

On the first of December the allies advanced from Olmutz and occupied Pratzen. Meanwhile Napoleon received reinforcements from Army Corps I and III (commanded by Marshals Bernadotte and Davout), who went from the garrisons of Iglau and Vienna in their line of communications. This increased his strength to more than 73,000 men.

Napoleon was now going to offer as bait his debilitated right flank to the allies. Who were anxious to secure a victory over the hated young emperor and had come to believe that this was possible. In addition, an allied victory and penetration in the zone behind Napoleon’s lines, will cut him the retreat toward Vienna. This would also leave the French Army in an isolated, hostile land, surrounded by enemies, without reinforcements at hand, and in a situation of enormous numerical inferiority (a strategic triumph!). That was already too much for Czar Nicholas (his presence inevitably interferes with the authority of a Commander-in-Chief in a campaign) and many young generals, who disregarded Kutusov’s advice of prudence. Also, the doubts of the Emperor Francis could be ignored, because three-quarters of the troops were Russian.

The imbalance of the enemy seeks to turn vulnerably his deployment, before the imminence of a combat, to optimize our results and to minimize our losses in it. The imbalance of the enemy, together with his functional incapacitation for combat, must allow us the action on his critical vulnerabilities. Looking for his disorganization and disintegration, with the minor attrition (in capacity of combat) and the minor wear (in capacity of operative movement) possible for us. For this, it is required the determined, flexible and imaginative military action. The intellectual human means of the Army, through the commands, are put here in proof and in tension.

The effective factors of the enemy imbalance are the surprise, the deception and the fantasy or appearances, that always are perceived as real and evident by him. Using them, we establish in the enemy a false impression, of opportunity, or apprehension, or distraction, which tries to induce him to operate erroneous and harmfully for him, without proposing or knowing it. On having looked and been orientated towards a fantasy, his combat capacities adopt and relax in an erroneous, inconvenient deployment and, especially, vulnerably against us.

When for the imbalance we use the opportunity, we look for the exaltation of the enemy. The opportunity must be something appreciated by the enemy, a tactical advantage, which arises suddenly as consequence of the flow of the situation or at the beginning of it. She cannot turn out to be as offered by us, because then would not intervene the mentioned factors of the surprise and the deception. Though she can appear as something neglected or failed to take advantage by us. These are the qualities that the opportunity must possess, in order that the enemy perceives in her not a trap, but the attractive and / or important benefit. The weakness is a good fodder for the arrogant. The profit is a good bait for the avaricious and / or meticulously.

Are there different baits? Yes and no, and which is used can vary according to the opponent’s psychology and interests. But remember that only the strong (such as Napoleon) can pretend weakness, and only the intelligent can appear to be clumsy or confused before a calculating opponent.

A combination of these aspects of the opportunity is what Napoleon used to unbalance the Austrian – Russian allies, preparing them to be conquered easier.

Do exist a medicine for this menace? Yes, false impressions can be avoided if there is sufficient intelligence (collected from operational and tactical reconnaissance) to form the commands a correct assessment of the situation. And if the «correct sense» (one of the «operational systems» developed by us in our book «On the Nature of War») of the commands exists in them.

The First Military Movements.

At the right of the French deployment, which extended about 6 kilometers, General Le Grand received only the skeleton of a force with which to maintain the line from the Goldbach stream to the town of Zokolnitz, in the direction of Vienna. He was promised the aid of the division of Friand of Army Corps of Davout. At the north, near Santon, which was fortified, the French left flank rested. It was entrusted to the V Corp of Marshal Lannes, to part of the troops of Bernadotte and to a reserve of cavalry under the command of Murat. Both flanks had a defensive function. In the stream of Bosenitz, the town of Puntowitz and Zurland hill, from south to north, the main body of Army Corps I and IV (this under the command of Marshal Soult) was concentrated. With them were part of the cavalry of Murat, the division of Oudinot, the artillery reserve of the French Army and the Imperial Guard.

The deployment of the allies was more oblique, running about 10 kilometers from the town of Aujest Markt to the heights of Goldbach. It was strong in the left flank and very reinforced in the center, but was weak and distant on the right flank. This last was covered from north to south by the forces of Bragation, the cavalry of Lichtenstein (concentrated near Austerlitz) and the Corp of Constantine, as a central reserve (the Russian Imperial Guard that had 8,500 elite men), located at the northeast of Krenowitz and that geared with the reserve Corp of Kollowrath, at the west of that town.

The Battle is been Prepared. The Tactical Plans of Both Rivals.

Napoleon’s plan anticipated that the allied decision to send troops to the French right flank would greatly debilitated their center, at the northeast and southeast of the town of Pratzen. To take advantage of this, the Corp of Soult would advance on the plateau where the center was based, breaking the allies’ hinge deployment. The French forces that stayed as reserves would penetrate through the rupture and encircle the allies’ right or left flanks from the north or south.

More than half of the allied forces, at the command of General Buxhowden, would breach the front of the Goldbach stream, block the highway to Vienna and then advance north, having swept all the French positions. Shortly after the rupture, the reserve of General Kollowrath (about 15,000 men) would descend from the heights of Pratzen to seize Puntowitz, thus breaking the hinge of the French line. A third force (with less than 18,000 men) at the orders of General Bagration and the Prince of Liechtenstein, would approach Santon and would fix the French forces there. This was the allied tactical plan.

The Development of Austerlitz’s Battle. The Allies, seduced, fall down in Napoleon’s immense Tactical Trap.

At 4 in the morning on the second of December, the first anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon, both armies began their movements. By 9 a.m., when Buxhowden’s troops were totally fixed and a part of the Kollowrath’s reserve had descended behind them, Napoleon ordered the assault of the Pratzen heights. The two divisions of Marshal Soult occupied the zone quickly, surprising and condemning the allied Army.

From now one, the only French operational problem, would be to resolve the different local crises that would emerge without doubt, without getting to exhaust the tactical reserves.

The grenadiers of Oudinot were sent from the Zurland hill to support the south flank, where the main battle was evolving. Bernadotte advanced to the town of Blaswitz, to protect the north flank of Soult. The cavalry reserve of Murat on Santon hill opposed the cavalry of Liechtenstein, to support the green infantry of the Corp of Lannes, that were wavering. At about 10:30 in the morning, Kutusov was able to bring toward Pratzen part of the forces of his left wing and Soult, attacked on three sides, had to employ part of the artillery reserve of the French Army, to contain the enemy’s ceaseless attrition fire.

Napoleon advanced his headquarters and the Imperial Guard, the only reserves not yet been brought into action, to Putowitz, on the slopes of Pratzen. At about 1 p.m., Constantine and the Russian Imperial Guard attacked the tired French in Pratzen. The French first forward line yielded. But the cavalry of the French Imperial Guard, under the command of Marshal Béssiers and General Rapp, attacked the Russians, who fled. Finally, Bernadotte, from Blauswitz, sent a division in support of the critical French center.

The tactical crisis had been passed. Napoleon could now finish off his triumph and looked towards the south, where was the enemy left flank.

The remaining forces of Soult, Le Grand and Davout and the French Imperial Guard concentrically attacked the dispersed men of Buxhowden. At about 3:30 p.m. the battle was over. On the other hand, General Bagration retired from Santon, and Kutusov and both emperors and their entourages fled from Krenowtz and Austerlitz, under the protection of the Russian Imperial Guard.

The Consequences of the Battle of Austerlitz.

The French had lost 11,4% of their troops (about 1,300 dead and 7,000 wounded or disappeared). Allied casualties were 16,000 dead and wounded and 11,000 unharmed taken prisoner; about 33% of their forces. In addition, 180 cannons and 45 flags were taken by the French.

The Third Coalition had disappeared in a short and shining campaign of two great battles. In distant England, the news of the disaster caused William Pitt, lose all his hopes, to say: «Put away the map of Europe». He died within a few months.

Napoleon distributed ample rewards to his Great Army: he gave pensions to all widows, adopted the orphans, allowed them to add Napoleon to their names and gave them a state education, and he gave all marshals and generals two million francs in gold.

«Ordinarily, a battle inclines completely towards one side from the beginning, even though there may not appear to be sense in it. This effect is often attributed to the distinct dispositions taken before the battle. Sometimes there is also the lack of discernment by a general who fights a battle in unfavorable conditions for him. It is in the nature of things that the march of a battle resembles a slow and gradual alteration of balance, weakly indicated in the beginning, and later becoming progressively and more constantly visible and strong. The result is an oscillation much less in diverse senses which one could imagine, according to the capricious and unreal descriptions of battles». It is almost certain that Clausewitz was thinking in the battle of Austerlitz when he wrote these words.


We will go in a «tour» through the crisis times we are experiencing. But without a clear picture where is the exit or how to overcome them. Then will give a list of aseptic actions, techniques, to overcome the economic crisis times. Some might be more like than others. Some weak and incapable governments, even may no consider some.

Finally, we will touch the human side, psychological and emotional, where lay the human values and virtues. We believe that times of economic crisis have been financially created. But its length and depth is due to the mistrust virus between the agents, along with the virus of human pessimism and psychological fatigue. That are firmly entrenched in the crisis times we are experiencing, preventing their overcoming and an enhanced and experienced leave. The simple penicillin of liquidity and low value of money is not enough to reach successfully inside the human soul.

Reasons, Origins and Economic Mechanisms of the Crisis.

The crisis times have not appeared without reason. Do the times of crisis comes from a structural fault of the modern capitalism? That would appear periodically, never equally and with more or less force and extension in each economic cycle. No. The failure of the system is produced by the untidy, selfish and covetous, or careless and fail to fulfill conducts of many businessmen and authorities of the societies. The culprits of the actual times of crisis are an important number of bankers of many nations, together with the authorities of these. Their professionalism is doubtful, imperfect and ineffective. They are improvident, stupid and eager and blind of money and power persons. In a sinister and criminal amalgam, generated by a «born within itself chaos».

The authorities are responsible of not having established a legal frame of alertness and regulation of the financial structure, increasingly sophisticated and complex in the development countries. Which is adapted to such so evident, important and vital activity for the modern economies, as is the reasonable guarantee of the banking deposits and the generation of the banking enough credit for the national Economy.

Do this suppose a turn to the ideas of the socialist economy? Do we need a Big financial state Brother?, another official heavy, costly, slow, slightly productive public bureaucratic mechanism. Neither. The mission of the public powers is to establish a frame or financial practical, legal and modern method or way of action. And the sufficient means for its control and the correction of the alterations produced by the inevitable diversions (like a driver or a ship pilot), in a constant, relatively simple and agile way. Then it is necessary to allow operate the economic agents, that are all of us, acting as consumers, businessmen, borrowers, employees, institutions, etc., in the different partial markets: of credit, transport, supplies, stocks, etc. Why has it to be the State?, because it is the institution that is supposed must control and rule the general common activities, in the name of the people, over persons and private entities.

The banking management is vital for any modern economy. Would someone like that his money, deposited in a financial institution, is given to an insolvent person? That is given to somebody without patrimony or payrolls and that difficulty could return what receives. This guarantee of custody, so wished and sought by the depositors, is given by the authorized banks. Not the stalls or the financial swindlers. Does someone need money for a new investment or to expand his business? This money, received and brought together from many small anonymous depositors, the banks lend it. So as that the activity that he proposes could manage to be economically viable in a reasonable term. Does someone need money for a consumption lending or for a mortgage? The bank gives it to him, provide his future reasonable income allows him to make attend to the successive payments of the lending and its interests, up to its final liquidation. This intermediary banking basic function gives «payment means» to the economic agents who need them, to allow the economic «transactions» of a society, facilitating and stimulating its functioning, growth and prosperity.

The fundamental reason of the appearance of the «difficult to collect» mortgages in the USA was the break of the normal and constant relation between the lender and the borrower. Sure that Clinton first said that every American has the right to own a house. But he forgot to talk about paying it. To be able to grow more, some banks «securitized» part of their lending. First it was with the best lending, at least by all its appearances. They turned in bonds or medium-term debt, the lending that they were giving. And they sold these bonds to other banks or financial institutions, with excess of liquidity and looking for investing. And, therefore, ready to pay a bit more. On having seen the easy thing that was the process, where all they were earning and were getting more means of payment or investment, all were congratulated of their intelligence and financial skill. The process increased and, especially, it spread, even overseas. To it helped, how not, the juggling of the financial engineering. And it degenerated, on having got lost the alertness and control over the borrower. On whose punctual payments up to the liquidation of the lending, were residing the viability and the honesty of the «securitized» and sold transaction. And these pollutant powders, brought the actual economic quagmires, that damage to all us. Where nobody knows well the real value of what he bought or keeps in his financial assets.

Some economic measures to solve the crisis.

A problem is to contain the inflation, which now turns out to be distant, diffuse and improbable. That is to say, that the general prices level does not raise. This one includes the costs of the energies, now depreciated. But also those of the food and the fees of the public services, much more bulls. And in addition are almost impossible to substitute for other goods or private services. And to avoid that the ambitions get out of hand and turn in excessive and unjust. This is like a more or less severe diet. But that promises health and economic renewed energy.

It is also necessary to stimulate the Economy and to avoid its more or less sudden braking. Its total detention would lead to the opposite: to the deflation. But the excess of liquidity at very low prices that are applying the central banks of many countries, seems that removes the danger from the latter.

This multiple, double action in its purposes, forms a complementary, not antagonistic couple of opposites. They are like the nervous vegetative system: with the sympathetic and parasympathetic. Or both reins of a car of horses.

We give some possible measures. We believe that if the public sees a harmonic group of actions, stimulated by the Federal State, he will accept all of them. Though someone makes concrete harm temporarily to a sector of the population.

The public expenditure should be controlled everything possible. For example, cutting away the government employees or limiting the new appointments and limiting the new public works to the structures directly related with the production of goods, all the communications or the education. A corollary of the previous thing would be to seek or to have a surplus in the total State income. This might be used to amortize national or external national debt, for example. Or to reduce the taxes to the companies placed in the first row of employment creation and generation of wealth. And favoring, according to the cases, the most creative, modern sectors or that that use more manpower for production or output unit.

The widespread raises of salaries and pensions should be contained. The quid is to never allow an equivocal spiral of successive raises of prices and wages. Here have to give social example the highest wages (executive, high public charges, civil pilots, capital revenues).

It is necessary to give an adapted training to the youngest unemployed people, proceeding from sectors in crisis, in order that they could be occupied in other labors. The collection of the unemployment subsidies would be tied to receiving this training, at least with interest and, desirably, with progress.

The State must foment the «general» research and development. And to favor that the companies realize the «specific» research and development in their different productive sectors.

It is necessary that the State approaches seriously the problem of the complex commercial intermediaries and the logistics of many products of great consumption. Which increase in price unduly and almost inevitably (because there are the diverse «steps») the costs of those to the final consumers.

The personal qualities and virtues as decisive mental and stamina force to solve the times of crisis and to work out strengthened.

The real, deep and effective action in times of crisis comes from the persons, that, in addition, are the authentic economic agents.
After the liquidity and price of the money measures already taken profusely, why does not economic system work according to its capacity? In 2001 and 2002 even the conditions of money flow to the banks and its cost were slightly worse.

Because is restricted the action of the economic agents.
Partly financially, because the money is not given so easily and thoughtlessly. It is turning rapidly the banks’ “bad” custom of wanting to charge in time all kinds of lending and to give them with a certain security.
The system still needs and must produce more purges for the elimination of other incompetent, corrupt or spendthrift agents.

And, also, is necessary to restore the confidence of the economic agents between them. If I ask for a lending and get tangled up a time. Putting me under an obligation with a top labor, financial and psychic effort. It will be because I see reasonable opportunities of work or of investment. And because I have the natural ambition of prospering and growing.
This confidence is a mental parameter, that does not measure up in coins and that is not exchanged or transmutes with the ambition. Its real engine will be the illusion and the enthusiasm. Without illusion and enthusiasm nobody can neither be tackled nor realize successful enterprises. The enthusiasm is a force of the spirit, which conquers the moral and ideological entropy, generated almost inevitably in the societies (it is the set of the decay and the spiritual softness), and illuminated by a «reasonable illusion».

Of the world economic crisis it is necessary to work out strengthened in our values and virtues. These are the human «goodness and qualities» of reference, estimated and valued permanently by the societies and the human groups. The human virtues are very stable in the time. The values are the human «qualities and goodness», estimated temporary and/or locally by the societies or human groups. And, principally, by virtue of their idiosyncrasy, living conditions and pressures received from the exterior. The cultural and social values are in the habit of being evolving with the contingencies, movements and fortunes lived by the humans societies.

The virtues are contributed principally by the most elaborated religions, and by Cicero’s speeches and Plato’s Dialogs, within our extensive Western culture. We can mention principal and evident, without seeking to be exhaustive, absorbed in the human soul:
Appreciation of the family, the clan, the tribe, the friendship and the good and curious strangers who come to our environment. It is the vital environment that sustains us and is supported by all of us, our social humus.

Need of punishment of the conducts that are sufficiently separated of the social rules: to avoid the untidy revenge, to dissuade the possible perpetrators, to satisfy the done damages and offences and to reform the mistaken conducts

Appreciation of the respect and the worship to the Divinity, as recognition of the Necessary Being who creates us, supports us and, in some cases, helps us. This makes concrete according with the education, the culture and the social environment lived.

Valuation of the different duties to fulfill, as necessary, vital and social counterpart of the several rights to receive. Valuation of the sobriety, the effort, the saving, the commitment, the study or the training and the work as necessary factors and parameters for the progressive attainment of the personal and collective human aims.

Our values and virtues recognized, recaptured and reaffirmed, are which really will give us the force and the illusion to overcome these times of crisis.
And let’s not forget the essential function of command, management, impulse and example of the social leaders of all kinds. That are present in the homes, the schools, the churches, the political parties, the unions, the work centers, the associations in general, etc. These are the cores of the collective activity of the society. In the times of crisis the leaders must act much more from the example.
The values and the virtues cannot be seen as something artificial and remote, without real connection with a lived and known practical code. They have to be perceived and accepted by the citizens through alive examples that could be follow. Not with codes impositions and cold regulations, dictated from the moral and intellectual apex of the society.



Which is the role of the toxic assets in the appearance and the development of the actual global economic crisis? How does it turn into a toxic assets, a consumption lending or a mortgage loan? We do not like the term «toxic assets», because they are neither pathogenic, nor are a poison. We can call them harmed, depreciated or devaluated financial assets.

The Theoretic Basic Financial Cycle.

The banks receive multiple deposits and give the received cash to their different borrowers: institutions, companies and individuals. A part of these lending comes back again to the bank, as new deposits. Since nobody keeps the money in house or in the company or in the official public office, except for the immediate minor quantity payments or in the cases of social real or menacing catastrophe.

It is always supposed that the banks monitor and control the successive partial payments of their borrowers, for the given amount and its interests, at their maturities. But the financial «engineers» arise, Bill Clinton in 1998 realizes an important deregulation of the financial practices and Greenspan acted as an irresponsible qualified madcap. In effect, in April, 2000 he unnecessarily raises to 6 % the legal basic rate. But the recession was coming up and the telecommunications and computer companies crisis, on its way. And then he has to lower it, probably too much, to stimulate the economy. And the FED facilitates the transfers of liquidity to the USA banks. This way, there is liquidity at low prices in the system for a long time.

The Disturbing and Uncontrolled New Financial Ways.

Many banks, probably too many, begin to “securitize” their loans. Turning them into medium-term bonds. And they sell these assets titles to other banks and to investment or pensions funds. Both in their country and overseas. That seek to earn more with them, that investing in the Treasury and good rated companies bonds at their countries.
All that complicates with the rapid «on line» world round communications, with the international transactions, with the ignorance of the real scope of the overseas generated financial titles and with the differences of interest rates between nations and groups of nations. Mix it perniciously and malevolently with external strange factors to the financial system: the «passions» or untidy appetites or exaggerate desires. Which are difficult to know and to control for the men. The greed, the fear and the egoism then arise and get out of control. Disturbing, contaminating and degenerating the financial system. But coming up from the persons and not from its complete and limited functioning financial frame.

And we have a big problem, in the shape of a born within itself chaos. Where nobody knows well the quality of what assets he has. For this, he would have to unravel a complicated hank of transfers and exchanges of assets, of refined creation. Destined partly to conceal faults and spurious and embarrassing origins of the assets. And this happens basically because the usual relation between lender and borrower broke. The former, defending its business, if he has to remain with the lending, as assets in his balance, already will give it to whom reasonably could pay all the debt. And will worry about following the payments up to its final liquidation. And as the disturbed situation is complicating and tensing, the possible bad debts, those at the limit of their financial capacity, will easily turn into real bankrupts. And the whirlwind continues feeding, spreading and harming all of us.


Have we in march a Banking Crisis of unknown scale? This banking crisis, is it a fault of the theories of the so called new conservatives or «neocons»?. Does the banking world crisis obey to a structural deficiency of the capitalism?, that would appear periodically, never in the same manner, and with more or less force and extension in each economic cycle.

Or are the culprits of the world banking crisis rather an important number of bankers of many developed nations, together with the authorities of these? The first ones, more than bankers, are «trashy window bank employees». And they are lacking of foresight, stupid and eager of money and power, in a sinister and criminal amalgam generated in a «chaos born within itself». The authorities are responsible of not having established a legal frame of alertness and regulation of the financial structure, increasingly sophisticated and complex. Which is adapted to such so evident, important and vital activity for the modern economies, as is the reasonable guarantee of the banking deposits and the generation of the banking enough credit. The fool is that who ignores what he must know.

Do this suppose a return to the ideas of the socialist economy? Do we need a Great financial state Brother?, another heavy, costly, slow, slightly productive, official mechanism. Nooo. The mission of the Public Powers is to establish a frame or financial practical, legal and modern method or way of action. With the sufficient means for its control and the correction of the alterations produced by the inevitable diversions (like a driver or a ship pilot), in a constant, relatively simple and agile way. Then, it is necessary to allow operate the economic agents, that are all of us, acting as consumers, businessmen, borrowers, employees, institutions, etc., in the different partial markets: of credit, transport, supplies, stocks, etc. Why has it to be the State?, because it is the institution that is supposed must control and rule, over persons and private entities.

Why cannot be the IMF or the World Bank, born in the Breton Woods agreements and with long actuation history, the supranational organizations that execute these new labors of inspection and correction? I believe that because they lack the legal and coercive means, to impose their economic criteria to sovereign different states. The proof is the compound attitude of the European states against the world banking crisis, make concrete in specific, individualized, different actions, for each participant state. For much that, in its origin, it was called Common European Market. When the states are too heavy and cumbersome juridical, historically and socially, the unanimity is very difficult and laborious.

We will see the mechanism of the creation and of the contraction of the credit, from the mechanism of the creation and of the retreat of deposits in an economic system. The reason is that both are the core of the origin of the current financial chaos, in progressive and advanced development …

How does banking activity work? Why and for what are credits requested to the banks? Why is it very important that the banking «assets» are healthy and recoverable at their ending time? Are healthy the parameters of the current financial activity: system liquidity (European M2); relative volume of non-paid expired debts; maintenance of the bank deposits; control of the “general level of prices”; confidence and credibility of the different economic agents, etc.?

The banking receives all classes of deposits from the public: checking, savings and time limit accounts. And even it emits certificates or bonds with its guarantee, which sells to big public institutions, companies and investors. Also the banks lend to others them «cash» and even come to the Central Bank of their Systems, asking for funds for different time periods. All this money the banking «owes» to the public in general. So it the items that represent it, appear in their «liabilities». For the use of this money, the banks pay a few interests to their depositories (rather little) or to their lenders and bondholders (slightly more). The own funds of the banking would join also these «liabilities», always a small fraction of them, represented by their shares and not distributed earnings, which they owe to their owners or shareholders. We call «banking» to the set of the bank system of an economic integrated system. And, «banks» to the set of these public and private specialized agencies of that one.
A part of that money, the banks keeps it in their branches windows and strongboxes, forming their treasuries and the legal and voluntary reserves. Let’s suppose that the banks keep as «cash» one of every 5 monetary received units. The other 4 units of money they give for different periods and prices (types) to their «credit clients» or borrowers: companies, public organizations, banks and persons, both natives and foreigners. Even they do it buying bonds and IOUs of companies and their shares and increases in capital. Those all use them for their needs and investment decisions, treasury, circulating and to buy for the consumption both in short and long term. They are in the habit of being over their real possibilities of bringing together their own payment means.
We consider the houses mortgages to be directed to an investment, specially in certain countries. Since the persons who take them, believe that if they have to sell the houses, «always» they will receive more than they cost them. And their real use value, if they are made well, are kept reasonably along the life of their first owners. This would mean that Spain would have a saving rate very superior to the attributed in the official statistics. Since a part of the public would be saving, even over his possibilities, in a good of the type «value deposit». Why the difference with the statistics? For a difference of criterion, as almost always it happens. I call “value deposits” of to the goods in which it can concentrate and keep and still be used without a valuable deterioration. The houses (well constructed and located), the jewels and the ancient coins (at their real value), the money (in moderate inflation times) are goods generally used as value deposits by the persons. And it is not a car, even a high class one, which value loses value excessively after the purchase.
In addition, a part of the lent money comes back to the banks, as new deposits of their borrowers. Because nobody uses immediately all the received money, keeping only the necessary cash for the minor immediate payments. Neither it is hidden at home or in the company, except during social catastrophic periods. This is going to generate more reserves and new available cash for lend or invest by the banking.
In the General Economics books is demonstrated that with that initial mentioned reserve of 1 monetary unit of each 5 received, the set of the banks can manage to give on credit up to 5 monetary units. More that creating bank money, what they real and more properly make is to multiply the possible credit to the society, whom they serve and from whom they benefit, with their activity as financial intermediaries. Our reader will have felt that, likewise, when the banking has to attend to payments and sell assets for it, the set of these then contract in the proportion 5 to 1. And as an intrinsic quality of the money is that it cannot vanish, so we call this essential process, as credit creation and not of bank money.
Those lends in general are, together with his modest own money reserves, the «assets» of a bank. The part of its balance that it can immediately use, demand, realize or sell other one in the secondary or interbank markets. It is very important that these assets are sure, chargeable in their proper moment, good. Since if an anomalous punctual retreat of money by its depositories happens or presents a good investment of or lending opportunity, the bank has to recover the cash, liquidating a part of these «assets» or paying with healthy assets.
How are now the performing parameters of the bank activity? The immense majority of the credit in general granted by the banks is good and recoverable. The real number of bankrupts of declared bad debts is low and controllable. The public in general (companies. Institutions and persons) keeps his deposits in the banking and attends to the payments, staggered in the time, of his lends in general or of his liabilities (payment of services, to suppliers, obligations). The liquidity of the system, the European M2 or his American equivalent, is high and even lightly inflationary. And it is more than sufficient to allow to realize all the economic necessary transactions, which is one of the principal functions of the money. Nobody has money «per se», but to use it in a more or less near future or, at least, with the hope or intention of doing so.
Another thing is that it is retained, kept under bed, buried or shut in the branches strongboxes. Why? For fear and distrust, which are the demons of the anticredit. In effect, the latter point or parameter, that which noisy and essentially faults, consists in the fact that the confidence, the guarantee, the solvency and the respectability among the agents of the system tends intensively to 0.
And the prolongation of the banking crisis, characterized by the deterioration and the disturbance of its essential activities, will turn progressively the potential bad debts in real, will restrict the creation of bank deposits and will extend in “shocking waves” the damages to the whole economic system.
There are no good thinking listened heads. The social leaders that risk, do not apply half measures, compromise themselves and always mistake something, are cornered, ignored or they can not arise or act. Because they are not politically correct, full of calm and good nature, expert in communication and manipulation of emotions, and using anesthesic words of the action, the revulsive and the concerted effort. The national societies face now an incredible, unthinkable problem a few months ago. And they are deprived in these moments of a social guiding and governing ideology and, in general, of useful, helpful and reliable leaders.

The Interest rates and the Liquidity. Another vision of the intimate Reasons of the Crisis.

It is said that with the descent of finantial rates, money is injected into the financial system, wrinkled by the confidence lack in the institutional or final borrower. And all resolved. But not. With the rates descent the business are facilitated. The private ones, the managerial ones and the public ones. On having stooped the bar of the financial costs, I can get tangled up better, can better attend to the payments of a mortgage at variable rate, or risk in another investment with minor marginal yield (the additional yield that the new investment will give me). The rate is a «relative measure» of the official value of the accepted means of payment.
The liquidity is the European M2 or his USA equivalentl: the money (about 8 % GDP) and the cuasi money: the deposits and easily realizable titles of debt (without term deposits). If there are no means of payment, though they are cheap (interest rate), I can neither spend nor invest. Where there is no flour, everything is gloomy, says the popular Spanish wisdom.
But already we have liquidity (the M3 (that includes the M2) is growing (to about 11-12 % in the last months) and the rates are very low. The compound action of October 8 of the principal central world banks, has left them in 1,5% in USA and 3,75% in the Euro monetary zone. Then, what does happen to us? Well, we do not have confidence in the possible investment. Or we are afraid that we will have difficulties to pay the loan. And the fear spreads as oil. The people handle numbers, but it cannot easily handle feelings or intuitions. Because they are not easy to measure. And one lacks moral courage and education to walk along these seemingly unknown ways.
The rates are like the engine and the liquidity, the fuel. Why does not run the car? Because it does not have driver: the will of the experienced driver who guides it. Apart that a productive investment does not produce at once. A nuclear power station takes 15 years, since begin the planning and decision works. Four legislatures. And they cannot risk, without a regulatory insured frame. There are 25 million houses constructed in Spain. Are needed many more? And, many people have been bought at excessive prices, thinking that its price always would grow. I calculate in 450 thousand the normal replacement (for around 50 years of house life). We have been constructing 650-700 thousand during the last three or four years.

Some corollaries or consequences of enormous importance.

The absolute liquidity does not exist, because there is no money in reserves to simultaneously attend to all the depositors. Not neither in any bank, nor in any country. For definition of what is the using of money. This happened to the British Northern Rock, which had long tails in the windows. In Spain there are around of 2,2 trillions of Euros in bank deposits.
It is necessary to re-establish the confidence in the bank system of every country. Then there will be credibility and monetary money and enough credit surplus. This is more difficult in these moments, that a few months ago. Because the public is started realizing that his money is not have in the basement of his bank branch. In fact the real arrears is minimal yet. Another thing is that the borrowers are all potential bad debts, especially if the economies deteriorate. And the banks with these captive and depreciated assets can not do anything.

Taoist Old Tale.

Once upon a time, there was a peasant who was living in a village in the interior of China.

One morning, at first hour, his only horse escaped from him to the mount. Some neighbors approached, to be sorry with him: «what misfortune!». «It could be», he answered them.

About mid morning the horse returned to its corral. With it there were coming a small group of wild horses. «What luck you had!», said to him his neighbors. The peasant answered them: «it could be».

In the middle of the evening, his son put to tame the new horses. During the taming, he fell and broke a leg. This would bring him many problems to be able to carry out his small farm. His neighbors returned and said to him: «what a pity sorry!». He answered them: «it could be».

In the last evening a group of soldiers passed, doing a levy. The young men of all the houses in the village were recruited. But they left his son at home, because he was useless for the military service. The neighbors, crying, approached the peasant and said to him: «what luck you had!». And he answered them: «it could be».


The first level of the activity of the defense of an organized Society is called national strategy and also, some old-fashioned, great strategy. In it must be considered also the economic and diplomatic resources of the State, as part of the resources of a nation to obtain her big strategic goals in a war.

The military strategy or simply strategy treats, in the second great level of activity in the national defense, of the definition of the big goals of a war, of a theatre of operations or a campaign, and of the assignment of the military, generally scanty or very scanty resources, to get them.

The tactics devote itself to the best accomplishment of the combats against an enemy, whom is opposed to the achievement of our strategic goals by military means. The combat skills and technics are the bricks which help to construct the tactics. They are the specific knowledge of weapons, movements, protections, which the men personally and collectively learn with the training and their experience.

Between both levels of the military action exists a space of essentially practical and eminent activity, so called operational level or operational strategy. Its mission is to optimize the use of the tactics and of the available resources in the campaign and in the theatre of operations. To do that, it defines and conceptualizes the battles, the marches, etc., both the military operations and their correct succession, depending on those decisive goals.

So it gives to the tactics and the decision to which it is orientated, a superior importance. Which is far beyond of the pursuit and the exploit of the tactical success. That is to say, the operative strategy uses the tactics as one of its immediate instruments. Integrating them to reach the goals that are entrusted to it and being orientated to them, taking part then of its strategic nature.

This way, the operational strategy defines its own goals in the military theatre or campaign, which are the incapacitation and the disorganization of the enemy, through the action over his operational and strategic vulnerabilities. The first is orientated against the enemy combat capacity, seeking to incapacitate positionally or functionally it, and simultaneously protecting the own combat capacity. The second is achieved by the occupation or the destruction of the enemy critical vulnerabilities in the operations zone.

These vulnerabilities are those elements, possessions or reasons that give sense to the fight that the enemy makes against us. That is to say, whose loss inevitably infuses a hopelessness sensation and a uselessness sense in continuing the fight in these circumstances, which only is now oriented to accumulate more losses.

In the World War II, the occupation of the enemy capital and the fall of his government were critical strategic vulnerabilities. To which get through an operative strategy of mobile offensive war: as example, the spring campaign of 1940 in the western front. The same thing Hitler looked for in 1941 in the Soviet front in relation with Moscow. Surely in this total war, almost of extermination, in the East front, its occupation had not had the importance that was assuming him. But Moscow was constituting a great railway «hub», a vital center of railway communications for the whole USSR at the west of the Urals mountains. And, in this respect, it had been a critical permanent vulnerability of the military operational level.

To achieve these intermediate strategic aims, the operational level has several specific operational means that are the intelligence, the imbalance and the incapacitation of the enemy, the tempo or operations and combats relative speed, the logistic organization and its physical support, the full supplies line and the correct sense of the commands.

It uses these means to lead and to optimally use (without squandering) the tactical – operational means at its disposition.

These are:

the area transitability (in the whole geographical dimension of the nature of the lands, climate, station and day hour),

the combat capacity (all kind of military means like men, equipment, supports and combat or carrier vehicles) and the operational movement capacity (big and small tonnage transports, the supplies and replacements of all kinds and combustible and the deposits and accessible parks in the zone) available,

the freedom of action and the «favorable interfaces of action» with the enemy (that exist and that can also be created always, by means of the extension or the decrease of the «field of action» over him, like a tactical operative zoom, or by means of its change to another sector of the front or in the depth of the enemy zone). With these last 2 «systems» we can act always according to our criterion and interest and not simply reacting to the enemy actions.

Hereby, the mentioned 10 «operational systems» realize the employment and the functioning of all the levels of the National Defense. And they go from the conception and the great creation of goals and interests. Received from the high command and ultimately from the nation, including the allocated resources, up to the practical final accomplishment of them. Involving also the necessary and the inevitable and imposed by the enemy tactical employment of the military means, as stages for the optimal attainment of those entrusted goals. These “operational systems” are full developed in my book “On the Nature of War”, specially dedicated to the international educational military market.

Suggested reading for professional armed forces.

I offer a books´list on military theory, which reading will be very useful to you. And that I consider to be fundamental to know better the military topics and not simply to read a more or less repeated history.

I am including one of my book, fruit of my years of dedication to this topic, which content you can examine in

“Maneuver Warfare Handbook” by William Lind.

The classical on modern maneuver warfare. Used by the Marines Corps. It is based on the German experience in the World War II. That in turn is an extrapolation to the mechanized war, of the experiences developed by the Stormtroops (infantry assault forces) in the I World War.

“The Art of War” by Sun Tzu. Samuel Griffith’s translation is the best of all.

The permanent and global chinese military theory from a classical author. Its style and content characteristics support the idea of one unique author. With each useful reading, more shades and perspectives are caught. That come to fruition in major richness, agility and depth of thought.

Other «Chinese» books give you a number of strategies (the 33, the 36, the 100, etc.). Its utilization is based on its constant memorization or on iits permanent application. I consider them to be slight practical, for the profuse, diffuse and still confused character of many ancient authors of the Han etnia. What does happen if a different case arises? It seems as if they wanted to conceal their supposed wisdom from the not initiated ones.

“The Soviet Conduct of Tactical Maneuver” by David Glantz.

The Soviet military doctrine that won the War, fully explained. With them they won the II World War. And imposed their economic social system in half Europe, supposed «liberated» from the Germans.

“Forward into Battle” by Paddy Griffith.

Excelent book about last two centuries’ military tactics, extensively presented. It has detractors for its sometimes breaking vision.

«On War» by Clausewitz.

It is an extensive work, since it fits with the epoch, in which writing little was a sign of inconsistency, little importance and scanty reflection. The books or parts that compose it were finished in variable degree by the author, whose premature death did not allow its conclusion. We are interested in the first chapters on the theory and the philosophy of the war. Other books treat on the tactics of a period in which the enemy deployment was staying at the sights of the enemy command and his HHQQ and auxiliary, placed in a nearby height. He praises Liddell Hart’s opposite: a decisive battle using the maximum own concentration and power on the enemy army. In an age of masses armies, inaugurated by Napoleon, soon was clear that it was not possible to win a war between full armed nations, in an alone great battle. It was necessary a campaign with successive victorious operations, looking for the achievement of the military goals of the campaign (theatre of operations, Europe, Pacific Ocean, Africa) or the strategy. In addition, already there did not exist a genius advanced to his epoch as Napoleon.

“Maneuver Warfare: An Anthology”, compiled by Richard D. Hooker.

Short articles of some of the best modern military writers on that topic. It has works from Rommel, Leonhard, John Antal, etc.

“The Art of Maneuver” by Robert Leonhard.

One of the first full theory about maneuver warfare. And he stands out strongly, expanding the ideas torrent of this theory in development those moments.

“Race to the Swift” by Richard Simpkin.

On maneuver warfare. The best book of this British military thinker. Its reading is some difficult, for its language erudition.

“Manual de Táctica”, dos tomos, by Eike Middeldorf.

It is the most complete and current manual on modern tactics that I have found. It has chapters about land warfare using atomic tactical bombs and on the particular conditions of fight: by night, in forests, with extreme cold, etc.

“Strategy” by Basil Liddell Hart.

Best military theory by B. L. Hart. Easy to read.

“The Foundations of the Science of War” by John Frederick Charles Fuller.

The best book about military principles. Hard to read sometimes. Almost 65 years after its first edition, it was reprinted by the Marines Corps. I got a first edition copy from an American university library (Lancaster, Pa.). It had many critiques and later the author went back on the underlying ideas in the book. The critiques, in turn, had as bottom that he had an eccentric personality, in a group (the military men) tremendously conservative and established by protocol. He had mystical streakes (Hindu philosophy, yoga) and flirted with the Nazi, being got by Hitler.

“On the Nature of War” by Enrique Alonso.

The “how to do” in war. Recent, full and unusual military theory. It is based in 10 “operational systems”.

“Understanding War” by Trevor N. Dupuy.

It is a combat theory, based on History, military factors and its figures. I find that his «friction» concept development, took from Clausewitz, is deviant. And he exposes another concept different from Clausewitz.