How it was interpreted and it is interpreted today? What role could have terrorists in it? Is it possible to come to a pacific living together with most of the Islamic people? How can we control the imames, the preachers and readers in mosques, almost always without a reliable, sole and canonic formation in the Koran and the Sura? What can really do the ulemas and muftis (the Islamic Law doctors, not theologians) in order to control the «Terrorism in the name of the Islam» and establish a reliable peace of the Islam with all peoples in the World?
What is and what does mean the Jihad in the context of the Muslim revelation?
The Islam is, in its simpler meaning, a simple faith, with external and social well definite, easy to follow and fulfill rites. The rites are canonize actions by a religion and necessary in order that it imbues in the personal and collective soul of its believers. In the Islam there exist 5 big rites, which are symbolized in its iconography by an opened hand:
The faith profession, short declaration that opens anyone the entry to the Islam. The 5 daily invocations (the Salat) to Allah. The fasting during the Ramadan´s month (the Roza). The charity (the Zakat) with the helpless, disabled and poor (in this order) of the Umma (Moslem universal community). And the peregrination to Mecca or the Hajj at least once in the life, if there are possessed enough resources, which is realized in community, congregating nowadays simultaneously several million persons, between the seventh and the tenth day of last month of the lunar calendar, Dhul i Hijja.
The Jihad, the holy war, the blooding effort in Allah’s path, is directed against those that THREATEN the Umma. These can be whether the hostile external unfaithful persons, as the not Muslims which coexist in dar-el-Islam, the lands where the Umma rules politically, and that have broken their «protection agreement» with it. The Jews and the Christians have theoretical right to it, as peoples mentioned in the Koran and that hold some of the books considered also as prophetic by the Islam. The Jihad is considered to be a practically equal obligation to one of the so called Five Pillars of the Islam, already mentioned.
The Koran has numerous “aleyas” or verses that prescribe and encourage the struggle armed in Allah’s way. Used by an “imam” or preacher, which directs the prayers and Koran readings in the mosque, and which credentials are not so much an exquisite Islamic formation of several years in a credited madrassa (Koran school), but rather to possess an empathy with his community and a certain gift of oratory, these absolute, direct and repeated “indications” can turn out to be incendiary.
The Moroccan terrorist “El Chino”, who next committed suicide in Leganés, presided several times, as was said, the Islam prayer in the M-30 road mosque. Was the imam “El Chino” a reliable follower of the Noble Koran?
Sura (chapter), 4, aleya (verse) 33 (29) «…Oh, believers…do not kill yourselves…».
2, 10 (11) «When it is said to them: Do not commit disorders (voice with which the crimes are defined) in the Earth, they answer: Far from it, we introduce in it the good order (the Good)».
2, 11 (12) «Alas!, they commit disorders, but they do not understand it».
28, 77 «As Allah does the Good, also make you the good and do not foment the corruption (the Evil)» (murder of innocent and of peoples that receive you -the lands of dar-el-Ahd-, drunkenness, drugs, unnecessary damages of the things).
We have respectfully taken TWO translations of the Noble Koran to realize a SELECTION of the aleyas that treat on the Jihad. We don not use the sunna (tradition) of the Prophet, which can be an object of controversy, about its legal legitimacy, with the Chiís and other minor Islamic groups.
Sura 2, aleya 186 (190) «Do the Holy war for Allah’s reason against those who make the war to you».
2, 187 (191) «Kill them anywhere that you find them and expel them wherefrom they have expelled you (Andalusia, Sicily, the Balkans? But, perhaps did they come first there?)».
2, 189 (190) «Attack them (the unfaithful persons) until there is not presently idolatry and all adoration is given to Allah». It repeats almost exactly in 8, 40 (39).
2, 212 (216) «The war has been prescribed to you and you have taken distaste of it».
2, 214 (217) «The temptation of the idolatry is worse than the slaughter. The unfaithful persons will not stop doing the war to you, while they have not made you resign your religion, if they can».
2, 215 (218) «Those who leave their country and fight in Allah’s path (the Jihad) can wait for His mercy».
4, 7 (69) «Those who obey Allah and to His Messenger will enter in the society of the righteous, of the martyrs, of the virtuosos, whom Allah has filled with His benefits».
4, 74 «That fight in Allah’s way those that change the life in this world, for that in the Last one. And that who fights in Allah’s way, as dies or turns out to be victorious, We will give him an enormous remuneration».
4, 79 (77) «…have exclaimed: Lord, why do you order us the war? …Answer them: The possession of the life here below is small thing; the future life is the real good for those who fear Allah. Here they will not cheat you even in a filament».
4, 105 (104) «And do not weaken in chasing these people. If you feel sorry, also they feel sorry, but you expect from Allah what they cannot hope».
9, 39 «If you do not go to the battle, Allah will punish you with a painful punishment: He will replace you by another people».
9, 92 (91) «The weak persons, the patients, those who do not have means, will not be forced to go to the war, provided that are sincere respect of Allah and His Messenger». (This makes fall practically the obligation of the Jihad in the Umma, which must contribute this way a suitable number of muhaydins).
9, 124 (123) «Oh, believers!, attack the unfaithful persons who surround you: that they always find in you a rough reception».
47, 4 «When you find unfaithful persons, kill them up to the point of doing with them a slaughter and put chains strongly on the captive ones to prevent them from fleeing».
47, 37 (35) «Do not show cowardice and do not call the unfaithful persons to make the peace, when you are the strongest».
The principal branches of the Islam and their ideology.
The Sunnism, which follow 90 % of the Muslims nowadays, also accepts as Allah´s revelation the tradition (the Sunna) of the Prophet. These are his facts and his commentaries or hadices. The major or minor rigor in the selection and acceptance of this tradition characterize three of its theological schools, founded astride between the VIIIth and IXth centuries.
The most opened and flexible school, the Chafií, founded by the Palestinian al-Chafii, died in Cairo on 820 at the age of 53 years, opens an encouraging door for the pacific evolution of the Islam. It accepts also the consensus of the wise persons of the community and the analogical reasoning or qiijas, as correct ways for the adjustment of the Islam to all the times and places, from his “rural, illiterate, poor, medieval and surrounded of hostile peoples, origin”. For it starts from the hadiz: «Allah recognizes the Good in what the Muslims have judged as such «.
There exists a great ideological and practical difference between the Sunnism and the Chiism. The last feels pursued, in reason of the dynastic (the Chiism arises from the fourth caliph, Alí, cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophet) and ideological orthodoxy (it admits fewer revelation sources), that it proclaims and defends. This way, it assumes historically a fatalistic, passive attitude, even of physical suffering for it, waiting for the return of the (caliph) Imam missing. Imam is the name that the political – religious guides take in the Chiism, not only the common mosques´ prayer. That one will return as Mahdi (the guided by Allah), in a given moment of the History, to make triumph the orthodox Umma (themselves).
But also cases of insurgent action have happened in the Chiism, even with certain success and popular implantation, as in Jomeini’s Iran, in the Lebanon with Hezbollah or Allah’s Party and his subsidiary Hamas, in Palestine.
It seems to be clear that the Sunnism is more prepared to treat and accept the pacific living together and the relations of all kinds with other religions and political ideologies, at least in certain moments and countries. And that with the Chiism is necessary to negotiate nowadays from a position with more determination and strength.
The modern violent Muslim radicalism and his possible ways and solutions towards a pacific and respectful living together.
The radical Islamic insurgents devoted themselves between the 60s and 80s in last century, to attack to those that they were qualifying of Moslem corrupt and false, socialistic or liberal pro occidental governments. Their fortune was small for all the effort made: the retreat of the Soviets from Afghanistan, with the logistic western support, and the capture of the power in Sudan, guided by al-Turabi, after they infiltrated and got strong in his Army, which is still a unique case. From 90, their aims is Western developed countries.
Their operative present characteristics are:
Their unnecessary and indiscriminate brutality, which discredits them before their religion. Already we saw a minimal example of 4 moral important aleyas, which they despise and not comply with, without Allah had changed them for they. Sura 2, aleya 100 (106) «We do not abrogate any verse of this Book, nor we will make erase any one of your memory, without replacing it by other one equal or better».
The absolute absence of venerable and pious ulemas and muftíes in their side.
Their great operative decentralization owing to the universality of the Umma, which goes beyond the idea of nation or race. But that prevents them from obtaining strategic aims, though their punctual actions are important, painful and fearsome.
Their failure in joining actively and firmly to a social wide group, which gives coverage and permanent impulse to their movement. The most mentally ill activists are in the habit of being isolating progressively of the society (at least, emotional and ideologically) though they «live» inside it, for the sake of their violent methods, to which they sacrifice everything for the efficiency. They follow a process of segregation, purification (in their improvised and not orthodox rites, they fast, use water from Islam´s sacred places and green banderoles with inscriptions of the aleyas that favor their cause), consecration and radicalization. Up to coming to the death and even to the suicide in their limited actions. And then they become extinct, as weak, sterile and deviant that are, far from the Umma and her real interests.
Their zeal of publicity, to which the West contributes insensitively, stupid (it is not to know what it should know) and glad.
Their present aim is to strike any government, since the radical and aggressive caliphate in dar-el-Islam does not exist nowadays.
In the face of this own terrorism (war actions against general, innocent and indiscriminate personal targets), the Islamic world is paralyzed and do not knows what to say or do. The spokesmen and intellectual affirm that the Islam is peace and tolerance. But this is not totally true, as we saw before. The majority of the Muslims take away from the attacks for opportunism, to protect the Islam, worried by the increasing rejection that it suffers in Western countries. But, when do the ulemas or the muftís intervene in the polemic? Almost never.
Never was carried out inside the Islam a deep reflection on the political and religious opportunity of the violence. Does someone know Islamic active pacifists? It is not the case that the intellectual laymen Moslem react. These are not operative in the way that we know in the West, since for a good Muslim the politics, the society and the religion form the only, exclusive and inseparable trinity established by Allah. Besides, the social and political failure of the intellectual laymen Arabs remains tied with that of the nationalistic, leftist and Europeanized elite, that stimulated the independence of the different Arabic nations after the World War II.
The Islam has to assume that the Jihad was necessary for the establishment and the defense of the believers’ primitive community, the Prophet establishing the Islamic state from the violent destruction of the jahiliyya (the existing barbarism previous to the Islam Arabic). And even the Jihad could be useful for its RAPID extension through the world, according with the existing condition of culture and development of the medieval civilizations. But its historical opportunity does not exist nowadays and then it must be replaced for «another type of EFFORT in Allah’s way», which concept already exists in the Sunna and that might be recaptured and proclaimed by the ulemas and the pious muftis, which are the ideologists of the real and everlasting Islam. And, certainly, those enjoy the most ample political, social and economic independence: they are respected and / or fearsome by the governments in their respective countries, and are usually those who administer the Zakat or the canonical alms.
Since the emergence of 4 principal theological Sunnis schools before mentioned, the principle of the personal reflection effort, the ichtihad, got power in the Islam. The ichtihad is going to allow the development of the Arabic culture, so much for the civil aspects (sciences, trade, literature, art), as for the enrichment of its theology. It is the base of Islamic lawyers as al-Chafii. The ichtihad is a source of brilliancy, creativity, enrichment, progress and peace in the way of the personal and collective effort towards God (this is the nucleus and the reason of the Islam), when already the Umma has spread and multiplied enormously through the world.
But, circa the XIth century (V century from the hégira or march to Medina), the theologians close the door to the ichtihad. The methodological Islamic approach alters: from then, it is imitating, repeating and following itself and abusing of the doctrine compendiums.
What can really do the ulemas and muftis (the Islamic Law doctors) in order to control the “Terrorism in the Name of the Islam” and establish a reliable peace of the Islam with all peoples in the World?
Would it be possible that the most illustrious and lucid theologians and lawyers of the Islam were assessing and facing the tremendous internal and external problems of living together, which the Umma faces?
Would it be possible that they were agreeing to use (already we know that it is not new at all) the reflection from the canonical sources, as instrument of advance, adjustment, external relations and perfection through the time of the Islamic community?
Would it be possible that they were preaching against the free and sterile violence that is exercised in the name of the Islam by some very hallucinated minorities?
Would it be possible that they were controlling the quality of training of the imames in the different countries and the exclusion of their noble functions of the upstarts that, being served of the direction of the prayers, preach fanatical, deviant ideologies, criminals and without real future?
Would it be possible that they will declare that the interests of the Islam and of the Umma have Spain and the rest of Europe as good friends, a part of dar-el-Ahd, the countries where the Umma does not dominate politically, but it is in peace with their inhabitants and can realize its performances and rites?
Some of the craziest Islamic guerrillas were the Algerians in the 90s. Without being not at least studious of the Islam and with very earthly interests, they were excommunicated (of the Umma) in their delirium, some groups to others. The takfir or anathema stems from kfur or ungodliness. This one relates directly to the religious chaos or jahiliyya, previous to the Islam in Arabia. For it is declared impious someone who is or tries to be a Muslim and is exiled, at least morally, of the Umma.
Would it be to ask too much the ulemas to use the institution of the takfir against the most recalcitrant, dangerous and criminal Islamic terrorists, which act turned aside perversely (maliciously or after being reprimand by them without result) in name of the Islam?