Brief Monetary Theory for Intelligent Students and Investors.

The Insane Plague of the virtual Coins or Bitcoins.

The principal intrinsic characteristic of the bitcoins is that they lack the support from real and tangible values or assets. As are the gold and the silver, precious and scanty metals, which were endorsing the value of the former national notes. As are the assets of the companies, which give his essential value, not that of market, which is a controllable speculation, to his shares and bonds and debts. As are the current money, which possess the support and the financial and juridical actions of the Central, national or supranational, Banks, since is the case of the Euro, to endorse his value and guarantee his intrinsic security, against the excessive covetous actions of the international speculators without principles.

Resultado de imagen de Jesus and the Tiberius denarius A Tiberius Denarius. The payment to the Caesar.

The Properties of the real Money.

There are some essential properties of the money, which last in him from the beginning of his existence as «intermediary in the exchange of goods» of the Humanity. The money is a deposit of value and this quality stems from his previously mentioned property. All the economic agents did accept it as «complete instrument» in the exchange of goods and services. Because his value was remaining reasonably in the time and there was no loss or wastage in his possession, while was acquired the final «wished good«. The money is also, as corollary, the unit of the economic value, since all the goods and services cost a multiple or a submultiple of the monetary unit. The money is, with it, a sure and trustworthy mean of payment. And, as his corollary, is a standard of deferred payments or debts liberating between debtors or recipients of the money of others, for his use in an agreable time, and the private or professional borrowers.

Resultado de imagen de secure money  MODERN MONEY MOVEMENTS.

All this does that the hard cash, should have a solid and resistant nature, in order that it does not affect the durability of his value in the reasonable time. But, also, the money already overcame long ago the barrier of the material disadvantages of his guard, coming and goings and concentration for great payments. Being based on the confidence of all on his already mentioned properties and using the modern digital and telematic means, the money has transformed his physical expression towards the countable notes with infinity forms. Allowing almost instantaneous transactions in the time and at any distance in the world.

The corrupt and spurious money.

This does not happen with the so called fake or virtual or ethereal money, since they are essentially speculative or of fortune values. Designed precisely, to facilitate this function of not productive and of very high investment risk, to fluctuate in not known time periods. The nature of fleeting electromagnetic beats that have this money, without seizable physical supports, allows them the highest rotation speeds of his transactions, which also favor his behavior of virtual, speculative, desirable and in high degree attainable values.

The extension and the operations of this speculative and degraded money feed and promote by the greed of his possible holders. The greed is an untid passion, which looks for the possession and hoarding all kinds of desirable goods for the person that suffers it. And this is independent from his real need and usefulness for the subject. In turn, the greed is supported and nourished by the vanity of the subject, which is another untid passion. This character of both concerns more or less seriously the soul powers of the, specially the understanding and the will. This way, is being created a perverse correlation, which is of difficult resolution.

Resultado de imagen de tulips bubble Bitcoins fever could eclipse the Tulip Mania. Just wait enough.

We have an example of these speculative values, in the so called Bubble of the Tulips developed in the first half of the 17th century.

Far from the desolations and brutalities of the first Great European War, the so called the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), Holland lived at the time an epoch of growth and commercial opening. And it placed as one of the great European powers. In this period of wealth, the Dutch leader classes found in the tulips an object of ostentation and collection. The tulip is an original flower of Turkey, which form remembers the great turban of the Ottoman sultans. In 1593, the botanist Carolus Clusius introduced in Holland the first tulips. The noble classes collected them and they turned into a wealth symbol.

Though for being flowers his negotiation was in summer, the Dutches designed, to prolong it, a kind of futures market for the tulips. The producers offered to deliver a given bulb in the epoch in which it was blooming and the buyers acquired its delivery right. This turned into a speculation that was autofeeding. Charles Mackay in his book «Multitudinous Deliriums: the obsession of the tulip and other maddened markets» wrote that in 1635 40 bulbs were sold for 100 thousand florins, when the annual salary of a craftsman was 200 florins.

Little by little, the market attracted the popular classes. The futures market and the new and numerous small investors finished shooting up the tulips’ prices. Then, the simple possession of the tulip was replaced by the purchase and sale rights market. And, sometimes, without getting yet the acquired bulb, already it was sold with a juicy added profitability.

Resultado de imagen de tulips bubble A chart of the Tulips’ Prices.

But, being a product conditioned by the effects of the climatological conditions, and when the crops of 1637 were poor, the speculative financial tensions began. The sales of that spring were not good. And, the most experts started distrusting the guarantees that had been given to acquire tulips. At a given time, it was accepted that their price was very excessive and the orders of sale happened. The commercial agreements could not be respected and at a breach of contract followed other one. In the fall of the supposedly real value, remained caught thousands of small savers. That financial economic crisis struck hard the Dutch economy. And it generated a period of deflation, low wages, familiar ruins and business closing.

The Kindness Therapy of the confident Money for a broken Economy.

In 1948, after the World War II, the awaited monetary reform was realized in the West Germany. The measure, both simple and important, consisted in reducing the volume of the money in circulation. This way, after the inflation of last years, the old reichsmarks turned into the new deutschmarks, in the proportion of ten of the first ones for one of the new ones. Both the producers and the merchants were waiting for this measure, which facilitate and guarantee his operations of production, purchase and sale.

Soon, jointed this with the German discipline and the laboriousness, the shops began to fill with articles and the workers already were possessing sure and admitted payment means. Little by little, they were leaving the prices controls and the rationing, artificial measures destined to limit the inflation and to distribute the few available goods, with State controled, imperfect and inflexible measures.

Resultado de imagen de West Germany money reform  WEST GERMAN CURRENCY REFORM (JUNE, 20, 1948).

And, the economic cycle that does that the people react in the managing of the money, against his more adverse experience of depreciation and inflation, appeared also in the West Germany. And this event, together with his horrifying experience of 1923, with the retermarks of the Republic of Weimar, are the origin of the determination of Germany in having always a firm currency, the mark or the Euro, that could not be devoured by the inflation and that allows the healthy and sustained economic development.

An example of an unsuccessful and ruinous money for his last holders and all the Nation.

The Scot John Law came to France in 1716. His central idea was to create a bank that could issue notes to his borrowers, with the guarantee of the rustic properties of the country. This simple idea is in the base of later numerous forms of swindles to covetous and not much intelligent investors. His personal skills allowed him to know the Duke of Orleans, the Regent of the Kingdom.

In this epoch, the financial situation of France was disastrous. The expenses of the kingdom did duplicate the income of the Treasure, which arks were empty. And the collectors of taxes and his collaborators were looking rather for his own benefit. A decree of May 2, 1716, granted to Law the right to found a bank with a capital equivalent to 250 thousand sterlings pounds. The Bank could issue notes or bonds, which it dealed in the shape of «lendings to the State«. Which began to use them for his multiple and unavoidable payments, with public full value and liberation character.

Resultado de imagen de Law's banque royal NOTE OF THE BANQUE ROYAL, SUPPORTED WITH SILVER.

Since France had been reducing the weight of the precious metal in his coins, Law’s notes were almost like a guarantee against the embezzlement and the prevarication of the Administration of the Kingdom. And, this «acceptable money» in a capable latent economy produced great and unexpected benefits with the extension of the transactions for the whole economic body of the country. And Law’s bank turned in the «Banque Royal» of the country.

The Regent of the Kingdom, full of pleasure, proposed an additional emission of Law’s notes. And Law thought of developing his original idea: to create a «Company» to exploit and bring to France the great quantities of gold, which was supposed that existed in the subsoil of Louisiana; and to benefit also from the impulse that would receive the trade. At the beginning of 1719, the new «Company of the Indies» obtained commercial monopolies in the territories of French influence in the India, China and the South seas. And then received that of the tobacco, the collection of taxes and the right to coin metallic currency.

The response of the potentials investors was disproportionate and unexpected in all the aspects. This way, the Stock Exchange of the titles of the Company had to move successively to a bigger place. And the value of the contiguous areas to them shot up, since the people wanted to be close to the operations places. The títles rose fabulously of price. Persons who invested initially a few thousands, were within a few weeks owners of millions. It seems to be that the term millionaire arose in France in this epoch. And the Company was issuing more shares, at higher prices, but lower than the market, throughout this year.

Resultado de imagen de john law  The honorable John Law.

Meanwhile, Law was object of the major gratefulnesses and distinctions. He was ennobled with the dukedom of Arkansas and named Financial Controller of France at January 5, 1719. The Scot, even, frenchified his surname with the most euphonic of Lass. The Banque Royal, at the same time, was increasing his lendings and, therefore, the notes with which it was doing them. At the end of 1719, there were around 1200 million French pounds of these notes circulating in the financial channels of the French economy. And, what in a beginning was a benediction, nobody thought that it could turn in a mortal embarrassment. And the financial engineering of the epoch began to work.

It was supposed that the sale of shares of the Banque generated own resources, destined for the exploitation of the idle lands of Louisiana. But, thanks to another agreement with the duke of Orleans, this fresh capital was destined to give more lendings to pay the expenses of the French government. Only the interests earned by them, could be destined to the golden extraction and this one would form part of the hard reserves of the Banque. All this generated a whirlwind of cycles of dealing of lendings to the State, emission of notes by the Banque Royal and purchase of his shares, which was selffostering and uniformly hastening «ad infinitum». Or not …?

At the beginning of 1720, the prince of Conti, irritated because he could not acquire a share package at the price that he considered suitable, sent to the Royal Banque a great quantity of notes, to be changed in real money. It is said that 3 carts were needed to transport them. Law appealed to the Regent, who ordered the prince to return a considerable part of the gold got for his notes. The exploitation of the resources of Louisiana failed, the mines were conspicuous by its absence and the whole financial farce swindler sank. An increasing number of persons claimed daily at the Banque for his hard cash. One day of July, 1720, 15 persons died in the riot formed in front of it.

The Regent concealed Law, to save his life and made him go out of the country. In France remained missing fortunes, a great deflation, collapsed prices, diminishing business, an increasing unemployment and a lasting fear against all the banks.

THE COMBAT OF THE SMALL MILITARY UNITS.

Introduction.

Each small military unit, each «action unit» is a sub unit that is capable of carrying out a function in the superior unit to which it belongs or gets support. From its tactical integration will arise bigger units of action, capable of actuating in larger » fields of action».

The units of action can be of command, combat (of fire, of shock and mixed), organizational (H. Q. sections), logistics, communications and of intelligence (exploration, intelligence and counterintelligence and propaganda and psychological war). The smallest of combat would be the squad with its fire support (light machine gun and servants) and its 2 or 3 teams, capable of maneuvering or defending a firing line.

It keeps them united and makes possible the fulfillment of its functions, its interest (esteem, self esteem and shared aim of the unit, opposite to the wear and the certain or apparent danger, but assumed as such), the full deployment (that provides an organizational structure and that feeds its functions, to guarantee the union and the action), the command (that offers guide, cohesion, example and correct command sense) and the situation (that is friendly, neutral or threatening, in increasing order of dilution of the union and loss of the efficiency). These originate in turn the deployments and the combats and the maneuvers, which are the «form» decided by the command to apply the capacity of combat and a “tempo”, pace or speed of action, thanks to the freedom of action that is possessed; those offer, together with the evolution of the situation, the opportunities and the dangers.

FIRE SUPPORT BASE WITH 105 MM. HOWTIZERS.

It appreciates a rich multiplicity of interactions between the subunits, on the basis of its functions and the dependence between them, in relation with its integration in the unit, the maintenance of its cohesion and the fulfillment of its superior function.

The deployments make possible the success or the failure; they also guarantees the order against the environment chaos or negative interactions, always unpredictable and unproductive; the situation gives intrinsically to the unit the courage or the cowardice; the command and the interest drive the positive or effective action of the unit, in order to its cohesion and its function or aim in the all set.

The Combined Arms Performance Process. The Control Means.

The units of action face the enemy using a combined arms system. They go to the enemy keeping a direction (maneuver and shock) and with a fire support. And though it could be a unit as small as the squad, with its shooters or fusiliers and of support teams, are specializing subunits in the combined arms concept. Sometimes the van men must do something strange to the Americans, but very effective advancing to the contact or passing the flank an enemy group or position, crawling.

REACTIVE ARTILLERY IN ACTION.

They try to reach the effective combat distance, creating a favorable interface, a shooting enfilade or a position for grazing fire or an effective assault distance, without losing its combat capacity. For example, by fixation by the enemy fire, by important losses or what affects its cohesion or the command, and by wear). And protected by the natural concealment or artificial one (fogs, covering fire). They work quietly and unseen in the micro ground without limitation of time up to the effective distance. They can use hand grenades to disguise their action on intermediate obstacles (sentries, etc.), that appears as mortar bombs.

The supposed continuous line of the front is crumbled. There arise a multitude of unexpected new internal fronts, possible favorable “interfaces of action” for us. It is not an infiltration, because the front is diffuse (approximately 0,15 man/m) and emptiness (some 4.000 m2/man). But of the active creation of «action fields» adapted in successive stages of action, for the employment of the unit in favorable interfaces over the enemy. The characteristics of performance are the coordination and/or the convergent effort of the different weapons in «fields of action» where they act. That are different and can be superpose, as they are shooters, light and middle mortars, machine guns, grenade-launchers, direct fire cannons, etc. From our appearance in effective force, where less they wish us and without having being detected, the erroneously expressive concept that «we» «infiltrate arises. But that is a mere spatial consequence of the real operational concept followed.

Technologically a division of significance exists between the support or the firing base and the attack or the offensive advance, linked by its cooperation. The support weapons are the protectors, those of greater effective range. The offensive weapons are those of smaller relative range in the set. Sequential and practically, thus, the cannon (direct or indirect heavy fire) protects the machine gun, the grenade launcher, the medium or light mortar. And these three protect and impel the shooters, when their action is or is already going to be evident.

Evolution of the Actions in his Sector. The Retroinformation of the Commands.

As consequence of the interfaces of action with the enemy, there arise in the tactical zone multiple actions of the action units. With them, the information feedback to the command, tends to enlarge to saturation, to bunch in all kinds of communications links and to affect the functional interrelationships of the unit. So, hindering its synergy, and demanding the reinforcement and/or the decision of the command, if he has not delegated sufficiently or is not monitoring the situation changes.

LAV’s ATTACKED WITHOUT INFANTRY AND ARTILLERY SUPPORT, THROUGH A VERY NARROW LANE, A BRIDGE…

This «undue plethora» is a structural generator of rubbing, a squandering of efforts and means. And it is the measurement of the trend to the loss of the cohesion, of the principal sense and the goal, which suffers a tactical combined arms unit.

The key to manage this «undue plethora», containing it reasonably, resides that everyone must observe, control and drive the necessary for the fulfillment of its mission, below its level in the hierarchy. For it the commander must share his intention and aims (mission type orders), establish a gravity center of his combined effort in every situation and guarantee the cooperation between and the support to his units. All this relying on the operations order and the updated intelligence received.

As parts of a complex system (hierarchy, specialization and aims and intentions), the units of action can be all autonomous (mission type orders, gravity center, different or shared operational sectors) and all specialized (engineers, antitank, anti-aircraft, exploration, chemistry, etc.) as is needed. To be able to fulfill, this way, with flexibility, rapidity and efficiency its functions in the interfaces of action with the enemy. It kept with all this, the structural hierarchy (integration in a major unit and its support) and functional (in the area of the intention and on support of this one).

The effective performance of the units of action resides in its aptitude to actuate flexible and semi independently from the section or platoon level in fulfilling the received mission. For it, they also will have to know and consider the capacities and needs of other weapon and supports. And acting the men looking for themselves and for other companions in the unit. Its officers and NCO must be capable of taking and drive decisions based on the mission and on the evolution of the situation.

Evidently, the desideratum is to work this way. And this one must be the trend to continue in the selection, formation, training and utilization of the men and the units. In the practice. the “degree of general efficiency” obtained, will be determined by the idiosyncrasy of a nation, the character more or less gregarious or independent of its peoples, its military doctrine and tradition, the defense budgets, the national moral, the national politics and the international situation, the integration of institutions and national organizations in the international sphere, etc.

An example attack of a combined arms unit.

Lets see an example. Against an infantry position more or less prepared, with advanced antitank means, a typical defensive zone, we can use in the breakthrough or in its destruction, if we can not pass outflanking it, the dismounted infantry followed in covered bounds by tanks for the protection and the direct fire support of it.

The antitank defender will look for a punctual, relatively big and protected target, from covered positions preferably or, at least, well camouflaged and flanking, and will act in batteries. With the pieces dispersed in order that the same enemy heavy fire can not incapacitate them. The infantry heavy weapons (machine guns in tripods) neutralize, «sweeping and searching», a more or less narrow zone of the front, occupied by a dispersed, small and smooth target, an infantry platoon.

The attacking tanks will beat with H.E. and H.E.S.H. shells those infantry strong positions. And the infantry squads will attack with its light machine guns the servants of the antitank pieces, hindering to acquire a punctual target. All this destruction and neutralization labor is spreading, once achieved the irruption, as a worm movements, in the depth of the tactical zone of the assault sector of the combined arms unit. Other parts of the enemy position that could collaborate in the defense rejection are blocked up by smoke and neutralized by indirect heavy fire.

GOING OUT TO CLOSE FIGHTING.

Besides, the artillery and aviation advanced observers will be defining to these support weapon the new targets that the own assault is discovering in the depth and in the flanks (combat exploration) in the advance sector. The criterion of the gravity center of the fire of support will be neutralize, at least, all the targets that are opposed to the advance towards the enemy position, to the irruption and to the struggle inside the position of defense in the assigned sector. Facilitating this way the direct fire and the shock of the land attackers. And that, by means of concentrated and punctual blows of its fire.

With it, the effective action in the given environment, «interfaces of action» essential characteristic, are optimized at the level of the tactical groups of action or combined arms systems, whose complementariness we have stood out.

In broken, very wavy, wooded or urbanized (housings and factories) grounds, not necessarily mountainous, that have scanty “sight control” and with abundant “relative concealing heights”, the “interfaces of action” reduce its sector.

The element of effective action continues being the combined arms system suitable sized. The action is effected by companies or reinforced interarms platoons, with the heavy fire support provided even by the battalion (medium and heavy mortars). Except in the most flat areas and of scanty obstructions to sight, the transitability, which limits physically the possible interfaces of action, prevents the fight using concentrated means beyond the company. The battalion role will be of reinforcing the efforts of their companies and canalizing the supports.

Always are critical in the land action the existing rivers, streams and channels, especially the more or less ones perpendicular to the front. The blockade of these waters flows affects enormously the tempo, the total speed of the operation, for the difficulty of the more or less sloping or obstructed area that surrounds them (forests, gullies, constructions, not reinforced fords). The advance slows down or the means have to be dispersed in the available parallel routes, forcing to enter other difficult bordering areas.

General Plans and Forecasts of the Command.

The contingencies plan of the units must include overcoming essentially four types of situations not foreseen, that intervene in the fulfillment of the mission and that can manage to compromise it.

These would be:

a) Possible direct action of the enemy, in use of the initiative or claiming recover it. It might be an interdiction bombardment, a counterattack. The solution is to tactically neutralize its action, without compromising the mission.

b) Possible encounter with the enemy. It would be a theme of patrols and sentries, advanced security forces and advanced detachments and reconnaissance patrols. It is necessary to submit or push back them and change positions rapidly and even direction temporarily, to not compromise the mission.

c) Possible unforeseen obstacle. They would be a ditch, a slope of more difficult soil, the blowing-up of a bridge, a flood, a storm, which affect the transitability of the area. It would be a matter of overcoming it as rapidly as possible, keeping the security and extending more yet the reconnaissance.

d) Possible action defensive/passive of the enemy. These are the cases of enter an ambush, a minefield, a reinforced cut covered by fire, the rejection fires of a defense position, an antitank obstacle. Is necessary to overcome it as soon as possible, as the natural obstacle case, avoiding besides to be canalized by the enemy in a direction he wished, favorable to a counterattack or at zone beaten by the artillery or by convergent fires.

In general lines, including in the commander plan, must always be foreseen:

1) To overcome or to repel the enemy and/or the obstacle, which hinder and which will present without being able to be foreseen, avoiding facilitate own information to the enemy.

2) Lost or detached means to overcome, to neutralize or to repulse are means deprived to the fulfillment of the mission. The surviving enemy can facilitate compromising information, which will be late a term in to be an effective intelligence.

3) It is necessary to continue the execution of the mission, with the necessary means to fulfill it. It is a multiplier factor of the efficiency, after the commotion and the incident losses, to keep a high execution «momentum»: the product of its “combat capacity” by its average movement speed in a period, at a given direction and sense.

The example of the preparation and the action of 3er. American Army of the general Patton, counter-attacking the German penetration in the Ardennes, is significant of these difficulties. Its «incident» was a sudden change of mission and of direction and sense of performance and the possibilities of their «execution momentum».

All this is not improvised. It results in the practice only as fruit of the frequent training and the organization work and the coordination of the H.Q. and all the commands and me. We shall remember the sayings, «it is actuated as it is trained» and «the man is an habit animal».

The Elite Military Units.

These units receive a more complete and effective training in the modern times. That is applicable to a personnel that clearly enjoys the exercise of his profession. And not only it enlists to fulfill a civic duty, to collaborate with the companions (up to the level of battalion), though the immediate ones are those of the piece or squad, and to come back home. In general, they act rapidly and hard, even inconsiderately, against his aim.

Resultado de imagen de ranger de texas A TIPICAL TEXAS RANGER OF THE XIX CENTURY.

It is a question of a military closed «system», that it is vulnerable to the encircle and the ambush and whose limited means are only the assigned for the mission. So, it is difficult to receive reinforcements, including when they operate in the surroundings of the own “supporting mass” or great units. The intelligence for the mission must be elaborated from confirmed, constant, sufficient and updated informations. Since she will protect them from the surprises and the setbacks in destination, which are the «critical difficulty» that they can find and the major danger for all men.

His combat experience has advised them to never surrender the weapons and to always continue the effort, the fight. What has saved them from more than one failure, since the enemy was surrendering before they: for not paying the high cost of conquering them. They largely accept the discipline as a necessary quality for the cohesion and efficiency of his unit. Here, more that in other branches, the commands have to be authentic leaders, directing with the example. And of proven formation, in order that his men admit that his «life insurance» in the missions is the fulfillment of the orders of his commands and with the flexibility degree that grants the order for the mission.

On the Personality of the Military Command.

The personality of the command is shaped by a series of personal and mental qualities that, outlined and composed by the specific education, voluntary study and training and employment, are going to produce a command capable of knowing, decide and drive the actions most adapted in the different levels of the military activity.

The correct sense crowns, perfects, governs, directs and stimulates the activity of all the other operative systems of maneuver, of all the organs of the military activity towards the attainment of the aims. And it does it in the most suitable possible way, according to its means and the military concrete situation.

GENERAL PAUL EMIL VON LETTOW-VORBECK.

The wisdom is the first quality to get. The wisdom is an habit for which we judge straightly of the military and human things, under a special instinct, which makes us knowing and savoring them with certain connaturality. Here wisdom means simultaneously to know and savor.

The wisdom includes the military understanding, which is a penetrating and deep intuition of the military things in the shape of “apprehension”, that is to say, without expressing judgments or disquisition on them. The intuition is a form of direct knowledge, which is characterized by its immediacy and contemporaneousness on the topic which is. To the wisdom are opposed the stupidity or foolishness, not to know what is possible and due to know, as opposite things, and the fatuity, as the pure denial of it.

  GRAND MASTER JEAN PARISOT DE LA VALLETTE, ORDER OF ST. JOHN, MALTA.

The serenity is another quality. The serenity allows the command to keep calm, without physical or moral confusion that affects him, though the tension and the problems are present and pressing. The serenity protects and keeps lucid the reflexes and power mental, where the wisdom rests.

Two of the gravest and ridiculous failures in which the command can fall down is the pride and the vanity.

Pride is the oneself full satisfaction.

GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN.

The vanity is to believe that we are deserving objects of the others admiration. The conceited is like an “aestilite” (an ascetic who lives upon a column, solitary and looking from upon), which is satisfied thinking about the feelings he believes is waking up in others. Any sign of approval that receives, serves him as reaffirmation in his idea.

In others articles in this “blog” you could see situations that exemplify the useful thing that is to have a specially haughty or conceited enemy.

The humility, adjusting in a difficult balance, to the real and relative value of oneself, is the best antidote for these possible “mental vulnerabilities” of the chief. The humility includes the moderation. We must remember that the false humility is an allotropic form of the pride.

GENERAL HERMANN BALCK.

The moral courage, as courage and spiritual entirety, which allows him to offset the uncertainty, the weariness, the effort and the frustration or difference between the plans and the means and the successive realities of the evolving situation, is another characteristic of the “correct sense” of the command. And not only to win his demons, in such a way that his serenity does not weaken. But to stimulate also the others, so that they overcome theirs own apprehensions and weaknesses in the trials in march. Which is also converted into an effective factor of the leadership capacity. Which supposes to connecting, motivating and direct from mental qualities, his group and not only from the authority of his ranking.

Another factor is the empathy as affective, not necessarily emotional, participation in the personal needs. In this bridging, the command will find a personal human enrichment. That will be another more resort to manage to fill with enthusiasm his men. The enthusiasm is the human energy capable of conquering the entropy of the weariness, the fall of the moral, the lack of comfort, the fears and the apathy in the important and decisive moments of the military activity.

JAN ZIZKA.

The will is the power of the spirit. It is rooted in the moral courage, it informs from the wisdom and interacts with the serenity, feeding her and resting on her. The will allows the command to overcome the demons of the uncertainty, the fears, the effort and the weariness, the lack of comfort and the frustrations. The will is thrown towards the opportunities, appreciated by the wisdom and decided by the moral courage, which removes the tactical and operative doubts.

The discipline and the will are rooted in the personal education, through the fulfillment of the duty towards the society, the military institution and the commanded men. The discipline nourishes the moderation and the humility of the command, giving them a human and militant sense, but removed from mystical connotations.

CHARLES FLANDREAU.

The institutional authority comes from the delegation received of the superior command. It gets about itself to fulfill the ordinances and the aims that are assigned. But the personal conduct and the professional capacity of the command generate his prestige and his example among the men. Who give to the received authority, his personal and concrete quality.

The military education is the control of the trade. Its knowledge is giving by the study in schools and academies and in its permanent update through the later readings. Its application is in the doctrine and the regulations. The mastery comes from the application of the knowledge in the games of war or simulations, in the seminars of discussion and spreading, in the maneuvers and fields exercises and in the real situations which he has to face. We remember that the military specific trade tends to not practice in the life…

They are not here all those who are…